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Ziemniak Marcin - - 2013
Cap analogs are chemically modified derivatives of the unique cap structure present at the 5´ end of all eukaryotic mRNAs and several non-coding RNAs. Until recently, cap analogs have served primarily as tools in the study of RNA metabolism. Continuing advances in our understanding of cap biological functions (including RNA ...
Keil Jason M JM Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2013
Glucocorticoids (GCs) effectively reduce retinal edema and induce vascular barrier properties but possess unwanted side effects. Understanding GC induction of barrier properties may lead to more effective and specific therapies. Previous work identified the occludin enhancer element (OEE) as a GC-responsive cis-element in the promoters of multiple junctional genes, including ...
Gaughan Luke L Solid Tumour Target Discovery Group, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Paul O'Gorman Building, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK. - - 2013
The importance of the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer (BCa) development makes it a prominent target for therapy. Current treatments, however, have limited effectiveness, and hence the definition of new therapeutic targets is vital. The ER is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors that ...
Amodio Nicola - - 2013
Introduction: Increasing evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed and/or functionally deregulated in hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma. Harnessing these abnormalities by either replacing or inhibiting ncRNAs is emerging as novel therapeutic option. Areas covered: We review the recent remarkable advancement in the understanding of the biological functions ...
Mazzuferi Manuela - - 2013
Objective: Epigenetic mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of multiple molecular pathways are potentially attractive therapeutic interventions for epilepsy, since single target therapies are unlikely to provide both anticonvulsant and disease modifying effects. Methods: A selection of epilepsy-related gene expression datasets were retrieved using NextBio® software and imported to Ingenuity Pathway ...
Liu Jianru - - 2013
[Background]: The mechanism by which Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) regulates ICAM-1 expression in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD) 1 and NOD2 were involved in this process, and the ...
Shin Hyung Chan - - 2013
Objective: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been known to play a critical role in tumor development and progression in many human cancers. However, the role of the IGF system in small intestinal carcinoma (SIC) has not been studied yet. Methods: We evaluated the expression of IGF1 and IGF1 ...
Anand Sanjay S Departments of Biomedical Engineering (LernerResearch Institute), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, - - 2013
The efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for epithelial cancers is increased when PDT is combined with calcitriol (Vit D), a form of differentiation therapy (DT). Here, we describe an underlying mechanism for this effect. Differentiation-promoting agents are known to upregulate CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), powerful regulators of cellular differentiation. In subcutaneous ...
Sinn B V - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mucin-1 (MUC1) is a promising antigen for the development of tumor vaccines. We evaluated the frequency of MUC1 expression and its impact on therapy response and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre-treatment core biopsies of patients from the GeparTrio neoadjuvant trial (NCT 00544765) were ...
Zhan Yang - - 2013
The next-generation antiandrogen MDV3100 prolongs overall survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, patient responses are variable, and survival benefit remains relatively small. Developing effective modality to improve MDV3100 efficacy is urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) drive resistance to ...
Porensky Paul N PN Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2013
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting ∼1 in 10,000 live births. The most striking component is the loss of α-motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, resulting in progressive paralysis and eventually premature death. There is no current treatment paradigm other than supportive ...
Busse Antonia - - 2013
We analysed mRNA levels of interferon response genes (ISG15, STAT1, CXCL10) of inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway (STAT3, SOCS1, SOCS3) and of cytokines (TNFα, IL10, TGFß1) in peripheral blood of 91 stage III melanoma patients enrolled in EORTC 18991 trial to find biomarkers indicative for disease stage and predictive for ...
Kitamura Kei-Ichiro - - 2013
Zebrafish scales consist of bone-forming osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and calcified bone matrix. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the effects induced by dynamic and static acceleration, we investigated the scale osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific marker gene expression involving osteoblast-osteoclast communication molecules. Osteoblasts express RANKL, which binds to the osteoclast surface ...
Cheng C-M - - 2013
Extracellular activation of hydrophilic glucuronide prodrugs by β-glucuronidase (βG) was examined to increase the therapeutic efficacy of bacteria-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (BDEPT). βG was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli by fusion to either the bacterial autotransporter protein Adhesin (membrane βG (mβG)/AIDA) or the lipoprotein (lpp) outermembrane protein A ...
Layliev J - - 2013
Nonhealing bone defects are difficult to treat. As the bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor beta pathways have been implicated in bone healing, we hypothesized that percutaneous Smad7 silencing would enhance signaling through both pathways and improve bone formation. Critical sized parietal trephine defects were created and animals received ...
Hamidi-Asl Ezat - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-protein-coding, endogenous, small RNAs. They are a group of gene regulators that function mainly by binding the 3' untranslated regions of specific target messenger RNA (mRNA) leading to gene inactivation by repression of mRNA transcription or induction of mRNA. Mature miRNAs are short molecules ...
Fu Yu - - 2013
Wnt/β-catenin signalling is widely implicated in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The key event in Wnt signalling activation is β-catenin accumulation, which is controlled by both its production and degradation. However, much more emphasis has been placed on the understanding of its degradation. Here, we show that the synthesis of ...
Yin Hanwei H Division of Reproductive Biology Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2013
Uterine fibroids (UFs), also known as uterine leiomyomas, are benign, fibrotic smooth muscle tumors. Although the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate that suppresses gonadal steroid hormones is used as a treatment, it has significant side effects, thereby limiting its use. Availability of more effective therapy is limited because of a lack ...
Pan Xiao-Yu - - 2013
To clarify the role of claudin-4 in endometrial tumorigenesis and to explore whether claudin-4 could be a potentially useful agent in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma, the expression of claudin-4 in endometrial carcinoma was investigated. The relationship between therapy with anti-neoplastic agents and the expression of claudin-4 was also analyzed ...
Pugliese Mariateresa - - 2013
Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC) represent only 1-2% of all thyroid tumors, but they account for up to 50% of the mortality. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas is well standardized and the use of radioiodine represents an essential step; in contrast, there is no standardized therapeutic approach for anaplastic tumors ...
Phan Vernon T - - 2013
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes mobilization of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells and has been implicated in resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in mouse models. High G-CSF production has been associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here we show that activation of the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway regulates G-CSF expression through the Ets ...
Chu Sheng-Hua - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that SLC22A18 downregulation and promoter methylation were associated with the development and progression of glioma and the elevated expression of SLC22A18 was found to increase the sensitivity of glioma U251 cells to the anticancer drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). In this study, we investigated the predictive value ...
Ablain Julien - - 2013
In PML/RARA-driven acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemia cell differentiation and transiently clears the disease. Molecularly, RA activates PML/RARA-dependent transcription and also initiates its proteasome-mediated degradation. In contrast, arsenic, the other potent anti-APL therapy, only induces PML/RARA degradation by specifically targeting its PML moiety. The respective contributions ...
Reavie Linsey L Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2013
The molecular mechanisms regulating leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) function are of important clinical significance. We use chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) as a model of LIC-dependent malignancy and identify the interaction between the ubiquitin ligase Fbw7 and its substrate c-Myc as a regulator of LIC homeostasis. Deletion of Fbw7 leads to c-Myc ...
Gravina Giovanni L - - 2013
Aberrant activation or 'reactivation' of androgen receptor during androgen-ablation therapy shows a potential cause for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study tested the hypothesis that PXD101, a potent pan histone deacetylase inhibitor, may prevent onset of castration resistant phenotype and potentiate hormonal therapy. A panel of human prostate ...
Errico M Cristina - - 2013
Cutaneous melanoma is the fastest increasing cancer worldwide. Although several molecular abnormalities have been associated with melanoma progression, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown and few targeted therapies are under evaluation. Here we show that the HOXB7/PBX2 dimer acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of the oncogenic microRNA-221 and ...
Cianciolo Giuseppe - - 2013
Background: The effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and osteocalcin (OC) expression as well as VDR agonist (VDRA) therapy on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has not been elucidated yet. Methods: We therefore analyzed EPCs in 30 healthy controls and 82 patients undergoing dialysis (no VDRA therapy: 28; oral calcitriol: ...
Panka David J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The studies reported herein were undertaken to determine if the angiostatic function of p53 could be exploited as an adjunct to VEGF-targeted therapy in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Nude/beige mice bearing human RCC xenografts were treated with various combinations of sunitinib and the HDM2 antagonist ...
Farhang Ghahremani M M Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, Ghent, - - 2013
There is growing evidence that the p53 tumour suppressor downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Here we provide insights from in vitro experiments and in vivo xenotransplantation assays that highlight a dual role for p53 in regulating VEGF during hypoxia. Unexpectedly, ...
Monfrecola G - - 2013
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has profound effects on human skin, causing sunburn, inflammation, cellular-tissue injury, cell death, and skin cancer. Most of these effects are mediated by a number of cytokines produced by keratinocytes. In this study we investigated whether nicotinamide (NCT), the amide form of vitamin B3, might have a ...
Zheng Wenli - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression profile of potential therapeutic biomarkers in plasma cell myeloma (PCM) by multicolor flow cytometry analysis. METHODS: Bone marrow (BM) specimens were collected consecutively and analyzed using a routine PCM panel (CD38/CD138/CD45/CD19/CD20/CD28/CD56/CD117, cyto-kappa/lambda). The specimens were further assessed for CD30, CD44, CD49d, CD70, CD105, and CD184 ...
Goel Hira Lal HL Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA. - - 2013
The characterization of cells with tumour initiating potential is significant for advancing our understanding of cancer and improving therapy. Aggressive, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are enriched for tumour-initiating cells (TICs). We investigated that hypothesis that VEGF receptors expressed on TNBC cells mediate autocrine signalling that contributes to tumour initiation. We ...
Zhao Li - - 2013
Combination therapies may increase the antitumor effects and reduce the adverse effects for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we determined the effects of 5-fluorouracil alone or in combination with wogonin in vitro and in vivo, and we investigated the possible mechanisms. The combination of these 2 drugs ...
Xavier Murilo - - 2013
The present study investigated the effects of low-level light-emitting diode (LED) therapy (880 ± 10 nm) on interleukin (IL)-10 and type I and III collagen in an experimental model of Achilles tendinitis. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 5), three groups in the experimental period of 7 days, control group, tendinitis-induced ...
Wilmott J S JS Melanoma Institute Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. - - 2013
To examine the association between level and patterns of baseline intra-tumoural BRAF(V600E) protein expression and clinical outcome of BRAF(V600E) melanoma patients treated with selective BRAF inhibitors. Fifty-eight BRAF(V600E) metastatic melanoma patients treated with dabrafenib or vemurafenib on clinical trials had pre-treatment tumour BRAF(V600E) protein expression immunohistochemically (IHC) assessed using the ...
Mitchell Tom T CRUK Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, U.K. - - 2013
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling remains an important regulatory pathway in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, and its transcriptional downregulation could provide a new line of therapy. A number of small-molecule ligands have previously demonstrated the ability to stabilize G-quadruplex structures and affect gene transcription for those genes whose promoters contain a quadruplex-forming ...
Hernández-Hernández Olivia Tania - - 2013
Progesterone (P4) participates in the regulation of several physiological and pathological processes in mammals through the interaction with its intracellular receptors (PR), which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. Many human cancers depend on P4 for growth and metastasis, especially cancers of reproductive tissues. In women, administration of combined estrogen and progestin ...
Wang W - - 2013
MicroRNAs are endogenous, non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-22 nucleotides that regulate genes expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of targets mRNAs and play critical roles in cancer pathways. Malignant glioma is the most common and highly lethal central nervous system tumor for which little effective treatment is ...
Link Kaitlyn A - - 2013
Objective-To compare the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on expression of fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) in skin with surgically created skin wounds and intact skin in horses. Animals-14 healthy horses. ...
Han Li-Na - - 2013
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the role of immune modulation therapy in regulating the imbalance of Th1/Th2, serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and the T-cell-specific transcription factors T-bet/GATA-3 in peripheral blood in aging male patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI). Patients & methods: In total, 156 participants were ...
Fujimi Akihito - - 2013
A 69-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of anemia, renal insufficiency, and a positive urine test for Bence-Jones protein. A bone marrow examination showed 73.7% of myeloma cells with lymphoplasmacytic morphology, the strong expressions of CD20 and CD23 by flow cytometry, and the chromosomal aberration of CCND1/IGH by ...
Kraus Michael W - - 2013
The smile is perhaps the most widely studied facial expression of emotion, and in this article we examine its status as a sign of physical dominance. We reason, on the basis of prior research, that prior to a physical confrontation, smiles are a nonverbal sign of reduced hostility and aggression, ...
Bastian Lorenz - - 2013
PURPOSE: Relapse of disease and subsequent resistance to established therapies remains a major challenge in the treatment of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). New therapeutic options, such as proteasome and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) with a toxicity profile differing from that of conventional cytotoxic agents are needed for ...
McNally Lr L James Graham Brown Cancer Center , University of Louisville, Louisville , - - 2013
During the development, progression and dissemination of neoplastic lesions, cancer cells hijack normal pathways and mechanisms, especially those involved in repair and embryologic development. These pathways include those involved in intercellular communication, control of transcription, post-transcriptional regulation of protein production including translation of mRNAs, post-translational protein modifications, e.g., acetylation of ...
Van Lint Sandra - - 2013
Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has ...
Costa Pedro M PM CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal. - - 2013
The discovery of small RNA molecules with the capacity to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and translation (and consequently protein synthesis) has revealed an additional level of post-transcriptional gene control. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an evolutionarily conserved class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by base pairing to complementary ...
Shames David S DS Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA. - - 2013
Tumors with oncogenic dependencies on the HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) often respond well to targeted inhibition. Our previous work suggested that many cell lines derived from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHNs) depend on autocrine signaling driven by HER2/3 dimerization and high-level co-expression of ...
Hecker Michael - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many biological processes, and their dysregulation is implicated in various diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is widely used as a first-line immunomodulatory treatment of MS patients. Here, we present the ...
Pelucchi Paride P Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, 20090 Segrate-Milan, Italy. - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs (18-22 nt) that post transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences on target mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. As aberrant expression of miRNAs is implicated in important diseases including cancer miRNA-based therapies are under ...
Perrier Clémentine C Department of Gastroenterology, Translational Research Centre for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2013
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine thought to contribute to the inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The specific receptor chain IL-15Rα can be expressed as a transmembranous signalling receptor, or can be cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17 (ADAM17) into a neutralizing, soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα). The aim ...
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