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Results 401 - 450 of 1595
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Chen Yi-Ting - - 2011
Pericytes are the major source of scar-producing myofibroblasts following kidney injury; however, the mechanisms of this transition are unclear. To clarify this, we examined Collagen 1 (α1)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice (pericytes and myofibroblasts express GFP) following ureteral obstruction or ischemia-reperfusion injury and focused on the role of platelet-derived ...
Salcedo Levilester - - 2011
PURPOSE: Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) are signals forcing the migration of bone marrow-derived stem cells to ischemic tissue. This study investigates SDF-1 and MCP-3 expression following direct injury to the anal sphincter and pudendal nerve and to determine if these same mechanisms have any role. ...
Wei Hai-Feng - - 2011
It is known that contralateral seventh cervical nerve (C7) root transfer after brachial plexus avulsion injuries (BPAI) causes interhemispheric cortical functional reorganization. However, the potential mechanisms and the role of neurotrophic factors and/or growth-associated protein expression in the process of cerebral reorganization are not well understood. The present study identified ...
Chan Elcie - - 2011
Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that is highly resistance to therapies once metastasized. We studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in clinical melanoma subtypes and evaluated different miRNA signatures in the background of gain of function somatic and inherited mutations associated with melanoma. Total RNA from 42 patient derived primary melanoma cell ...
Liu Anding - - 2011
Mechanical injury or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces HMGB1 translocation and release. However, the surgical procedure itself can initiate pathophysiologic processes causing damage to the respective organ. A liver resection, as an example, leads to portal hyperperfusion injury of the remnant liver. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the impact of different ...
Kesherwani Varun - - 2011
Calcium influx into cells is responsible for initiating the cell death in neuronal tissue after hypoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium with subsequent increased expression of RyR2 are hypothesized to cause cell death after hypoxic injury. In the present study we have examined the time dependent changes of RyR2 expression ...
Bauzá Graciela - - 2012
The hepatic acute phase response(APR) is an organ-specific response to a diverse array of insults and is largely under transcriptional control. Liver-specific transcription factors, hepatic nuclear factors (HNFs)-1α and 4α play important roles in maintenance of liver phenotype and function and their binding activity changes early after injury. However, their ...
Arocho Luz C - - 2011
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers the re-expression of inhibitory molecules present in early stages of development, contributing to prevention of axonal regeneration. Upregulation of EphA receptor tyrosine kinases after injury suggest their involvement in the nervous system's response to damage. However, the expression profile of their ephrinA ligands after SCI ...
Haim Karin - - 2011
The tumor microenvironment contains multiple cancer-supporting factors, whose joint activities promote malignancy. Here, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and estrogen upregulate in an additive manner the transcription and the secretion of the angiogenic chemokine CXCL8 (interleukin 8 [IL-8]) in breast tumor cells. In view of published findings on ...
Shen Zhu - - 2011
The imbalance between regulatory T cells (Treg) and effector T cells is important for maintaining of psoriasis vulgaris. FOXP3 is a master control transcription factor for the development and function of Tregs and is critical for transcriptional repression. Tacrolimus is effective in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Data show that tacrolimus ...
Hayami Shinya S Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, - - 2011
A number of histone demethylases have been identified and biochemically characterized, but the pathological roles of their dysfunction in human disease like cancer have not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate important roles of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in human carcinogenesis. Expression levels of LSD1 are significantly elevated in human ...
Luo Rong - - 2011
We previously demonstrated that CBF activity is needed for cell proliferation and early embryonic development. To examine the in vivo function of CBF in differentiated hepatocytes, we conditionally deleted CBF-B in hepatocytes after birth. Deletion of CBF-B resulted in progressive liver injury and severe hepatocellular degeneration 4 weeks after birth. ...
Zhu X-M - - 2011
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that are often dysregulated during carcinogenesis. Downregulation of let-7 miRNA in many human cancers indicates its role in tumourigenesis. This study evaluated the levels of let-7c miRNA, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, between 32 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and matched normal adjacent ...
Kruse Susanne - - 2011
A method is described for the detection of certain nucleotide modifications adjacent to the 5' 7-methyl guanosine cap of mRNAs from individual genes. The method quantitatively measures the relative abundance of 2'-O-methyl and N(6),2'-O-dimethyladenosine, two of the most common modifications. In order to identify and quantitatify the amounts of N(6),2'-O-dimethyladenosine, ...
Li Jianguo - - 2011
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) in human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and its relationship with the clinic pathological features. Methods: RUNX3 expression was analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in HCC cells and tissues. Results: RUNX3 ...
Fernández-Martos Carmen María - - 2011
Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability that has no clinically accepted treatment. Functional decline following spinal cord injury is caused by mechanical damage, secondary cell death, reactive gliosis and a poor regenerative capacity of damaged axons. Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that play key ...
Duncan Kelli A - - 2011
Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may ...
Shapiro Michael D - - 2011
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury, a common problem worldwide associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We have recently examined the role of microRNAs (miRs) in renal IRI using expression profiling. Here we conducted mathematical analyses to determine if differential expression of miRs can ...
Stridh Linnea - - 2011
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury remains a major problem in newborns, resulting in increased risk of neurological disorders. Neonatal HI triggers a broad inflammatory reaction in the brain, including activation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are key components of the innate immune system, are believed to play ...
Tok Chia Y - - 2011
The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5' UTR, a complete coding sequence ...
Trudeau Vance L - - 2011
Endocrine disrupting chemicals are adversely affecting the reproductive health and metabolic status of aquatic vertebrates. Estrone is often the dominant natural estrogen in urban sewage, yet little is known about its environmental fate and biological effects. Increased use of UV-B radiation for effluent treatments, and exposure of effluents to sunlight ...
Mundy Christina - - 2011
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1(f/f) and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for ...
Rivera José - - 2010
Sorting nexin 6 (SNX6), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein involved in intracellular trafficking of membrane receptors, was identified as a TGF-β family interactor. However, apart from being a component of the Retromer, little is known about SNX6 cellular functions. Pim-1-dependent SNX6 nuclear translocation has been reported suggesting a putative nuclear role ...
Kwon Hyockman - - 2011
A nonfluorescent coumarin-malonitrile conjugate (1) was transformed into a strongly fluorescent molecule through the Michael addition of a thiol group to the α,β-unsaturated malonitrile of 1. The molecular probe has exhibited a highly selective fluorescence response toward biothiols (Cys, Hcy, GSH) with micromolar sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo.
Darwish W S - - 2010
The objective of this study was to investigate the tissue-specific mRNA expression of different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, UDP glucuronsyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTA1) in the different tissues (liver, mammary gland, lungs, spleen, kidney cortex, heart, masseter muscle and tongue) of cattle, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction ...
Navarro Pablo - - 2010
The reprogramming of X-chromosome inactivation during the acquisition of pluripotency in vivo and in vitro is accompanied by the repression of Xist, the trigger of X-inactivation, and the upregulation of its antisense counterpart Tsix. We have shown that key factors supporting pluripotency-Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2-bind within Xist intron 1 in ...
Birts C N - - 2011
CtBPs form NADH-sensitive chromatin-modifying complexes, which link cellular metabolism to gene transcription. They also function in the cytoplasm to regulate Golgi fissioning; their inhibition can consequently cause a Golgi-dependent checkpoint in G(2). We have recently identified a novel role of CtBPs in the maintenance of mitotic fidelity; inhibition of CtBP ...
Hernández Hugo - - 2011
The transcriptional activation response relies on a repertoire of transcriptional activators, which decipher regulatory information through their specific binding to cognate sequences, and their capacity to selectively recruit the components that constitute a given transcriptional complex. We have addressed the possibility of achieving novel transcriptional responses by the construction of ...
Daigo Kenji - - 2011
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α, NR2A1) is a nuclear receptor that has a critical role in hepatocyte differentiation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the adult liver. However, a detailed understanding of native HNF4α in the steady-state remains to be elucidated. Here we report the native HNF4α isoform, phosphorylation status, and ...
Costa-Junior Helio Miranda - - 2010
Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. However, the function of specific PKC isoenzymes have yet to be determined. Of the PKCs expressed in undifferentiated ESCs, βIPKC was the only isoenzyme abundantly expressed in the nuclei. To investigate the role ...
Moses Alan M - - 2010
Much of biological diversity is thought to arise from changes in regulatory networks. Although the role of transcriptional regulation has been well established, the contribution to evolution of changes at other levels of regulation has yet to be addressed. Using examples from the literature and recent studies on the evolution ...
Gong Lei - - 2010
XAGE-1 is classified into the group of a new family of cancer-testis antigens (CTA) and has the four transcript variants of XAGE-1a, XAGE-1b, XAGE-1c and XAGE-1d. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of XAGE-1 transcript variants in Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ...
Miller Sara A - - 2010
Current research suggests that a number of newly identified T-helper cell subsets retain a degree of context-dependent plasticity in their signature cytokine expression patterns. To understand this process, a major challenge is to determine the molecular mechanisms by which lineage-defining transcription factors regulate gene expression profiles in T-helper cells. This ...
Kim Dong-Hwan - - 2010
VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3) is required for vernalization-mediated repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis. The induction of VIN3 by long-term exposure to cold is one of earliest events in vernalization response. However, molecular mechanisms underlying for the VIN3 induction are poorly understood. Recently, we reported that the constitutive ...
Jelinic Petar - - 2011
Transcription requires the progression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) through a permissive chromatin structure. Recent studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have demonstrated that the yeast Sin3 protein contributes to the restoration of the repressed chromatin structure at actively transcribed loci. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the restoration of the repressive chromatin ...
Popov Nikolay N Cell Proliferation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, London, - - 2010
The INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus encodes for two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) and a regulator of the p53 pathway, ARF. In addition ANRIL, a non-coding RNA, is also transcribed from the locus. ARF, p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) are well-established tumor suppressors which function is frequently disabled in human cancers. Recent studies ...
Ferrand Nathalie - - 2010
The oncoprotein c-Ski has been implicated in the negative regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling owing to its ability to repress Smad transcriptional activity via recruitment of a transcriptional corepressor complex containing histone deacetylases. However, c-Ski has also been shown to localize to the cytoplasm, raising the interesting possibility ...
Chia Na-Yu - - 2010
The derivation of human ES cells (hESCs) from human blastocysts represents one of the milestones in stem cell biology. The full potential of hESCs in research and clinical applications requires a detailed understanding of the genetic network that governs the unique properties of hESCs. Here, we report a genome-wide RNA ...
Kitchen Neal S - - 2010
CTCF is a multipurpose transcription factor with activation, repression, and insulator activity. It also participates in regulating chromatin architecture by maintaining open chromatin and mediating long-range chromosomal interactions. Participation by CTCF in such diverse processes suggests that it has multiple functional domains that regulate transcription and modify chromatin structure. Using ...
Malik Sohail - - 2010
The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multiprotein complex that is a key regulator of protein-coding genes. In metazoan cells, multiple pathways that are responsible for homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation converge on the Mediator through transcriptional activators and repressors that target one or more of the almost 30 subunits of ...
He Aibin - - 2010
Recent development of methods for genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has led to novel insights into transcriptional regulation and greater understanding of the function of individual transcription factors. ChIP requires highly specific antibody against the transcriptional regulator of interest, and availability of suitable antibodies ...
Ablack Jailal N G - - 2010
The largest E1A isoform of human adenovirus (Ad) includes a C-4 zinc finger domain within conserved region 3 (CR3) that is largely responsible for activating transcription of the early viral genes. CR3 interacts with multiple cellular factors, but its mechanism of action is modeled primarily on the basis of the ...
Ito Toshiro - - 2011
Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors and act as master regulators of flower development. The homeotic protein complex is expressed in a specific whorl of the floral primordium and determines floral organ identity by the combinatorial action. Homeotic proteins continue to be expressed until late in flower development to coordinate ...
Jackson Dean A - - 2010
Eukaryotic cells are defined by the genetic information that is stored in their DNA. To function, this genetic information must be decoded. In doing this, the information encoded in DNA is copied first into RNA, during RNA transcription. Primary RNA transcripts are generated within transcription factories, where they are also ...
Payankaulam Sandhya - - 2010
The regulation of gene expression by transcriptional repression is an ancient and conserved mechanism that manifests itself in diverse ways. Here we summarize conserved pathways for transcriptional repression prevalent throughout all forms of life, as well as indirect mechanisms that appear to have originated in eukaryotes, consistent with the unique ...
Krishnakumar Raga - - 2010
PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear enzyme that regulates gene expression, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined the interplay between PARP-1, histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), and linker histone H1 in the chromatin-dependent control of transcription. We show that PARP-1 is required for a series of molecular outcomes ...
Dechat Thomas - - 2010
The nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins that are critically important for the structural properties of the nucleus. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of numerous nuclear processes, including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin organization. The developmentally regulated expression of lamins suggests that they are involved ...
Lew Qiao Jing - - 2011
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a key regulator required for cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) and plasma cell differentiation. In addition, involvement of XBP-1 in host cell-virus interaction and transcriptional regulation of viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), has been revealed recently. Two XBP-1 isoforms, XBP-1U ...
Denninger Viola V Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College, South Kensington, London SW72AZ, - - 2010
The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei monoallelically expresses one of more than 1000 Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from one of about 15 telomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). It is unclear how monoallelic expression of VSG is controlled, and how inactive VSG ESs are silenced. Here, ...
Hung Tiffany - - 2010
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed and critical regulators of the epigenome[1, 2]. These long, polyadenylated RNAs do not code for proteins, but function directly as RNAs, recruiting chromatin modifiers to mediate transcriptional changes in processes ranging from X-inactivation (XIST) to imprinting (H19)[3]. The recent discovery that lncRNA HOTAIR ...
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