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Results 451 - 500 of 1594
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Yadon Adam N AN Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2010
Nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) at the 5' and 3' ends of genes are general sites of transcription initiation for mRNA and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). The presence of NFRs within transcriptional regulatory regions and the conserved location of transcription start sites at NFRs strongly suggest that the regulation of NFRs profoundly affects ...
Bhaumik Sukesh R - - 2011
A growing number of human diseases are linked to abnormal gene expression which is largely controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation. The gene-specific activator promotes the initiation of transcription through its interaction with one or more components of the transcriptional initiation machinery, hence leading to stimulated transcriptional initiation or ...
Hirota Keiko - - 2010
Living organisms maintain energy homeostasis by constantly adjusting internal metabolic activities in response to nutritional states. Energy metabolism is regulated by the quality and quantity of the enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions. Recruitment and regulation of enzymes responsible for transcriptional control, among others, play an important role in this process. ...
Yakovich Adam J - - 2011
In mammals, the ZAS family of transcription factors activates or represses transcription depending on the cellular context. In the current study, we explored the interaction between ZAS3 and TGFβ1 signaling in epithelial cells using HEK293 cells and the intestinal epithelial cell line, RIE-1. Endogenous ZAS3 expression was detected in each ...
Martínez-Montañés Fernando - - 2010
Osmostress triggers profound adaptive changes in the physiology of the cell with a great impact on gene expression. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an instructive model system to unravel the complexity of the stress response at the transcriptional level. The main signal transduction pathways like the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) ...
Szerlong Heather J - - 2010
Condensation of chromatin into higher order structures is mediated by intra- and interfiber nucleosome-nucleosome interactions. Our goals in this study were to determine the impact specific activator-dependent histone acetylation had on chromatin condensation and to ascertain whether acetylation-induced changes in chromatin condensation were related to changes in RNA polymerase II ...
Zhang Rui - - 2010
To elucidate how krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) activates mitofusin 2 (mfn-2) expression in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation. The mfn-2 promoter-reporter constructs and the KLF4 acetylation-deficient or phosphorylation-deficient mutants were constructed. Adenoviral vector of KLF4-mediated overexpression and Western blot analysis were used to determine the ...
Ghosh Sanchari - - 2010
Cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and death are intrinsically dependent upon the redox status of a cell. Among other indicators of redox flux, cellular NAD(H) levels play a predominant role in transcriptional reprogramming. In addition to this, normal physiological functions of a cell are regulated in response to perturbations ...
Kumar Rakesh - - 2010
Although Wnt1 downstream signaling components have been well studied and activated in human cancer, the pathways that regulate Wnt1 itself have not been explored in depth. Here, we provide gain-of-function, loss-of function, and molecular evidence supporting functional interactions between metastasis-associated protein 1 short-form (MTA1s), metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), and Wnt1 ...
Chakalova Lyubomira - - 2010
Investigations into the organization of transcription have their origins in cell biology. Early studies characterized nascent transcription in relation to discernable nuclear structures and components. Advances in light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization helped to begin the difficult task of naming the countless individual players and components of transcription ...
Ciciarello Marilena - - 2010
The GTPase Ran regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport in interphase and spindle organisation in mitosis via effectors of the importin beta superfamily. Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1) regulates guanine nucleotide turnover on Ran, as well as its interactions with effectors. Unlike other Ran network members that are steadily expressed, RanBP1 abundance is modulated ...
Mellor Jane - - 2010
Transcription is such a fundamental process and has been studied by so many for so long that skeptics might ask what more there is to learn. Those who attended the meeting summarized here on the dynamics of eukaryotic transcription during development were not disappointed. Studying the transcription of genes in ...
Singh Sandeep - - 2010
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, Rb, plays a major role in the regulation of mammalian cell cycle progression. It has been shown that Rb function is essential for the proper modulation of G1/S transition and inactivation of Rb contributes to deregulated cell proliferation. Rb exerts its cell cycle regulatory functions ...
Mizutani Tetsuya - - 2010
StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the process of which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis. Transcriptional regulation of the proximal promoter of the human StAR gene has been well characterized, whereas analysis of its distal control region ...
Kaestner Klaus H - - 2010
The genetic analysis of the Foxa genes in both total and conditional mutant mice has clearly established that organogenesis of multiple systems is controlled by this subfamily of winged helix transcription factors. These discoveries followed the establishment of the conceptional framework of the mechanism of action of the FoxA proteins ...
Joffe Boris - - 2010
The spatial organization of the genome plays an important role in the regulation of nuclear functions and undergoes large scale changes during differentiation. These changes in the nuclear distribution of chromatin are, in a complex way, related to transcriptional status and epigenetic modifications. Recent studies emphasize the roles that gene ...
Taddei Angela A UMR 218, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, - - 2010
The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored ...
Hoffman Brad G - - 2010
The liver and pancreas share a common origin and coexpress several transcription factors. To gain insight into the transcriptional networks regulating the function of these tissues, we globally identify binding sites for FOXA2 in adult mouse islets and liver, PDX1 in islets, and HNF4A in liver. Because most eukaryotic transcription ...
Mehrpour Maryam - - 2010
Macroautophagy is a multistep, vacuolar, degradation pathway terminating in the lysosomal compartment, and it is of fundamental importance in tissue homeostasis. In this review, we consider macroautophagy in the light of recent advances in our understanding of the formation of autophagosomes, which are double-membrane-bound vacuoles that sequester cytoplasmic cargos and ...
El Messaoudi-Aubert Selma - - 2010
Several lines of evidence point to a role for noncoding RNA in transcriptional repression by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that human MOV10, a putative RNA helicase previously implicated in post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-purifies and interacts with components of Polycomb-repressive complex 1 ...
van Wolfswinkel Josien C - - 2010
Small non-coding RNAs make up much of the RNA content of a cell and have the potential to regulate gene expression on many different levels. Initial discoveries in the 1990s and early 21st century focused on determining mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). More ...
Partch Carrie L - - 2010
Transcriptional regulation is dependent on layers of interactions between transcription factors and coactivators, controlling the specificity, temporal regulation, and extent to which transcriptional programs are executed. A key issue in the field of transcriptional regulation is to identify structural mechanisms by which transcription factors and coactivators build hierarchical protein assemblies. ...
Van Lijsebettens Mieke - - 2010
In the cell nucleus, the packaging of the DNA into chromatin represses transcription by restricting the access of transcriptional regulators to their binding sites and inhibiting the progression of RNA polymerases during transcript elongation. To efficiently transcribe genes in the context of chromatin, eukaryotes have a variety of transcript elongation ...
Battaglia Sebastiano - - 2010
Normal transcription displays a high degree of flexibility over the choice, timing and magnitude of mRNA expression levels that tend to oscillate and cycle. These processes allow for combinatorial actions, feedback control and fine-tuning. A central role has emerged for the transcriptional co-repressor proteins such as NCOR1, NCOR2/SMRT, CoREST and ...
Dechassa Mekonnen Lemma - - 2010
The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulates transcription and has been implicated in promoter nucleosome eviction. Efficient nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF alone in biochemical assays, however, has not been directly observed. Employing a model system of dinucleosomes rather than mononucleosomes, we demonstrate that remodeling leads to ordered and efficient disassembly ...
Gong Chunmei - - 2010
The increasing amount of nanotechnological products, found in our environment and those applicable in engineering, material sciences and medicine has stimulated a growing interest in examining their long-term impact on genetic and epigenetic processes. We examined here the epigenomic response to nm-SiO(2) particles in human HaCaT cells and methyltransferases (DNMTs) ...
Denis Gerald V - - 2010
Transcriptional co-activators, co-repressors and chromatin remodeling machines are essential elements in the transcriptional programs directed by the master adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma. Many of these components have orthologs in other organisms, where they play roles in development and pattern formation, suggesting new links between cell fate decision-making and adipogenesis. This ...
Brandt Simone - - 2010
The adapter protein SLy2 (SH3 protein expressed in lymphocytes 2), also named HACS1, NASH1 or SAMSN1, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues, muscle, heart, brain, lung, pancreas, endothelial cells and myelomas. Endogenous SLy2 expression was shown to be upregulated in primary B cells upon differentiation and proliferation-inducing stimuli, and transduction experiments ...
Walrad Pegine B - - 2010
Runx proteins play vital roles in regulating transcription in numerous developmental pathways throughout the animal kingdom. Two Runx protein hallmarks are the DNA-binding Runt domain and a C-terminal VWRPY motif that mediates interaction with TLE/Gro corepressor proteins. A phylogenetic analysis of Runt, the founding Runx family member, identifies four distinct ...
Qüesta Julia I - - 2010
Spontaneous silencing of MuDR/Mu transposons occurs in approximately 10-100% of the progeny of an active plant, and once silenced reactivation is very rare. To date, only radiation treatments have reactivated silenced Mu; for example UV-B radiation reactivated Mutator activities. Here we have investigated possible mechanisms by which UV-B could reactivate ...
Askew Emily B - - 2010
Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene regulation involves interactions with coregulatory proteins that include the melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11). To understand the functional significance of sequence similarity between MAGE-11 and the adenovirus early protein E1A, we determined whether MAGE-11 contributes to AR transcriptional activity through an interaction with p300, a potent ...
Castano E - - 2010
Actin is a well-known protein that has shown a myriad of activities in the cytoplasm. However, recent findings of actin involvement in nuclear processes are overwhelming. Actin complexes in the nucleus range from very dynamic chromatin-remodeling complexes to structural elements of the matrix with single partners known as actin-binding proteins ...
Opper Manfred - - 2010
MOTIVATION: mRNA transcriptional dynamics is governed by a complex network of transcription factor (TF) proteins. Experimental and theoretical analysis of this process is hindered by the fact that measurements of TF activity in vivo is very challenging. Current models that jointly infer TF activities and model parameters rely on either ...
Rodrigues-Pousada Claudina - - 2010
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a very flexible and complex programme of gene expression when exposed to several environmental challenges. Homeostasis is achieved through a highly coordinated mechanism of transcription regulation involving several transcription factors, each one acting singly or in combination to perform specific functions. Here, we review ...
Mallappa Chandrashekara - - 2010
Knockdown of the Brg1 ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes in developing zebrafish caused stunted tail formation and altered sarcomeric actin organization, which phenocopies the loss of the microRNA processing enzyme Dicer, or the knockdown of myogenic microRNAs. Furthermore, myogenic microRNA expression and differentiation was blocked in Brg1 conditional ...
Li Guohong - - 2010
High-order chromatin was reconstituted in vitro. This species reflects the criteria associated with transcriptional regulation in vivo. Histone H1 was determinant to formation of condensed structures, with deacetylated histones giving rise to highly compacted chromatin that approximated 30 nm fibers as evidenced by electron microscopy. Using the PEPCK promoter, we ...
van den Berg Debbie L C - - 2010
Transcription factors, such as Oct4, are critical for establishing and maintaining pluripotent cell identity. Whereas the genomic locations of several pluripotency transcription factors have been reported, the spectrum of their interaction partners is underexplored. Here, we use an improved affinity protocol to purify Oct4-interacting proteins from mouse embryonic stem cells ...
Landy David - - 2010
How does the physical structure of an arithmetic expression affect the computational processes engaged in by reasoners? In handwritten arithmetic expressions containing both multiplications and additions, terms that are multiplied are often placed physically closer together than terms that are added. Three experiments evaluate the role such physical factors play ...
Taube Joseph H - - 2010
Epigenetic control of genes that are silent in embryonic stem cells, but destined for expression during differentiation, includes distinctive hallmarks, such as simultaneous activating/repressing (bivalent) modifications of chromatin and DNA hypomethylation at enhancers of gene expression. Although alpha-fetoprotein (Afp) falls into this class of genes, as it is silent in ...
Zu Xuyu - - 2010
ZBTB7A is a known proto-oncogene that is implicated in carcinogenesis and cell differentiation and development. Fully understanding the function of ZBTB7A in cellular processes could provide useful strategies for cancer treatment and development-associated disease therapy. Here, global mapping of ZBTB7A transcription factor binding sites was developed by utilizing microarray technology ...
Kim Ki-Young - - 2010
The yeast SBF transcription factor is a heterodimer comprised of Swi4 and Swi6 that has a well defined role in cell cycle-specific transcription. SBF serves a second function in the transcriptional response to cell wall stress in which activated Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway ...
Bayne Elizabeth H EH Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology and Institute of Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, - - 2010
In fission yeast, RNAi directs heterochromatin formation at centromeres, telomeres, and the mating type locus. Noncoding RNAs transcribed from repeat elements generate siRNAs that are incorporated into the Argonaute-containing RITS complex and direct it to nascent homologous transcripts. This leads to recruitment of the CLRC complex, including the histone methyltransferase ...
Kumeta Masahiro - - 2010
In addition to its well-known role as a crosslinker of actin filaments at focal-adhesion sites, actinin-4 is known to be localized to the nucleus. In this study, we reveal the molecular mechanism underlying nuclear localization of actinin-4 and its novel interactions with transcriptional regulators. We found that actinin-4 is imported ...
Padhan Kartika - - 2010
The interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells is the hallmark of adaptive immunity. In vitro studies have described the formation of an immunological synapse between these cells, and intra-vital imaging has described in great detail the dynamics of these interactions. The immunological synapse has become a paradigm to study ...
Lavoie Hugo - - 2010
Gene expression variation between species is a major contributor to phenotypic diversity, yet the underlying flexibility of transcriptional regulatory networks remains largely unexplored. Transcription of the ribosomal regulon is a critical task for all cells; in S. cerevisiae the transcription factors Rap1, Fhl1, Ifh1, and Hmo1 form a multi-subunit complex ...
Muramoto Tetsuya - - 2010
Maintenance of differentiation programs requires stability, when appropriate, of transcriptional states. However, the extent to which inheritance of active transcriptional states occurs from mother to daughter cells has not been directly addressed in unperturbed cell populations. By live imaging of single-gene transcriptional events in individual cells, we have directly recorded ...
Chokas Ann L - - 2010
To determine the underlying mechanism of Foxp1/2/4-mediated transcriptional repression, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed that identified p66beta, a transcriptional repressor and component of the NuRD chromatin-remodeling complex. We show that direct interactions between Foxp1/4 and p66beta are mediated by the CR2 domain within p66beta and the zinc finger/leucine zipper ...
G?mez-Cabello Daniel - - 2010
The ING family of tumor suppressor proteins controls several cellular functions relevant to antitumor protection, such as cell cycle control, apoptosis, senescence, or migration. ING proteins are functionally linked to the p53 pathway, and they participate in transcriptional control via the recognition of histone marks and recruitment of protein complexes ...
Kim Jaehoon - - 2010
Genetic and cell-based studies have implicated the PAF1 complex (PAF1C) in transcription-associated events, but there has been no evidence showing a direct role in facilitating transcription of a natural chromatin template. Here, we demonstrate an intrinsic ability of human PAF1C (hPAF1C) to facilitate activator (p53)- and histone acetyltransferase (p300)-dependent transcription ...
Abrass Christine K - - 2010
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) has IGF-1-independent intranuclear effects that are poorly defined. Treatment of cells with IGFBP-5 induces migration, prevents apoptosis, and leads to increased laminin subunit transcription. Similarly, filamin A (FLNa), an actin-binding protein that participates in cell attachment, plays important additional roles in signal transduction and modulation ...
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