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Results 451 - 500 of 1609
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Ferrand Nathalie - - 2010
The oncoprotein c-Ski has been implicated in the negative regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling owing to its ability to repress Smad transcriptional activity via recruitment of a transcriptional corepressor complex containing histone deacetylases. However, c-Ski has also been shown to localize to the cytoplasm, raising the interesting possibility ...
Chia Na-Yu - - 2010
The derivation of human ES cells (hESCs) from human blastocysts represents one of the milestones in stem cell biology. The full potential of hESCs in research and clinical applications requires a detailed understanding of the genetic network that governs the unique properties of hESCs. Here, we report a genome-wide RNA ...
Kitchen Neal S - - 2010
CTCF is a multipurpose transcription factor with activation, repression, and insulator activity. It also participates in regulating chromatin architecture by maintaining open chromatin and mediating long-range chromosomal interactions. Participation by CTCF in such diverse processes suggests that it has multiple functional domains that regulate transcription and modify chromatin structure. Using ...
Malik Sohail S Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. - - 2010
The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multiprotein complex that is a key regulator of protein-coding genes. In metazoan cells, multiple pathways that are responsible for homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation converge on the Mediator through transcriptional activators and repressors that target one or more of the almost 30 subunits of ...
Liu Xin X Department of Immunology, Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, - - 2011
The multifunctional protein p100 is a vital transcriptional regulator that increases gene transcription by forming a physical bridge between promoter-specific transcription factors and the basal transcription machinery. To identify potential signal transduction pathways in which human p100 acts as a coregulator and to find target promoter regions that may interact ...
He Aibin A Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2010
Recent development of methods for genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has led to novel insights into transcriptional regulation and greater understanding of the function of individual transcription factors. ChIP requires highly specific antibody against the transcriptional regulator of interest, and availability of suitable antibodies ...
Ablack Jailal N G - - 2010
The largest E1A isoform of human adenovirus (Ad) includes a C-4 zinc finger domain within conserved region 3 (CR3) that is largely responsible for activating transcription of the early viral genes. CR3 interacts with multiple cellular factors, but its mechanism of action is modeled primarily on the basis of the ...
Ito Toshiro - - 2011
Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors and act as master regulators of flower development. The homeotic protein complex is expressed in a specific whorl of the floral primordium and determines floral organ identity by the combinatorial action. Homeotic proteins continue to be expressed until late in flower development to coordinate ...
Jackson Dean A - - 2010
Eukaryotic cells are defined by the genetic information that is stored in their DNA. To function, this genetic information must be decoded. In doing this, the information encoded in DNA is copied first into RNA, during RNA transcription. Primary RNA transcripts are generated within transcription factories, where they are also ...
Payankaulam Sandhya S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48910, - - 2010
The regulation of gene expression by transcriptional repression is an ancient and conserved mechanism that manifests itself in diverse ways. Here we summarize conserved pathways for transcriptional repression prevalent throughout all forms of life, as well as indirect mechanisms that appear to have originated in eukaryotes, consistent with the unique ...
Krishnakumar Raga R Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2010
PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear enzyme that regulates gene expression, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined the interplay between PARP-1, histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), and linker histone H1 in the chromatin-dependent control of transcription. We show that PARP-1 is required for a series of molecular outcomes ...
Dechat Thomas T Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2010
The nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins that are critically important for the structural properties of the nucleus. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of numerous nuclear processes, including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin organization. The developmentally regulated expression of lamins suggests that they are involved ...
Lew Qiao Jing - - 2011
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a key regulator required for cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) and plasma cell differentiation. In addition, involvement of XBP-1 in host cell-virus interaction and transcriptional regulation of viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), has been revealed recently. Two XBP-1 isoforms, XBP-1U ...
Denninger Viola V Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College, South Kensington, London SW72AZ, - - 2010
The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei monoallelically expresses one of more than 1000 Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from one of about 15 telomeric VSG expression sites (ESs). It is unclear how monoallelic expression of VSG is controlled, and how inactive VSG ESs are silenced. Here, ...
Hung Tiffany - - 2010
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed and critical regulators of the epigenome[1, 2]. These long, polyadenylated RNAs do not code for proteins, but function directly as RNAs, recruiting chromatin modifiers to mediate transcriptional changes in processes ranging from X-inactivation (XIST) to imprinting (H19)[3]. The recent discovery that lncRNA HOTAIR ...
Yadon Adam N AN Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2010
Nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) at the 5' and 3' ends of genes are general sites of transcription initiation for mRNA and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). The presence of NFRs within transcriptional regulatory regions and the conserved location of transcription start sites at NFRs strongly suggest that the regulation of NFRs profoundly affects ...
Bhaumik Sukesh R SR Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Illnois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. - - 2011
A growing number of human diseases are linked to abnormal gene expression which is largely controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation. The gene-specific activator promotes the initiation of transcription through its interaction with one or more components of the transcriptional initiation machinery, hence leading to stimulated transcriptional initiation or ...
Hirota Keiko - - 2010
Living organisms maintain energy homeostasis by constantly adjusting internal metabolic activities in response to nutritional states. Energy metabolism is regulated by the quality and quantity of the enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions. Recruitment and regulation of enzymes responsible for transcriptional control, among others, play an important role in this process. ...
Yakovich Adam J - - 2011
In mammals, the ZAS family of transcription factors activates or represses transcription depending on the cellular context. In the current study, we explored the interaction between ZAS3 and TGFβ1 signaling in epithelial cells using HEK293 cells and the intestinal epithelial cell line, RIE-1. Endogenous ZAS3 expression was detected in each ...
Martínez-Montañés Fernando - - 2010
Osmostress triggers profound adaptive changes in the physiology of the cell with a great impact on gene expression. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an instructive model system to unravel the complexity of the stress response at the transcriptional level. The main signal transduction pathways like the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) ...
Szerlong Heather J HJ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1870, - - 2010
Condensation of chromatin into higher order structures is mediated by intra- and interfiber nucleosome-nucleosome interactions. Our goals in this study were to determine the impact specific activator-dependent histone acetylation had on chromatin condensation and to ascertain whether acetylation-induced changes in chromatin condensation were related to changes in RNA polymerase II ...
Zhang Rui R Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, - - 2010
To elucidate how krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) activates mitofusin 2 (mfn-2) expression in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation. The mfn-2 promoter-reporter constructs and the KLF4 acetylation-deficient or phosphorylation-deficient mutants were constructed. Adenoviral vector of KLF4-mediated overexpression and Western blot analysis were used to determine the ...
Ghosh Sanchari - - 2010
Cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and death are intrinsically dependent upon the redox status of a cell. Among other indicators of redox flux, cellular NAD(H) levels play a predominant role in transcriptional reprogramming. In addition to this, normal physiological functions of a cell are regulated in response to perturbations ...
Kumar Rakesh - - 2010
Although Wnt1 downstream signaling components have been well studied and activated in human cancer, the pathways that regulate Wnt1 itself have not been explored in depth. Here, we provide gain-of-function, loss-of function, and molecular evidence supporting functional interactions between metastasis-associated protein 1 short-form (MTA1s), metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), and Wnt1 ...
Chakalova Lyubomira L Laboratory of Chromatin and Gene Expression, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, CB22 3AT, United - - 2010
Investigations into the organization of transcription have their origins in cell biology. Early studies characterized nascent transcription in relation to discernable nuclear structures and components. Advances in light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization helped to begin the difficult task of naming the countless individual players and components of transcription ...
Ciciarello Marilena - - 2010
The GTPase Ran regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport in interphase and spindle organisation in mitosis via effectors of the importin beta superfamily. Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1) regulates guanine nucleotide turnover on Ran, as well as its interactions with effectors. Unlike other Ran network members that are steadily expressed, RanBP1 abundance is modulated ...
Mellor Jane - - 2010
Transcription is such a fundamental process and has been studied by so many for so long that skeptics might ask what more there is to learn. Those who attended the meeting summarized here on the dynamics of eukaryotic transcription during development were not disappointed. Studying the transcription of genes in ...
Singh Sandeep S Drug Discovery Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, - - 2010
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, Rb, plays a major role in the regulation of mammalian cell cycle progression. It has been shown that Rb function is essential for the proper modulation of G1/S transition and inactivation of Rb contributes to deregulated cell proliferation. Rb exerts its cell cycle regulatory functions ...
Mizutani Tetsuya - - 2010
StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the process of which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis. Transcriptional regulation of the proximal promoter of the human StAR gene has been well characterized, whereas analysis of its distal control region ...
Kaestner Klaus H KH Department of Genetics & Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6145, United States. - - 2010
The genetic analysis of the Foxa genes in both total and conditional mutant mice has clearly established that organogenesis of multiple systems is controlled by this subfamily of winged helix transcription factors. These discoveries followed the establishment of the conceptional framework of the mechanism of action of the FoxA proteins ...
Joffe Boris - - 2010
The spatial organization of the genome plays an important role in the regulation of nuclear functions and undergoes large scale changes during differentiation. These changes in the nuclear distribution of chromatin are, in a complex way, related to transcriptional status and epigenetic modifications. Recent studies emphasize the roles that gene ...
Taddei Angela A UMR 218, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, - - 2010
The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored ...
Hoffman Brad G - - 2010
The liver and pancreas share a common origin and coexpress several transcription factors. To gain insight into the transcriptional networks regulating the function of these tissues, we globally identify binding sites for FOXA2 in adult mouse islets and liver, PDX1 in islets, and HNF4A in liver. Because most eukaryotic transcription ...
Mehrpour Maryam - - 2010
Macroautophagy is a multistep, vacuolar, degradation pathway terminating in the lysosomal compartment, and it is of fundamental importance in tissue homeostasis. In this review, we consider macroautophagy in the light of recent advances in our understanding of the formation of autophagosomes, which are double-membrane-bound vacuoles that sequester cytoplasmic cargos and ...
El Messaoudi-Aubert Selma - - 2010
Several lines of evidence point to a role for noncoding RNA in transcriptional repression by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that human MOV10, a putative RNA helicase previously implicated in post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-purifies and interacts with components of Polycomb-repressive complex 1 ...
van Wolfswinkel Josien C - - 2010
Small non-coding RNAs make up much of the RNA content of a cell and have the potential to regulate gene expression on many different levels. Initial discoveries in the 1990s and early 21st century focused on determining mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). More ...
Van Lijsebettens Mieke - - 2010
In the cell nucleus, the packaging of the DNA into chromatin represses transcription by restricting the access of transcriptional regulators to their binding sites and inhibiting the progression of RNA polymerases during transcript elongation. To efficiently transcribe genes in the context of chromatin, eukaryotes have a variety of transcript elongation ...
Battaglia Sebastiano S Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, - - 2010
Normal transcription displays a high degree of flexibility over the choice, timing and magnitude of mRNA expression levels that tend to oscillate and cycle. These processes allow for combinatorial actions, feedback control and fine-tuning. A central role has emerged for the transcriptional co-repressor proteins such as NCOR1, NCOR2/SMRT, CoREST and ...
Partch Carrie L CL Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390-8816, - - 2010
Transcriptional regulation is dependent on layers of interactions between transcription factors and coactivators, controlling the specificity, temporal regulation, and extent to which transcriptional programs are executed. A key issue in the field of transcriptional regulation is to identify structural mechanisms by which transcription factors and coactivators build hierarchical protein assemblies. ...
Dechassa Mekonnen Lemma ML Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901-4413, - - 2010
The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulates transcription and has been implicated in promoter nucleosome eviction. Efficient nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF alone in biochemical assays, however, has not been directly observed. Employing a model system of dinucleosomes rather than mononucleosomes, we demonstrate that remodeling leads to ordered and efficient disassembly ...
Gong Chunmei - - 2010
The increasing amount of nanotechnological products, found in our environment and those applicable in engineering, material sciences and medicine has stimulated a growing interest in examining their long-term impact on genetic and epigenetic processes. We examined here the epigenomic response to nm-SiO(2) particles in human HaCaT cells and methyltransferases (DNMTs) ...
Denis Gerald V GV Cancer Research Center, Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA. - - 2010
Transcriptional co-activators, co-repressors and chromatin remodeling machines are essential elements in the transcriptional programs directed by the master adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma. Many of these components have orthologs in other organisms, where they play roles in development and pattern formation, suggesting new links between cell fate decision-making and adipogenesis. This ...
Brandt Simone - - 2010
The adapter protein SLy2 (SH3 protein expressed in lymphocytes 2), also named HACS1, NASH1 or SAMSN1, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues, muscle, heart, brain, lung, pancreas, endothelial cells and myelomas. Endogenous SLy2 expression was shown to be upregulated in primary B cells upon differentiation and proliferation-inducing stimuli, and transduction experiments ...
Walrad Pegine B - - 2010
Runx proteins play vital roles in regulating transcription in numerous developmental pathways throughout the animal kingdom. Two Runx protein hallmarks are the DNA-binding Runt domain and a C-terminal VWRPY motif that mediates interaction with TLE/Gro corepressor proteins. A phylogenetic analysis of Runt, the founding Runx family member, identifies four distinct ...
Qüesta Julia I JI Centro de Estudios Fotosintéticos y Bioquímicos, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, - - 2010
Spontaneous silencing of MuDR/Mu transposons occurs in approximately 10-100% of the progeny of an active plant, and once silenced reactivation is very rare. To date, only radiation treatments have reactivated silenced Mu; for example UV-B radiation reactivated Mutator activities. Here we have investigated possible mechanisms by which UV-B could reactivate ...
Askew Emily B EB Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2010
Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene regulation involves interactions with coregulatory proteins that include the melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11). To understand the functional significance of sequence similarity between MAGE-11 and the adenovirus early protein E1A, we determined whether MAGE-11 contributes to AR transcriptional activity through an interaction with p300, a potent ...
Castano E - - 2010
Actin is a well-known protein that has shown a myriad of activities in the cytoplasm. However, recent findings of actin involvement in nuclear processes are overwhelming. Actin complexes in the nucleus range from very dynamic chromatin-remodeling complexes to structural elements of the matrix with single partners known as actin-binding proteins ...
Opper Manfred - - 2010
MOTIVATION: mRNA transcriptional dynamics is governed by a complex network of transcription factor (TF) proteins. Experimental and theoretical analysis of this process is hindered by the fact that measurements of TF activity in vivo is very challenging. Current models that jointly infer TF activities and model parameters rely on either ...
Rodrigues-Pousada Claudina - - 2010
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a very flexible and complex programme of gene expression when exposed to several environmental challenges. Homeostasis is achieved through a highly coordinated mechanism of transcription regulation involving several transcription factors, each one acting singly or in combination to perform specific functions. Here, we review ...
Mallappa Chandrashekara C Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2010
Knockdown of the Brg1 ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes in developing zebrafish caused stunted tail formation and altered sarcomeric actin organization, which phenocopies the loss of the microRNA processing enzyme Dicer, or the knockdown of myogenic microRNAs. Furthermore, myogenic microRNA expression and differentiation was blocked in Brg1 conditional ...
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