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Snyder M D MD Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, - - 2014
Organization of chromatin structure by the combinatorial patterns of DNA methylation and post-translational histone modification is essential for the establishment and maintenance of proper transcriptional programs that result in the coordination of embryonic development. We previously observed that suppression of transcripts encoding SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) using small interfering ...
Hu Rong-Rong RR Department of Nephrology,PUMC Hospital,CAMS and PUCM,Beijing - - 2014
Objective To investigate the regulation of calcineurin (CaN) by endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)in podocytes in vitro and in vivo at the stage microalbuminuria in diabetic nehropathy(DN). Methods The urinary albumin excretions of C57BLKS/J(Lepr) db/db and db/m mice at the ages of 6,9,and 12 weeks were measured. The expressions of CaN and ...
Brown Paula R PR Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Lyon, - - 2014
Transgenic mice were generated using a heat shock protein 2 (Hspa2) gene promoter to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the beginning of meiotic prophase I in spermatocytes. Expression was confirmed in four lines by in situ fluorescence, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and PCR assays. The expression and distribution of the ...
Li Yu Y Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chinese Medicine Processing, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China; Department of Preclinical Medicine, University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, - - 2014
The application of strychnine (S) is limited due to its toxicity; strychnine N-oxide (SNO) is a derivative of strychnine. The aim was to employ zebrafish embryos to investigate and compare the developmental toxicity induced by S and SNO. The toxicity of S and SNO was examined through the hatching rate ...
Khuansuwan Sataree S Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
We describe a method for isolating RNA suitable for high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from small numbers of fluorescently labeled cells isolated from live zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos without using costly, commercially available columns. This method ensures high cell viability after dissociation and suspension of cells and gives a very high ...
Malone Colin D CD Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA; Howard Hughes Medical - - 2014
The exon junction complex (EJC) is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein complex that binds RNAs during splicing and remains associated with them following export to the cytoplasm. While the role of this complex in mRNA localization, translation, and degradation has been well characterized, its mechanism of action in splicing a subset ...
Warnasooriya Chandani C *Department of Medicine, Section of Virology and Single Molecule Imaging Group, MRC Clinical Centre, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, - - 2014
Pre-mRNA (precursor mRNA) splicing is a key step in cellular gene expression where introns are excised and exons are ligated together to produce mature mRNA. This process is catalysed by the spliceosome, which consists of five snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles) and numerous protein factors. Assembly of these snRNPs and ...
Zhang Xu X School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P.R. - - 2014
Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli- spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been ...
Mitra Ramkrishna R Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2014
While previous studies reported aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), little is known about which miRNAs play central roles in NSCLC's pathogenesis and its regulatory mechanisms. To address this issue, we presented a robust computational framework that integrated matched miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in ...
Forbrich Alex A Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, - - 2014
Blood biomarkers are potentially powerful diagnostic tools that are limited clinically by low concentrations, the inability to determine biomarker origin and unknown patient baseline. Recently, ultrasound has been shown to liberate proteins and large mRNA biomarkers, overcoming many of these limitations. We have since demonstrated that adding lipid-stabilized microbubbles elevates ...
Okamoto Shu-Ichi SI Neuroscience and Aging Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Redox-mediated posttranslational modifications represent a molecular switch that controls major mechanisms of cell function. Nitric oxide (NO) can mediate redox reactions via S-nitrosylation, representing transfer of an NO group to a critical protein thiol. NO is known to modulate neurogenesis and neuronal survival in various brain regions in disparate neurodegenerative ...
Li Zhixiong Z College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Agricultural Molecular Biology, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in modulating immune responses. We identified miR-15a-3p and miR-15b-3p which were immune related in bovine. Fourteen potential target genes were predicted. Both miR-15a-3p and miR-15b-3p showed significant differential expression patterns in healthy and mastitis infected cattle (P<0.01). Expression patterns of the two miRNAs provide ...
Hann Stephen R SR Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee - - 2014
The transcription factor MYC has fundamental roles in proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and stem cell pluripotency. Over the last 30 years extensive information has been gathered on the numerous cofactors that interact with MYC and the target genes that are regulated by MYC as a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms ...
Theunissen Thorold W TW Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2014
Deciphering the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming provides fundamental insights into cell fate decisions, which in turn reveal strategies to make the reprogramming process increasingly efficient. Here we review recent advances in epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency with a focus on the principal molecular regulators. We examine the trajectories connecting somatic and ...
Tang Zhurong Z National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, - - 2014
Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control(culture plate) for up to ...
Son You Hwa YH Seoul National University School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, - - 2014
Adipocyte differentiation, termed adipogenesis, is a complicated process in which pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into mature adipocytes. The process of adipocyte differentiation is tightly regulated by a number of transcription factors, hormones and signaling pathway molecules. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs, which belong to small noncoding RNA species, ...
Siersbæk Rasmus R Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense M, - - 2014
Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic footprinting to precisely define factor localization at a genome-wide level ...
Hattori F F Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Mikimoto Pharmaceutical, Mie, - - 2014
S100A7/psoriasin is a member of the S100 protein family and is encoded in the epidermal differentiation complex, which contains genes for markers for epidermal differentiation. S100A7/psoriasin is overexpressed in hyperproliferative skin diseases, where it is believed to not only exhibit antimicrobial functions but also to induce immunomodulatory activities, including chemotaxis ...
Hamaratoglu Fisun F Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Decapentaplegic (Dpp), the fly homolog of the secreted mammalian BMP2/4 signaling molecules, is involved in almost all aspects of fly development. Dpp has critical functions at all developmental stages, from patterning of the eggshell to the determination of adult intestinal stem cell identity. Here, we focus on recent findings regarding ...
Prange Koen H M KH Radboud University, Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Transcription factors control expression of genes essential for the normal functioning of the hematopoietic system and regulate development of distinct blood cell types. During leukemogenesis, aberrant regulation of transcription factors such as RUNX1, CBFβ , MLL, C/EBPα, SPI1, GATA and TAL1 is central to the disease. Here, we will discuss ...
Bai Wenlin W Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, - - 2014
Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age ...
Mika Franziska F Institut für Biologie/Mikrobiologie; Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Berlin, - - 2014
Amyloid curli fibers and cellulose are extracellular matrix components produced in the stationary phase top layer of E. coli macrocolonies, which confer physical protection, strong cohesion, elasticity, and wrinkled morphology to these biofilms. Curli and cellulose synthesis is controlled by a three-level transcription factor (TF) cascade with the RpoS sigma ...
Wojciechowska Marzena M Department of Molecular Biomedicine; Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry; Polish Academy of Sciences; Noskowskiego; Poznan, - - 2014
Expandable (CTG)n repeats in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene are a cause of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which leads to a toxic RNA gain-of-function disease. Mutant RNAs with expanded CUG repeats are retained in the nucleus and aggregate in discrete inclusions. These foci sequester splicing factors of ...
Fuentes Eduardo N EN Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Republica 217, Santiago, Chile; Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción, Chile. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA ...
Tossetta G G Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60020 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Chorioamnionitis is a gestational pathological condition characterized by acute inflammation of the amniochorionic membranes and placentas leading to high concentrations of IL-1β, Il-6, Il-8 and TGF-β in the amniotic fluid. In normal conditions, the permeability of foeto-maternal barrier is due to the assembly and maintenance of different cellular junctional domains. ...
Vindry Caroline C Laboratoire de Biologie moléculaire du gène, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12 rue des Profs. Jeener et Brachet, 6041 Gosselies, - - 2014
Initially identified as an occasional and peculiar mode of gene regulation in eukaryotes, RNA-binding protein-mediated post-transcriptional control of gene expression has emerged, over the last two decades, as a major contributor in the control of gene expression. A large variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) allows the recognition of very diverse ...
Jochmann Katja K Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology and Centre for Medical Biotechnology, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Most elements of the vertebrate skeleton are formed by endochondral ossification. This process is initiated with mesenchymal cells that condense and differentiate into chondrocytes. These undergo several steps of differentiation from proliferating into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are subsequently replaced by bone. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are tightly controlled by a ...
Savan Ram R Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, - - 2014
Interferons (IFNs) are low molecular weight cell-derived proteins that include the type I, II, and III IFN families. IFNs are critical for an optimal immune response during microbial infections while dysregulated expression can lead to autoimmune diseases. Given its role in disease, it is important to understand cellular mechanisms of ...
Oberg Kerby C KC Department of Pathology and Human Anatomy, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92313, USA, - - 2014
The thumb, or digit 1, is not a typical digit. In addition to its unusual mobility and function, its formation is also unusual. It is the last digit to form and the most commonly targeted when limb development is disrupted. The thumb domain is defined by the overlapping expression of ...
Yuan Dengyue D Department of aquaculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, - - 2014
Peptide YY (PYY) is a potent anorectic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of PYY in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not well understood. In this study, we employed molecular, real-time quantitative PCR and physiological studies to characterize the structure, distribution, and appetite regulatory effects ...
Hill Christopher G - - 2014
Documented changes in levels of microRNAs (miRNA) in a variety of diseases including cancer are leading to their development as early indicators of disease, and as a potential new class of therapeutic agents. A significant hurdle to the rational application of miRNAs as therapeutics is our current inability to reliably ...
Park David S - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated SCN10A, which encodes a nociceptor-associated voltage-gated sodium channel subunit, as a modulator of cardiac conduction; however, this role has traditionally been ascribed to SCN5A, which is highly expressed in cardiac muscle. SCN10A is believed to affect cardiac conduction either directly through cardiomyocytes or indirectly ...
Xiang Kehui K Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, - - 2014
Processing of mRNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by polyadenylation is an essential step in gene expression. Polyadenylaton consists of two steps: cleavage and poly(A) synthesis, and requires multiple cis elements in the pre-mRNA and a mega-dalton protein complex bearing the two essential enzymatic activities. While genetic and biochemical studies remain the major ...
Fu Glenn K - - 2014
We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of mRNA gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on ...
Ariyadi B B Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8528, - - 2014
We previously reported that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced mucin mRNA to enhance the mucosal barrier in the hen vagina. The aim of this study was to determine the intracellular signaling molecules for that mucin induction, and the effect of molting and estrogen on ...
Goswami R R Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Forensic Medicine 2 - - 2014
Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is an interesting example of ectopic calcification in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Its pathogenesis and reasons for predilection of calcification at basal ganglia are not clear. Objective: To assess the expression of osteogenesis related molecules in the caudate nucleus and surface gray matter (an area spared ...
Inamata Yasuyuki - - 2014
Axon guidance by commissural neurons has been well documented, providing us with a molecular logic of how midline crossing is achieved during development. Despite these advances, knowledge of the intrinsic genetic programs is still limited and it remains obscure whether the expression of a single transcription factor is sufficient to ...
Ishibashi Toyotaka T Jason L. Choy Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA - - 2014
Transcription factors IIS (TFIIS) and IIF (TFIIF) are known to stimulate transcription elongation. Here, we use a single-molecule transcription elongation assay to study the effects of both factors. We find that these transcription factors enhance overall transcription elongation by reducing the lifetime of transcriptional pauses and that TFIIF also decreases ...
Maita Hiroshi H Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The spliceosome is a highly dynamic macromolecular ribonucleoprotein (RNP) machine that catalyzes pre-mRNA splicing by assembling U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 small nuclear (sn)RNPs. To process large numbers of introns with a limited number of snRNPs, synthesis and recycling of snRNPs must be maintained within an appropriate range to ...
Bestas Burcu B 1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Huddinge, Sweden - - 2014
Targeting of pre-mRNA by short splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) is increasingly being used as a therapeutic modality, one rationale being to disrupt splicing so as to remove exons containing premature termination codons, or to restore the translation reading frame around out-of-frame deletion mutations. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Ching-Wen Lin - - 2014
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial tumor cells acquire migratory and invasive abilities that enable them to spread to other organs. During this process, the tight junction molecule, E-cadherin, is often downregulated through transcription repression by the EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class ...
Buxbaum Adina R AR Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2014
The physical manifestation of learning and memory formation in the brain can be expressed by strengthening or weakening of synaptic connections through morphological changes. Local actin remodeling underlies some forms of plasticity and may be facilitated by local β-actin synthesis, but dynamic information is lacking. In this work, we use ...
Pawlikowska Iwona I Departments of Biostatistics, Computational Biology, Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN,Institue of Mathematics, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland (on - - 2014
Several outlier and subgroup identification statistics (OASIS) have been proposed to discover transcriptomic features with outliers or multiple modes in expression that are indicative of distinct biological processes or subgroups. Here, we borrow ideas from the OASIS methods in the bioinformatics and statistics literature to develop the most informative spacing ...
Regen Steven L - - 2014
The synthesis, computer modeling, and biological activity of an octawalled molecular umbrella siRNA conjugate is described. This molecular umbrella-siRNA conjugate exhibited mRNA knockdown activity in vitro in the absence of a transfection reagent. Evaluation of this molecular umbrella conjugate in vivo, using the rat eye via intravitreal injection, resulted in ...
Horn Abigail E AE Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; University of Colorado; Boulder, CO - - 2014
Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP ...
Dieci Giorgio G Dipartimento di Bioscienze; Università degli Studi di Parma; Parma, - - 2014
By influencing the number of RNA molecules repeatedly synthesized from the same gene, the control of transcription reinitiation has the potential to shape the transcriptome. Transcription reinitiation mechanisms have been mainly addressed in vitro, through approaches based on both crude and reconstituted systems. These studies support the notion that transcription ...
Conacci-Sorrell Maralice M Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington - - 2014
This review is intended to provide a broad outline of the biological and molecular functions of MYC as well as of the larger protein network within which MYC operates. We present a view of MYC as a sensor that integrates multiple cellular signals to mediate a broad transcriptional response controlling ...
Lang Julien J Institut des Sciences du Végétal, UPR2355, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2014
In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, horizontal transfer and vegetative replication of oncogenic Ti plasmids involve a cell-to-cell communication process called quorum-sensing (QS). The determinants of the QS-system belong to the LuxR/LuxI class. The LuxI-like protein TraI synthesizes N-acyl-homoserine lactone molecules which act as diffusible QS-signals. Beyond a threshold concentration, these molecules bind ...
Tsuchiya Masa M Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Japan; Systems Biology Program, School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, - - 2014
Understanding the basic mechanism of the spatio-temporal self-control of genome-wide gene expression engaged with the complex epigenetic molecular assembly is one of major challenges in current biological science. In this study, the genome-wide dynamical profile of gene expression was analyzed for MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by two distinct ErbB ...
Wolfe Michael S MS 0000-0002-2923-3436 Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, H.I.M. 754, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
Brain deposition of the amyloid beta-protein (A β ) and tau are characteristic features in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mutations in the A β precursor protein (APP) and a protease involved in A β production from APP strongly argue for a pathogenic role of A β in AD, while mutations in ...
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