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Vindry Caroline C Laboratoire de Biologie moléculaire du gène, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12 rue des Profs. Jeener et Brachet, 6041 Gosselies, - - 2014
Initially identified as an occasional and peculiar mode of gene regulation in eukaryotes, RNA-binding protein-mediated post-transcriptional control of gene expression has emerged, over the last two decades, as a major contributor in the control of gene expression. A large variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) allows the recognition of very diverse ...
Jochmann Katja K Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology and Centre for Medical Biotechnology, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Most elements of the vertebrate skeleton are formed by endochondral ossification. This process is initiated with mesenchymal cells that condense and differentiate into chondrocytes. These undergo several steps of differentiation from proliferating into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are subsequently replaced by bone. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are tightly controlled by a ...
Savan Ram R Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, - - 2014
Interferons (IFNs) are low molecular weight cell-derived proteins that include the type I, II, and III IFN families. IFNs are critical for an optimal immune response during microbial infections while dysregulated expression can lead to autoimmune diseases. Given its role in disease, it is important to understand cellular mechanisms of ...
Yuan Dengyue D Department of aquaculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, - - 2014
Peptide YY (PYY) is a potent anorectic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of PYY in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not well understood. In this study, we employed molecular, real-time quantitative PCR and physiological studies to characterize the structure, distribution, and appetite regulatory effects ...
Hill Christopher G - - 2014
Documented changes in levels of microRNAs (miRNA) in a variety of diseases including cancer are leading to their development as early indicators of disease, and as a potential new class of therapeutic agents. A significant hurdle to the rational application of miRNAs as therapeutics is our current inability to reliably ...
Park David S - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated SCN10A, which encodes a nociceptor-associated voltage-gated sodium channel subunit, as a modulator of cardiac conduction; however, this role has traditionally been ascribed to SCN5A, which is highly expressed in cardiac muscle. SCN10A is believed to affect cardiac conduction either directly through cardiomyocytes or indirectly ...
Fu Glenn K - - 2014
We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of mRNA gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on ...
Xiang Kehui K Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, - - 2014
Processing of mRNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by polyadenylation is an essential step in gene expression. Polyadenylaton consists of two steps: cleavage and poly(A) synthesis, and requires multiple cis elements in the pre-mRNA and a mega-dalton protein complex bearing the two essential enzymatic activities. While genetic and biochemical studies remain the major ...
Ariyadi B B Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8528, - - 2014
We previously reported that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced mucin mRNA to enhance the mucosal barrier in the hen vagina. The aim of this study was to determine the intracellular signaling molecules for that mucin induction, and the effect of molting and estrogen on ...
Goswami R R Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Forensic Medicine 2 - - 2014
Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is an interesting example of ectopic calcification in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Its pathogenesis and reasons for predilection of calcification at basal ganglia are not clear. Objective: To assess the expression of osteogenesis related molecules in the caudate nucleus and surface gray matter (an area spared ...
Inamata Yasuyuki - - 2014
Axon guidance by commissural neurons has been well documented, providing us with a molecular logic of how midline crossing is achieved during development. Despite these advances, knowledge of the intrinsic genetic programs is still limited and it remains obscure whether the expression of a single transcription factor is sufficient to ...
Ishibashi Toyotaka T Jason L. Choy Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA - - 2014
Transcription factors IIS (TFIIS) and IIF (TFIIF) are known to stimulate transcription elongation. Here, we use a single-molecule transcription elongation assay to study the effects of both factors. We find that these transcription factors enhance overall transcription elongation by reducing the lifetime of transcriptional pauses and that TFIIF also decreases ...
Maita Hiroshi H Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The spliceosome is a highly dynamic macromolecular ribonucleoprotein (RNP) machine that catalyzes pre-mRNA splicing by assembling U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 small nuclear (sn)RNPs. To process large numbers of introns with a limited number of snRNPs, synthesis and recycling of snRNPs must be maintained within an appropriate range to ...
Bestas Burcu B 1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Huddinge, Sweden - - 2014
Targeting of pre-mRNA by short splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) is increasingly being used as a therapeutic modality, one rationale being to disrupt splicing so as to remove exons containing premature termination codons, or to restore the translation reading frame around out-of-frame deletion mutations. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Ching-Wen Lin - - 2014
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial tumor cells acquire migratory and invasive abilities that enable them to spread to other organs. During this process, the tight junction molecule, E-cadherin, is often downregulated through transcription repression by the EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class ...
Buxbaum Adina R AR Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2014
The physical manifestation of learning and memory formation in the brain can be expressed by strengthening or weakening of synaptic connections through morphological changes. Local actin remodeling underlies some forms of plasticity and may be facilitated by local β-actin synthesis, but dynamic information is lacking. In this work, we use ...
Pawlikowska Iwona I Departments of Biostatistics, Computational Biology, Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN,Institue of Mathematics, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland (on - - 2014
Several outlier and subgroup identification statistics (OASIS) have been proposed to discover transcriptomic features with outliers or multiple modes in expression that are indicative of distinct biological processes or subgroups. Here, we borrow ideas from the OASIS methods in the bioinformatics and statistics literature to develop the most informative spacing ...
Regen Steven L - - 2014
The synthesis, computer modeling, and biological activity of an octawalled molecular umbrella siRNA conjugate is described. This molecular umbrella-siRNA conjugate exhibited mRNA knockdown activity in vitro in the absence of a transfection reagent. Evaluation of this molecular umbrella conjugate in vivo, using the rat eye via intravitreal injection, resulted in ...
Horn Abigail E AE Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; University of Colorado; Boulder, CO - - 2014
Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP ...
Dieci Giorgio G Dipartimento di Bioscienze; Università degli Studi di Parma; Parma, - - 2014
By influencing the number of RNA molecules repeatedly synthesized from the same gene, the control of transcription reinitiation has the potential to shape the transcriptome. Transcription reinitiation mechanisms have been mainly addressed in vitro, through approaches based on both crude and reconstituted systems. These studies support the notion that transcription ...
Conacci-Sorrell Maralice M Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington - - 2014
This review is intended to provide a broad outline of the biological and molecular functions of MYC as well as of the larger protein network within which MYC operates. We present a view of MYC as a sensor that integrates multiple cellular signals to mediate a broad transcriptional response controlling ...
Lang Julien J Institut des Sciences du Végétal, UPR2355, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2014
In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, horizontal transfer and vegetative replication of oncogenic Ti plasmids involve a cell-to-cell communication process called quorum-sensing (QS). The determinants of the QS-system belong to the LuxR/LuxI class. The LuxI-like protein TraI synthesizes N-acyl-homoserine lactone molecules which act as diffusible QS-signals. Beyond a threshold concentration, these molecules bind ...
Jochmann Katja K Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology and Centre for Molecular Biology, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
Most elements of the vertebrate skeleton are formed by endochondral ossification. This process is initiated with mesenchymal cells that condense and differentiate into chondrocytes. These undergo several steps of differentiation from proliferating into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are subsequently replaced by bone. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are tightly controlled by a ...
Schmitz M Lienhard ML Univerity of Giessen, Biochemistry, Friedrichstrasse 24, Giessen, Germany, 35392 ; - - 2013
Significance: The expression and/or activity of HDACs can be regulated by a variety of environmental conditions including inflammation and oxidative stress. These events result in diminished or exaggerated protein acetylation that can both be causative for many ailments. While the anti-inflammatory activity of HDAC inhibitors is well known, recent studies ...
Yuhashi Kazuhito K Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, - - 2014
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) has RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. Because NS5B recognizes various RNA motifs besides the HCV genome, NS5B has the potential of interacting with host RNA molecules. In this study, an RNA pool enriched with the 3'-UTR sequences was generated and mRNA molecules ...
Wardill Hannah R - - 2013
Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity, leading to severe clinical manifestations and an increased economic burden. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood hindering effective treatment options. Recently there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut ...
Wellmer Frank - - 2013
Floral organs are specified by the activities of a small group of transcriptional regulators, the floral organ identity factors. Extensive genetic and molecular analyses have shown that these proteins act as master regulators of flower development, and function not only in organ identity determination but also during organ morphogenesis. Although ...
Morris Wayne L - - 2013
Recent advances have defined some of the components of photoperiodic signalling that lead to tuberisation in potato including orthologues of FLOWERING LOCUS T (StSP6A) and CYCLING DOF FACTOR (StCDF1). The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular basis of permissive tuber initiation under long days in Solanum ...
Oba Shigeyoshi - - 2013
Although identification of the target mRNAs of micro RNAs (miRNAs) is essential to understanding their function, the low complementarity between miRNAs and their target mRNAs has complicated this process. In this study, we sought to identify miRNAs which reduce the expression of the transcription factor Zeb-2, a transcriptional repressor of ...
Yang Songwei - - 2013
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in intestinal barrier dysfunction. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. As hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a critical determinant response to hypoxia and inflammation, which has been shown to be deleterious to intestinal barrier function, we hypothesized that IFN-γ induces loss of barrier function ...
Sousa-Baena Mariane Silveira - - 2013
Leaves have undergone structural modifications over evolutionary time, and presently exist in many forms. For instance, in Fabaceae and Bignoniaceae, leaf parts can be modified into tendrils. Currently, no data are available on genic control of tendrilled leaf development outside Fabaceae. Here, we conducted a detailed study of three representatives ...
Solé Anna - - 2013
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in gene expression regulation by targeting specific regions in the 3[prime]-UTR of the mRNA of their target genes. This binding leads to a decrease in the protein levels of such genes either by mRNA degradation or mRNA destabilization and translation inhibition. The interaction between ...
Liu Juan J Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to repress protein expression of target genes. Among these, miR-181b has been found to be a critical regulatory miRNA linking inflammation and cancer. The functional significance of miR-181b in various tumors and ...
Cao Qing - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression through binding to protein-coding messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, predominantly within the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of genes involved in regulating a variety ...
O'Leary Seán E - - 2013
Recognition of the mRNA 5' m(7)G(5')ppp(5')N cap is key to translation initiation for most eukaryotic mRNAs. The cap is bound by the eIF4F complex, consisting of a cap-binding protein (eIF4E), a "scaffold" protein (eIF4G), and an RNA helicase (eIF4A). As a central early step in initiation, regulation of eIF4F is crucial ...
Singh T - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as new class of RNA molecules which are short in length, less in number but play bigger role in regulation of cellular events. miRNAs keep cellular homeostasis in tight control by fine tuning expression of protein coding genes at post-transcriptional level. Neurogenesis and neurodegeneration are two ...
Cox Erica Machlin - - 2013
The hepatitis C viral RNA genome forms a complex with liver-specific microRNA (miR-122) at the extreme 5' end of the viral RNA. This complex is essential to stabilize the viral RNA in infected cultured cells and in the liver of humans. The abundances of primary and precursor forms of miR-122, ...
Zarringhalam Kourosh - - 2013
The abundance of many transcripts changes significantly in response to a variety of molecular and environmental perturbations. A key question in this setting is: what intermediate molecular perturbations gave rise to the observed transcriptional changes? Regulatory programs are not exclusively governed by transcriptional changes but also by protein abundance and ...
Shcherbakova Inna - - 2013
Removal of introns from nascent transcripts (pre-mRNAs) by the spliceosome is an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression. Previous studies have suggested that the earliest steps in spliceosome assembly in yeast are highly ordered and the stable recruitment of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) to the 5' splice site ...
Meister Björn - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (∼22 nucleotides) non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Posttransscriptional silencing of target genes by miRNA is initiated by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, resulting in specific cleavage and subsequent degradation of homologous mRNA or by translational ...
Burliba┼ča Liliana - - 2013
A major challenge in developmental biology field is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular differentiation and to understand the processes that control and regulate genes expression. The study of nuclear molecular architecture during gametogenesis represents one approach toward deciphering the molecular organization and function of the eukaryotic chromatin. ...
Sundaram Gopinath M - - 2013
Post-transcriptional control of mRNA is a vital step in the regulation of gene expression. Highly specific combinations of RNA-binding-proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs conjointly contribute to the complexity of post-transcriptional control of mRNAs. Post-transcriptional switches regulated by RBPs control context-specific expression of two alternative gene products from a single transcript.
Spiegelman Ziv - - 2013
The phloem sap contains numerous macromolecules such as proteins and RNAs, in addition to photoassimilates, amino acids and other small molecules. The transcription profile of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules in the sieve tubes is unique and does not reflect the transcript profile in the neighboring companion cells. This discovery suggests ...
Endo Kei - - 2013
Artificial genetic switches have been designed and tuned individually in living cells. A method to directly invert an existing OFF switch to an ON switch should be highly convenient to construct complex circuits from well-characterized modules, but developing such a technique has remained a challenge. Here we present a cis-acting ...
Ceres Pablo P Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0596, - - 2013
Riboswitches are cis-acting regulatory elements broadly distributed in bacterial mRNAs that control a wide range of critical metabolic activities. Expression is governed by two distinct domains within the mRNA leader: a sensory 'aptamer domain' and a regulatory 'expression platform'. Riboswitches have also received considerable attention as important tools in synthetic ...
Sears Jonathan E JE Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute (Dr Sears), and Ophthalmic Research, Cole Eye Institute (Dr Sears, Dr Hoppe), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, - - 2013
To discover novel small molecules that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), a key enzyme that regulates the posttranslational stability and hence activity of HIF. NIH3T3 cell line stably transfected with firefly luciferase under a HIF-1-inducible promoter was used to screen a Chembridge library of 34,000 small molecules of ...
Besant Justin D - - 2013
Rapid and direct genetic analysis of low numbers of bacteria using chip-based sensors is limited by the slow diffusion of mRNA molecules. Long incubation times are required in dilute solutions in order to collect a sufficient number of molecules at the sensor surface to generate a detectable signal. Here we ...
Disney Matthew D - - 2013
RNA is an important yet vastly underexploited target for small molecule chemical probes or lead therapeutics. Small molecules have been used successfully to modulate the function of the bacterial ribosome, viral RNAs, and riboswitches. These RNAs are either highly expressed or can be targeted using substrate mimicry, a mainstay in ...
Hoesel Bastian - - 2013
The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors has an essential role in inflammation and innate immunity. Furthermore, NF-kappaB is increasingly recognized as a crucial player in many steps of cancer initiation and progression. During these latter processes NF-kappaB cooperates with multiple other signaling molecules and pathways. Prominent nodes of crosstalk are ...
Brancaccio Andrea - - 2013
Dystroglycan is a major adhesion complex composed of two subunits, α and β, that undergoes extensive post-translational modifications. In particular, its α subunit is heavily decorated with sugars, influencing its basement membrane binding properties. An altered glycosylation of α-dystroglycan is at the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies defined as secondary ...
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