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Younger Scott T ST Departments of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75390-9041, - - 2015
miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs that regulate gene expression through recognition of complementary RNA sequences. While miRNAs have generally been understood to repress gene expression posttranscriptionally through recognition of 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of mRNA transcripts, they have the potential to target additional classes of RNAs. Understanding the expanding pool of ...
Papadopoulou Barbara B Research Center in Infectious Disease, CHU de Quebec Research Center, 2705 Laurier Blvd., Quebec, QC, Canada, G1V 4G2, - - 2015
Regulated mRNA turnover is a highly important process in the control of gene expression in Leishmania and related trypanosomatid protozoa, as these organisms lack control at the level of transcription initiation. A large number of Leishmania transcripts harbor in their 3'UTRs two phylogenetically distinct subfamilies of extinct Short Interspersed DEgenerate ...
Weingarten-Gabbay Shira S Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics and the Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
A new study detects unstable nascent RNAs and uncovers thousands of transcription initiation sites in promoters and enhancers. Detailed analysis shows that these initiation sites have a similar architecture and that they are differentiated by post-transcriptional regulation rather than transcription initiation.
Zhao Xu X 1] Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Acaemy of Sciences, No. 1-7 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China [2] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, - - 2014
The role of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) and its substrate N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) in mRNA processing and adipogenesis remains largely unknown. We show that FTO expression and m(6)A levels are inversely correlated during adipogenesis. FTO depletion blocks differentiation and only catalytically active FTO restores adipogenesis. Transcriptome analyses in combination ...
Brunn Nicholas D - - 2014
Expression of human thymidylate synthase (hTS), a key enzyme in thymidine biosynthesis, is regulated on the translational level through a feedback mechanism that is rarely found in eukaryotes. At low substrate concentrations, the ligand-free enzyme binds to its own mRNA and stabilizes a hairpin structure that sequesters the start codon. ...
Rybak-Wolf Agnieszka A Laboratory for Systems Biology of Gene Regulatory Elements, Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, - - 2014
The endoribonuclease Dicer is known for its central role in the biogenesis of eukaryotic small RNAs/microRNAs. Despite its importance, Dicer target transcripts have not been directly mapped. Here, we apply biochemical methods to human cells and C. elegans and identify thousands of Dicer-binding sites. We find known and hundreds of additional ...
Zi-Wei Liu L Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, University Town, Chashan, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To explore the relationship between birth weight and fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression and promoter methylation status in the Chinese population. Methods: Seventy-five neonates and their mothers were recruited from Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Subjects were divided into three groups by birth weight: ...
Wang Ning N University of - - 2014
The swelling of the lodicule is responsible for floret opening in many grass species, allowing for pollen dispersal and cross-pollination. In barley, the closed floret habit (cleistogamy) is under the control of cly1, a gene which operates by inhibiting the development of the lodicule. In non-cleistogamous cultivars, cly1 mRNA is ...
Gong Xi X State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031, - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) usually bind to their target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing in the 3'-untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and regulate target gene expression via post-transcriptional suppression. In recent years, computational approaches to predict miRNA targets have facilitated the identification of potential target sites. In this study, we used three programs ...
Liu Lian L Key Laboratory of Information Fusion Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710027, China. - - 2014
Biochemical modifications to mRNA, especially N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) and 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C), have been recently shown to be associated with crucial biological functions. Despite the intriguing advancements, little is known so far about the dynamic landscape of RNA methylome across different cell types and how the epitranscriptome is regulated at the system ...
Dufresne Julie - - 2014
Pannexins (PANXS) are channel-forming proteins implicated in cellular communication through the secretion of biomolecules such as ATP and glutamate. PANX1 and PANX3 are expressed in the male rat reproductive tract and their levels are regulated by androgens in the epididymis. There is currently no information on the regulation of the ...
Lewis Michael W MW Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
Maize leaves have distinct tissues that serve specific purposes. The blade tilts back to photosynthesize and the sheath wraps around the stem to provide structural support and protect young leaves. At the junction between blade and sheath are the ligule and auricles, both of which are absent in the recessive ...
Schmidt H D HD Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
Activation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens is necessary for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of drug craving and relapse. AMPARs are tetrameric protein complexes that consist of GluA1-4 subunits, of which GluA2 imparts calcium permeability. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is a ...
Wang Qing - - 2014
BackgroundAssembled RNA Polymerase III complexes exert local effects on chromatin processes, including influencing transcription of neighboring RNA Polymerase II transcribed genes. These properties have been designated as ¿extra-transcriptional¿ effects of the Pol III complex. Previous coding sequence microarray studies using Pol III factor mutants to determine global effects of Pol ...
Lee Kuo-Ming KM Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, - - 2014
The spliceosomal factor TRAP150 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing in vivo and, when overexpressed, it enhances splicing efficiency. In this study, we found that TRAP150 interacted with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and co-fractionated with CPSF and RNA polymerase II. Moreover, TRAP150 preferentially associated with the U1 small ...
Seo Ji Hae JH SNU-Harvard Neurovascular Protection Research Center, College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of - - 2014
ARD1 is an acetyltransferase with several variants derived from alternative splicing. Among ARD1 variants, mouse ARD1225 (mARD1225), mouse ARD1235 (mARD1235), and human ARD1235 (hARD1235) have been the most extensively characterized and are known to have different biological functions. In the present study, we demonstrated that mARD1225, mARD1235, and hARD1235 have ...
Estienne Anthony A INRA, UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, F-37380 Nouzilly, France; CNRS, UMR7247, F-37380 Nouzilly, France; Université François Rabelais de Tours, F-37041 Tours, France; IFCE, F-37380 Nouzilly, - - 2014
In the ovary, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by the granulosa cells of growing follicles and can modulate the recruitment of primordial follicles and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-dependent development of follicles. However, the regulation of its production remains poorly understood. Recently, a stimulating effect of the bone morphogenetic proteins ...
Ouyang Miao - - 2014
Menin regulates distinct cellular functions by regulating gene transcription through its interaction with partner transcription factors, but the exact mechanisms that control Menin levels remain largely unknown. Here we report that Men1 mRNA, encoding Menin, is a novel target of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) and that miR-29b/Men1 mRNA association regulates Menin expression ...
Han Minghai M Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Eco-Agricultural Biotechnology around Hongze Lake; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomass-based Energy and Enzyme Technology, School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, 223300, China, - - 2014
N-glycosylation usually occurs at the Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequon of glycoproteins in Pichia pastoris, exerting great effects on expression efficiency; however, Asn-Xaa-Thr is more efficiently glycosylated than Asn-Xaa-Ser. In this study, the role of the two sequons in the expression of recombinant elastase (rPAE) was investigated. At N43, N212, and N280 of ...
Antas Veronica I VI Disciplines of Physiology and Anatomy & Histology, School of Medical Sciences, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, - - 2014
The yolk sac (YS) is a thin, bi-layered membrane encompassing the developing mammalian embryo in utero. The outer layer of the YS is composed of visceral endodermal cells derived from the primitive endoderm. The inner mesenchymal layer is highly vascularised and the first source of haematopoietic cells. YS haematopoiesis takes ...
Yan Jun J Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing, 100850, P. R. - - 2014
RNAIII is known as the key effector of staphylococcal accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum-sensing system, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus. As a regulatory RNA, RNAIII regulates multiple targets, including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. Lipoteichoic acid synthase (LtaS) is involved in the synthesis of lipoteichoic ...
Qu Fufa F Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, - - 2014
The Akirin protein is a nuclear factor in the innate immune system that is highly conserved from insects to mammals and plays key roles in diverse biological processes, including immunity, myogenesis, development and the cellular stress response. However, the function of Akirins in mollusk, the second most diverse group of ...
He Tianyuan T Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2014
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major regulator of collagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. Cellular responses to TGF-β are mediated primarily through its cell surface type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) receptors. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation impairs TGF-β signalling largely due to reduced TβRII gene expression, thereby decreasing ...
Sha Fushen F Zhongshan School of Medicine, Institute of Human Virology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-Sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080, - - 2014
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor. While the NF-κB signaling pathway is modulated by many microRNAs (miRNAs), very few have been reported to target NF-κB1 gene directly. In this study, we used multiple miRNA target prediction programs to predict miRNAs with putative NF-κB1 3'-untranslated region (UTR) binding sites. ...
Ogino Tomoaki T Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA - - 2014
The multifunctional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus catalyzes unconventional pre-mRNA capping via the covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation, which requires the histidine-arginine (HR) motif in the polyribonucleotidyltransferase domain. Here, the effects of cap-defective mutations in the HR motif on transcription were analyzed using an in vitro reconstituted ...
Thomason Maureen K MK Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2014
While the model organism Escherichia coli has been the subject of intense study for decades, the full complement of its RNAs is only now being examined. Here we describe a survey of the E. coli transcriptome carried out using a differential RNA-seq approach, which can distinguish between primary and processed ...
Wen Duancheng D Ansary Stem Cell Institute and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 10065, USA; Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 10065, - - 2014
Chromatin remodeling via incorporation of histone variants plays a key role in the regulation of embryonic development. The histone variant H3.3 has been associated with a number of early events including formation of the paternal pronucleus upon fertilization. The small number of amino acid differences between H3.3 and its canonical ...
Maruyama Yuka Y Department of Tissue Physiology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and - - 2014
Expression of brain-specific phenotypes increased in all trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced neural differentiation of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Among these phenotypes, expression of class IVa β-tubulin isotype (TUBB4a) was particularly enhanced in neural differentiation. Transient transfection assays employing a reporter construct found that ATRA-mediated regulatory region of the TUBB4a ...
Kumari Sangeeta S Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110067, - - 2014
Nuclear Receptor PXR is predominantly expressed in liver and intestine. Expression of PXR is observed to be dysregulated in various metabolic disorders indicating its involvement in disease development. However, information available on mechanisms of PXR self-regulation is fragmentary. The present investigation identifies some of the regulatory elements responsible for its ...
Caballero-Lima David - - 2014
Candida albicans hyphae grow in a highly polarised fashion from their tips. This polarised growth requires the continuous delivery of secretory vesicles to the tip region. Vesicle delivery depends on Sec2p, the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for the Rab GTPase Sec4. GTP bound Sec4 is required for the transit of ...
Wang Jiawan J Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, - - 2014
The nuclear receptor complex for the insect steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is a heterodimer of EcR and USP. It has been shown that Drosophila EcR and USP can be sumoylated in mammalian cells, but it is unknown whether EcR-USP sumoylation naturally occurs in Drosophila. In Drosophila cells, USP, but not ...
Ashwal-Fluss Reut R Biological Chemistry Department, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, - - 2014
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely expressed noncoding RNAs. However, their biogenesis and possible functions are poorly understood. Here, by studying circRNAs that we identified in neuronal tissues, we provide evidence that animal circRNAs are generated cotranscriptionally and that their production rate is mainly determined by intronic sequences. We demonstrate that ...
Cichon Ann-Christin AC Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, - - 2014
Cellular expression of host prion protein (PrP) is essential to infection with prion disease. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate prion protein expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels is therefore an important goal. The cellular prion protein has been associated with resistance to oxidative, and its expression is also ...
Cho Yoon Mi YM Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a transcription factor of the unfolded protein response, plays various roles in many biological processes. We examined the pro-adipogenic activity and its target genes during adipogenic differentiation in wild type and genetically-modified 3T3-L1 cells. Signalling pathways that contribute to Xbp1 mRNA splicing and the correlation ...
Juárez-Rodríguez Maria Dolores MD Research Group in Oral Health & Systemic Disease, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, - - 2014
The QseBC two component system plays a pivotal role in regulating virulence and biofilm growth of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We previously showed that QseBC autoregulates the ygiW-qseBC operon. In this study, we characterized the promoter that drives ygiW-qseBC expression. Using lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs and 5'-rapid amplification of ...
Penrod Yvonne Y Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, 940 Stanton L. Young Blvd., BMSB-553, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2014
Mammalian PAF49 and PAF53 form a heterodimer and are essential for transcription. However their roles in transcription have not been specifically defined. While the yeast homologues are "not essential" proteins, yeast cells deficient in the homologue of PAF53 grow at 50-66% the wild-type rate at 30°C, but fail to grow ...
Prestin Katharina K University of - - 2014
Renal tubular handling of urate is realized by a network of uptake and efflux transporters including members of drug transporter families such as solute carrier proteins, and ATP-binding cassette transporters. The solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9) is one key factor of this so called "urate transportosome". The aim ...
Schwartz Schraga S Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2014
Pseudouridine is the most abundant RNA modification, yet except for a few well-studied cases, little is known about the modified positions and their function(s). Here, we develop Ψ-seq for transcriptome-wide quantitative mapping of pseudouridine. We validate Ψ-seq with spike-ins and de novo identification of previously reported positions and discover hundreds ...
Barberán-Soler Sergio S Gene Regulation, Stem Cells and Cancer Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, - - 2014
Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363) is associated with (1) accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against an embedded Helitron transposon and ...
Kuzmochka Claire C Reproduction, Mother and Youth Health, CHUQ Research Centre, QC city, QC, - - 2014
Several drugs currently used in the management of mood disorders, epilepsy (i.e. valproic acid or VPA) or the control of inflammation (i.e. corticosteroids) have been shown to promote visceral obesity in humans by increasing the number of newly formed adipocytes. VPA is classified as a non-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, ...
Raj Bushra B Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E1, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, - - 2014
The vertebrate and neural-specific Ser/Arg (SR)-related protein nSR100/SRRM4 regulates an extensive program of alternative splicing with critical roles in nervous system development. However, the mechanism by which nSR100 controls its target exons is poorly understood. We demonstrate that nSR100-dependent neural exons are associated with a unique configuration of intronic cis-elements ...
Karwaciak Iwona I Laboratory of Transcriptional Regulation, Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of - - 2014
Here, we report for the first time a functional study of transcriptional regulation of the human ABCB10 gene. We cloned a functional promoter sequence, and then showed that E2F2, E2F3 and E2F4 can activate transcription from the ABCB10 promoter. We identified sites responsible for this activation and confirmed direct binding ...
Carlile Thomas M TM Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, - - 2014
Post-transcriptional modification of RNA nucleosides occurs in all living organisms. Pseudouridine, the most abundant modified nucleoside in non-coding RNAs, enhances the function of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA by stabilizing the RNA structure. Messenger RNAs were not known to contain pseudouridine, but artificial pseudouridylation dramatically affects mRNA function-it changes the ...
Lamplot Joseph D JD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2014
Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used clinically to augment tendon healing, bone morphogenetic protein-13 (BMP13) may provide a better therapeutic avenue to improve early tendon healing and repair. Exogenous expression of BMP13 in tenocytes will up-regulate genes involved in tendon healing. Direct delivery of adenovirus-mediated BMP13 (AdBMP13) into the injured ...
Delan-Forino Clémentine C Wellcome Trust Center for Cell Biology, Michael Swann Building, King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 - - 2014
Systematic analyses, by UV crosslinking, of the precise binding sites for 23 different proteins across the yeast pre-mRNA population have given insights into the in vivo assembly of, and interactions between, pre-mRNA processing, packaging, and transport complexes.
Nagel Alexis K AK Medical University of South Carolina, United - - 2014
Runx2 is the master switch controlling osteoblast differentiation and formation of the mineralized skeleton. The post-translational modification (PTM) of Runx2 by phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation, and acetylation modulates its activity, stability, and interactions with transcriptional co-regulators and chromatin remodeling proteins downstream of osteogenic signals. Characterization of Runx2 by electron transfer dissociation tandem ...
Zhao Yuanjun Y Department of C & M Physiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Human telomerase gene hTERT is important for cancer and aging. hTERT promoter is regulated by multiple transcription factors (TFs) and its activity is dependent on the chromatin environment. However, it remains unsolved how the interplay between TFs and chromatin environment controls hTERT transcription. In this study, we employed the recombinase-mediated ...
Hung Chia-Yang CY Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Our previous study indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) is accumulated during hypoxia in an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. Herein, we found that the Sp1 was induced strongly at the protein level, but not in the mRNA level, in lung tumor tissue, indicating that translational regulation might contribute to ...
Zhao Guodong G School of Biology and Basic Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, - - 2014
The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, many of which play an important role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. In this research, firstly, we measured the rutin-induced transcriptional level of BmGSTd1 gene by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and dual spike-in strategy. ...
Weatheritt Robert J RJ 1] MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. [2] Present address: The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Although many proteins are localized after translation, asymmetric protein distribution is also achieved by translation after mRNA localization. Why are certain mRNA transported to a distal location and translated on-site? Here we undertake a systematic, genome-scale study of asymmetrically distributed protein and mRNA in mammalian cells. Our findings suggest that ...
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