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Results 301 - 350 of 1682
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Van Themsche Céline - - 2010
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is often overexpressed in cancer cells, where it plays a key role in survival and also promotes invasiveness. To date however, the extracellular signals and intracellular pathways regulating its expression and activity remain incompletely understood. We have previously showed that exposure to each of ...
Pugacheva Elena M - - 2010
BORIS/CTCFL is a paralogue of CTCF, the major epigenetic regulator of vertebrate genomes. BORIS is normally expressed only in germ cells but is aberrantly activated in numerous cancers. While recent studies demonstrated that BORIS is a transcriptional activator of testis-specific genes, little is generally known about its biological and molecular ...
Wang Shaofeng - - 2010
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important cell signaling regulators with major pathological implications. LYP (also known as PTPN22) is an intracellular enzyme initially found to be predominately expressed in lymphocytes. Importantly, an allelic R620W variant of LYP is strongly associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ...
Sadamoto Hisayo - - 2010
Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein1 (CREB1) has multiple functions in gene regulation. Various studies have reported that CREB1-dependent gene induction is necessary for memory formation and long-lasting behavioral changes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we characterized Lymnaea CREB1 (LymCREB1) mRNA isoforms of spliced variants in the ...
Li Zhengsheng - - 2010
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme responsible for the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrine. COMT activity influences cognitive and emotional states in humans and aggression and drug responses in mice. This study identifies the key sequence variant that leads to differences in Comt mRNA and protein levels among mice, and ...
Neplioueva Valentina V Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of - - 2010
RNA-binding proteins accompany all steps in the life of mRNAs and provide dynamic gene regulatory functions for rapid adjustment to changing extra- or intracellular conditions. The association of RNA-binding proteins with their targets is regulated through changing subcellular distribution, post-translational modification or association with other proteins. We demonstrate that the ...
Robinson Timothy J TJ Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, - - 2010
Over the past two decades more than fifty thousand unique clinical and biological samples have been assayed using the Affymetrix HG-U133 and HG-U95 GeneChip microarray platforms. This substantial repository has been used extensively to characterize changes in gene expression between biological samples, but has not been previously mined en masse ...
Dubielecka Patrycja M PM Laboratory of Cell Signaling, New York Blood Center, New York, New York, United States of - - 2010
Macropinocytosis, which is a constitutive cellular process of fluid and macromolecule uptake, is regulated by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements near the plasma membrane. Activation of Rac1, which is proposed to act upstream of the actin polymerization regulatory Wave 2 complex, has been found to correlate with enhanced macropinocytosis. One of the ...
Chen Shufen S The Litwin-Zucker Research Center for Study of Alzheimer's Disease, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY 11030, - - 2010
Tau aggregation in neurofibrillary tangles is a pathological hallmark in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The predominant aggregation of certain MAPT (tau gene) isoforms, either the 4-repeat (4R tau) or the 3-repeat (3R tau) isoform has been widely described in tauopathies. Alterations of the 4R tau to 3R tau ratio ...
Mure Hideo - - 2010
Akt, one of the major downstream effectors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is hyper-expressed and activated in a variety of cancers including glioblastoma. However, the expression profiles of the Akt isoforms Akt1/PKBalpha, Akt2/PKBbeta, and Akt3/PKBgamma and their functional roles in malignant glioma are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the protein and ...
Firth Matthew A - - 2010
Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules (FcR) provide an important and vital link between circulating antibody and cellular effector functions. These receptors have been well characterized in human and murine species, however few of these receptors have been investigated in livestock. FcgammaRII (CD32) is an FcR previously shown ...
Rossi Andrea - - 2010
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) exists as two major isoforms that differ in the length of the N terminus, the shorter AQP4-M23 and the longer AQP4-M1. Both isoforms form tetramers, which can further aggregate in the plasma membrane to form typical orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) whose dimension depends on the ratio of ...
Chen Liang - - 2010
Transcriptome analyses have typically disregarded nucleocytoplasmic differences. This approach has ignored some post-transcriptional regulations and their effect on the ultimate protein expression levels. Despite a longstanding interest in the differences between the nuclear and cytosolic transcriptomes, it is only recently that data have become available to study such differences and ...
Dally Saoussen - - 2010
Among the players involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in heart tissue are SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase)-type Ca(2+) pumps. Until recently, human heart was known to coexpress major SERCA2a and minor SERCA2b isoforms. Here, we will summarize data showing that nonfailing human heart is equipped with an increasing variety of SERCA ...
Liang Shufang - - 2009
14-3-3 proteins regulate many cellular processes that are implicated in cancer development, and the seven 14-3-3 isoforms have different expression level and isoform-specific roles in different tumors. However, the biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins and their correlations with renal carcinoma have not been investigated so far. In our study, the ...
Roch Christina - - 2010
The xylosyltransferase (XT) isoforms XT-I and XT-II initiate the posttranslational glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. Here, we determined the relative expression of both isoforms in 33 human cell lines. The majority of tested cell lines showed dominant XYLT2 gene expression, while only in 23132/87, JAR, NCI-H510A and THP-1 was the XT-I mRNA ...
Nakanishi Jotaro - - 2010
Members of the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like kallikrein family are important in the desquamation process. In this study, we isolated cDNA clones encoding trypsinogen 4 (brain trypsinogen) and a previously unreported isoform of trypsinogen from a human keratinocyte cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the new isoform only differs from those ...
Earl Lesley A - - 2010
Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside-binding protein highly expressed in the thymus, induces apoptosis of specific thymocyte subsets and activated T cells. Galectin-1 binds to N- and O-glycans on several glycoprotein receptors, including CD7, CD43, and CD45. Here we show that galectin-1 signaling through CD45, which carries both N- and O-glycans, is regulated ...
Duelli Annette - - 2009
Serglycin (SG) proteoglycan consists of a small core protein to which glycosaminoglycans of chondroitin sulfate or heparin type are attached. SG is crucial for maintaining mast cell (MC) granule homeostasis through promoting the storage of various basic granule constituents, where the degree of chondroitin sulfate/heparin sulfation is essential for optimal ...
Farhi Jacob - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptors, GDNF alpha 1 (GFR-alpha1) and tyrosine kinase receptor for rearranged during transfection (RET), in human ovaries at the protein and mRNA levels. DESIGN: Samples were prepared for immunohistochemical staining for GDNF, GFR-alpha1, and RET and ...
Peir? R - - 2010
The association of the 2464G > A SNP found in the promoter region of the rabbit progesterone receptor gene with progesterone receptor (PR) expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. This SNP was associated with 2 lines divergently selected for uterine capacity, the high line selected to increase uterine capacity ...
Nishimoto Yoshinori - - 2010
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been recently identified as a major component of the ubiquitinated inclusions found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diseases that are collectively termed TDP-43 proteinopathies. Several amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations of the TDP-43 gene have also been identified; however, ...
Clelland Eric S - - 2010
In fishes, variation in paracellular permeability is important for regulating salt and water balance. Paracellular permeability is maintained by TJs in vertebrate epithelia. This study examined the spatial distribution and effects of salinity on claudin-3 isoform mRNA expression and abundance along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the euryhaline puffer fish ...
Dorszewska Jolanta - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo2dG) and expression of three isoforms of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), OGG1-1a, 1b, and 1c, and OGG1 protein and Ser326Cys and Arg46Gln polymorphisms of the OGG1 gene, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ...
Malloy Peter J - - 2009
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its corepressor Hairless (HR) are thought to regulate key steps in the hair cycle because mutations in VDR or HR cause alopecia in humans and mice. Many mammalian cells express two major HR isoforms due to alternative splicing of exon 17. HR isoform-a encodes ...
Nair T Murlidharan - - 2009
Alternative splicing of human pre-mRNA is a very common phenomenon and is a major contributor to proteome diversity. mRNA isoforms that arise as a result of alternative splicing also provide a more complete picture of the transcriptome as they reflect the additional processing a pre-mRNA undergoes before being translated into ...
Paynel Florence - - 2009
In hypocotyls of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cadmium-induced reorientation of growth (i.e. an increase in expansion and a decrease in elongation) coincides with marked changes in the methylesterification and cross-linking of homogalacturonans within various cell-wall (CW) domains. The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of pectin methylesterase ...
Liu B B Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901-6523, - - 2009
Progesterone action is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PRA and PRB), three membrane progesterone receptor (mPR) subtypes (mPRalpha, mPRbeta and mPRgamma) and at least one progesterone membrane-binding protein [PR membrane component 1 (PRmc1)] have been identified in reproductive tissues and brain of various ...
Hinton Andrea C - - 2010
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may regulate uterine activation and cervical ripening for labor through specific contractile and relaxatory receptors (EP1-4). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PGE2 receptor isoforms in pregnant rat cervix during RU486-induced labor and progesterone supplementation to delay labor. Localization and expression of ...
Tondeleir Davina - - 2009
The dynamic actin cytoskeleton, consisting of six actin isoforms in mammals and a variety of actin binding proteins is essential for all developmental processes and for the viability of the adult organism. Actin isoform specific functions have been proposed for muscle contraction, cell migration, endo- and exocytosis and maintaining cell ...
Pires Susana S - - 2009
Melanopsin is the photopigment that confers photosensitivity to a subset of retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that regulate many non-image-forming tasks such as the detection of light for circadian entrainment. Recent studies have begun to subdivide the pRGCs on the basis of morphology and function, but the origin of these differences ...
Nazir Asiya - - 2010
This study reports differential expression of endoglucanase (EG) and beta-glucosidase (betaG) isoforms of Aspergillus terreus. Expression of multiple isoforms was observed, in presence of different carbon sources and culture conditions, by activity staining of poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. Maximal expression of four EG isoforms was observed in presence of ...
Kropyvko Sergii - - 2010
Intersectin 1 (ITSN1) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein that functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cell signalling and cytoskeleton rearrangements. The ITSN1 gene encodes two main isoforms: a short form (ITSN1-s), which is ubiquitously expressed and consists of two Eps15 homology (EH) domains and five Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and ...
Amaral Paulo P - - 2009
The Sox2 gene is a key regulator of pluripotency embedded within an intron of a long noncoding RNA (ncRNA), termed Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2ot), which is transcribed in the same orientation. However, this ncRNA remains uncharacterized. Here we show that Sox2ot has multiple transcription start sites associated with genomic features ...
Casano Caterina - - 2010
Emerging evidence seems to indicate that the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is able to regulate gene expression, drastically affecting the pattern of transcriptional activity in normal and pathological eukaryotic cells, also affecting intracellular signalization events. Human p38 is a family of mitogen-activated protein kinases consisting of four isoforms (alpha, beta, ...
Miao Yuan - - 2010
Different p120ctn isoforms exert different, even opposing, effects on tumor cell growth depending on the level of E-cadherin expression, but the impact on clinicopathological parameters of lung cancer patients is not clear. Herein, we investigate the correlation between pan-p120ctn, p120ctn isoform 1, and E-cadherin expression and clinicopathological parameters, especially prognosis, ...
Arseneau Jean-Ren? - - 2009
The transcription factor Pax5 plays a critical role in B cell development. It has been shown that alternative splicing of its gene (PAX5) produces several distinct transcripts that modify the amino acid sequence of the putative Pax5 proteins. Subsequent studies have attempted to correlate the expression of PAX5 isoforms with ...
Courts Cornelius - - 2009
Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) protein is a transcription factor involved in cell signaling and regulation of gene expression. The overexpression of FOXP1 in a subgroup of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas has been associated with an exceptionally poor clinical outcome. Data on FOXP1 expression in primary central nervous system lymphomas ...
Chen Jing - - 2009
Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) function to co-transcriptionally deaminate specific (or non-specific) adenosines to inosines within pre-mRNAs, using double-stranded RNAs as substrate. In both Drosophila and mammals, the best-studied ADAR functions are to catalyze specific nucleotide conversions within mRNAs encoding various ligand- or voltage-gated ion channel proteins within the ...
Hong Qin - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neurobehavioral disorder affecting approximately 5% of children and adolescents and 3% of adults, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play the most critical role in the expression of ADHD. Converging previous studies indicate a potential role of Homer--a scaffolding protein family localized at ...
Mangiulli Marina - - 2009
p63 belongs to a family of transcription factors, which, while demonstrating striking conservation of functional domains, regulate distinct biological functions. Its principal role is in the regulation of epithelial commitment, differentiation and maintenance programs, during embryogenesis and in adult tissues. The p63 gene has a complex transcriptional pattern, producing two ...
Xu Yang - - 2009
The tafazzin gene encodes a phospholipid-lysophospholipid transacylase involved in cardiolipin metabolism, but it is not known why it forms multiple transcripts as a result of alternative splicing. Here we studied the intracellular localization, enzymatic activity, and metabolic function of four isoforms of human tafazzin and three isoforms of Drosophila tafazzin ...
Mayr Christine C Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA. - - 2009
In cancer cells, genetic alterations can activate proto-oncogenes, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis. However, the protein products of oncogenes are sometimes overexpressed without alteration of the proto-oncogene. Helping to explain this phenomenon, we found that when compared to similarly proliferating nontransformed cell lines, cancer cell lines often expressed substantial amounts of ...
Poleti Mirele Daiana - - 2010
Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) are pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. VDACs are known to play an essential role in cellular metabolism and in early stages of apoptosis. In mammals, three VDAC isoforms have been identified. A proteomic approach was exploited to study the expression of ...
Sekine Kuwon - - 2010
Proteomic analysis of inner ear proteins revealed unique properties of cochlin, encoded by the COCH gene. We detected 3 cochlin isoforms, p63s, p44s and p40s, in the inner ear tissue and a short 16-kDa isoform, cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP), in the perilymph. The role of the cochlin isoforms has not been elucidated. ...
Zhang Zhenyu Z Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, - - 2009
Spatially regulated transcription of the pipe gene in ventral cells of the Drosophila ovary follicle cell epithelium is a key event that specifies progeny embryo dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity. pipe encodes ten putative protein isoforms, all of which exhibit similarity to vertebrate glycosaminoglycan-modifying enzymes. Expression of one of the isoforms, Pipe-ST2, ...
Mitra Pallabi - - 2009
Several cytosolic sulfotransferase enzyme isoforms are functional in placenta but there is limited information available on the utility of cultured trophoblast cells for studying sulfation. The trophoblast cell layer constitutes the rate-determining barrier for trans-placental transfer. The objective of this work was to examine the mRNA expression and enzyme activities ...
Acampora Dario - - 2009
Genetic and embryological experiments demonstrated that the visceral endoderm (VE) is essential for positioning the primitive streak at one pole of the embryo and head morphogenesis through antagonism of the Wnt and Nodal signaling pathways. The transcription factor Otx2 is required for VE anteriorization and specification of rostral neuroectoderm at ...
Wood-Kaczmar Alison A The MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, New Hunts House, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, - - 2009
The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is expressed in two, alternatively spliced, isoforms: a short form (GSK-3beta1) and a long form containing a 13 amino acid insert in the catalytic domain (GSK-3beta2). We examined the expression of these isoforms in the rat using specific antibodies and found that GSK-3beta2, ...
Gelissen Ingrid C - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of two ABCG1 isoforms that differ in the presence or absence of a 12 amino acid (AA) peptide between the ABC cassette and the transmembrane region, termed ABCG1(+12) and ABCG1(-12), respectively, in human vascular cells and tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: mRNA for both isoforms was ...
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