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Results 301 - 350 of 1699
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Herfs Michael - - 2010
TP63 is a p53-related gene that contains two alternative promoters, which give rise to transcripts that encode proteins with (TAp63) or without (DeltaNp63) an amino-transactivating domain. Whereas the expression of p63 is required for proper development of epithelial structures, the role of p63 in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated ...
Park Eulsoon - - 2010
Stromal cells from fat tissues exhibit properties of mesenchymal stem cells from other sources with the ability to differentiate towards multiple cell types. However, effective differentiation of these mesenchymal cells, called adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), towards cardiomyogenic lineage has been limited to a small number of isolated clones in an ...
Schröder Katrin - - 2010
The family of NADPH oxidases consists of seven members that are all producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the cardiovascular systems three NADPH oxidases are expressed: Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, which all exhibit different physiological functions such as regulating blood pressure, mediating growth factor signaling and controlling cell proliferation. In ...
Fortier Anne-Marie - - 2010
Keratin 8 and 18 are simple epithelial intermediate filament (IF) proteins, whose expression is differentiation- and tissue-specific, and is maintained during tumorigenesis. Vimentin IF is often co-expressed with keratins in cancer cells. Recently, IF have been proposed to be involved in signaling pathways regulating cell growth, death and motility. The ...
Kanadia Rahul N - - 2010
During development, multiple cell types within a tissue often arise from a common pool of progenitor cells (PCs). PCs typically expand in number, while simultaneously producing post-mitotic cells (PMCs). This balance is partly regulated by transcription factors that are expressed within PCs, such as the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene mouse ...
Floyd Rachel V - - 2010
Na, K-ATPase activity relies on the composition of its catalytic alpha, beta, and FXYD constituents, all of which are expressed as multiple isoforms (4alpha, 4beta, and 7 FXYD). We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry to study Na, K-ATPase expression in uterine samples from nonlaboring elective and ...
Wang He-Gui - - 2010
Endogenous digitalis-like compound (EDLC) is an endogenous ligand of the digitalis receptor and can remarkably inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Antidigoxin antiserum (ADA), a selective EDLC antagonist, may lessen myocardial reperfusion injury; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated whether ADA may prevent myocardial reperfusion injury ...
Lum Amy M - - 2010
GPR110 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor--a receptor without a known ligand, a known signaling pathway, or a known function. Despite the lack of information, one can assume that orphan receptors have important biological roles. In a retroviral insertion mutagenesis screen in the mouse, we identified GPR110 as an oncogene. ...
Fukushima Hideto - - 2010
Titin, also known as connectin, is a large filamentous protein that greatly contributes to passive myocardial stiffness. In vitro evidence suggests that one of titin's spring elements, the PEVK, interacts with actin and that this adds a viscous component to passive stiffness. Differential splicing of titin gives rise to the ...
Larsen Anders Peter - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized that the heterogeneity of ...
Thewes Verena - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Activator protein-2 (AP-2) transcription factors are critically involved in a variety of fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and have also been implicated in carcinogenesis. Expression of the family members AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma is particularly well documented in malignancies of the female breast. Despite increasing evaluation ...
Strzalka-Mrozik Barbara - - 2010
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate transcriptional activities of genes encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta isoforms in bullous keratopathy corneas. METHODS: The study group consisted of 45 patients with bullous keratopathy (22 females and 23 males). The control group included 45 corneal donors (21 females and 24 ...
Han L Q - - 2010
The functions of distinct isoforms of solute carrier family 27 transporters (SLC27A1-6), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, ACACB), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1-4), fatty acid desaturase (FADS1-3), LPIN (LPIN1-3), insulin-induced gene (INSIG1, 2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator1 (PPARGC1A, B) were studied in the mouse mammary gland from pregnancy to lactation. The relative ...
Wang Yunling - - 2010
The quaking viable (qk(v)) mouse has several developmental defects that result in rapid tremors in the hind limbs. The qkI gene expresses three major alternatively spliced mRNAs (5, 6 and 7 kb) that encode the QKI-5, QKI-6 and QKI-7 RNA binding proteins that differ in their C-terminal 30 amino acids. ...
Adams Stephanie J - - 2010
Tauopathies are defined by assembly of the microtubule associated protein tau into filamentous tangles and classified by the predominant tau isoform within these aggregates. The major isoforms are determined by alternative mRNA splicing of exon 10 generating tau with three (3R) or four (4R) approximately 32 amino acid imperfect repeats ...
Sogawa Chiharu - - 2010
The transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) are members of the Na+- and Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6. There is a line of evidence that alternative splicing results in several isoforms of neurotransmitter transporters including NET. However, its relevance to the physiology and pathology of the neurotransmitter reuptake system ...
Acevedo Julieta M - - 2010
The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases are oxygen sensors that hydroxylate the HIF alpha-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation in normoxia. Three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, encoded by independent genes, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, occur in mammals. PHD2, the longest PHD isoform includes a MYND domain, whose ...
Van Themsche Céline - - 2010
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is often overexpressed in cancer cells, where it plays a key role in survival and also promotes invasiveness. To date however, the extracellular signals and intracellular pathways regulating its expression and activity remain incompletely understood. We have previously showed that exposure to each of ...
Pugacheva Elena M - - 2010
BORIS/CTCFL is a paralogue of CTCF, the major epigenetic regulator of vertebrate genomes. BORIS is normally expressed only in germ cells but is aberrantly activated in numerous cancers. While recent studies demonstrated that BORIS is a transcriptional activator of testis-specific genes, little is generally known about its biological and molecular ...
Wang Shaofeng - - 2010
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important cell signaling regulators with major pathological implications. LYP (also known as PTPN22) is an intracellular enzyme initially found to be predominately expressed in lymphocytes. Importantly, an allelic R620W variant of LYP is strongly associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ...
Sadamoto Hisayo - - 2010
Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein1 (CREB1) has multiple functions in gene regulation. Various studies have reported that CREB1-dependent gene induction is necessary for memory formation and long-lasting behavioral changes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we characterized Lymnaea CREB1 (LymCREB1) mRNA isoforms of spliced variants in the ...
Li Zhengsheng - - 2010
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme responsible for the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrine. COMT activity influences cognitive and emotional states in humans and aggression and drug responses in mice. This study identifies the key sequence variant that leads to differences in Comt mRNA and protein levels among mice, and ...
Neplioueva Valentina V Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of - - 2010
RNA-binding proteins accompany all steps in the life of mRNAs and provide dynamic gene regulatory functions for rapid adjustment to changing extra- or intracellular conditions. The association of RNA-binding proteins with their targets is regulated through changing subcellular distribution, post-translational modification or association with other proteins. We demonstrate that the ...
Robinson Timothy J TJ Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, - - 2010
Over the past two decades more than fifty thousand unique clinical and biological samples have been assayed using the Affymetrix HG-U133 and HG-U95 GeneChip microarray platforms. This substantial repository has been used extensively to characterize changes in gene expression between biological samples, but has not been previously mined en masse ...
Dubielecka Patrycja M PM Laboratory of Cell Signaling, New York Blood Center, New York, New York, United States of - - 2010
Macropinocytosis, which is a constitutive cellular process of fluid and macromolecule uptake, is regulated by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements near the plasma membrane. Activation of Rac1, which is proposed to act upstream of the actin polymerization regulatory Wave 2 complex, has been found to correlate with enhanced macropinocytosis. One of the ...
Chen Shufen S The Litwin-Zucker Research Center for Study of Alzheimer's Disease, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY 11030, - - 2010
Tau aggregation in neurofibrillary tangles is a pathological hallmark in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The predominant aggregation of certain MAPT (tau gene) isoforms, either the 4-repeat (4R tau) or the 3-repeat (3R tau) isoform has been widely described in tauopathies. Alterations of the 4R tau to 3R tau ratio ...
Mure Hideo - - 2010
Akt, one of the major downstream effectors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is hyper-expressed and activated in a variety of cancers including glioblastoma. However, the expression profiles of the Akt isoforms Akt1/PKBalpha, Akt2/PKBbeta, and Akt3/PKBgamma and their functional roles in malignant glioma are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the protein and ...
Firth Matthew A - - 2010
Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules (FcR) provide an important and vital link between circulating antibody and cellular effector functions. These receptors have been well characterized in human and murine species, however few of these receptors have been investigated in livestock. FcgammaRII (CD32) is an FcR previously shown ...
Rossi Andrea - - 2010
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) exists as two major isoforms that differ in the length of the N terminus, the shorter AQP4-M23 and the longer AQP4-M1. Both isoforms form tetramers, which can further aggregate in the plasma membrane to form typical orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) whose dimension depends on the ratio of ...
Chen Liang - - 2010
Transcriptome analyses have typically disregarded nucleocytoplasmic differences. This approach has ignored some post-transcriptional regulations and their effect on the ultimate protein expression levels. Despite a longstanding interest in the differences between the nuclear and cytosolic transcriptomes, it is only recently that data have become available to study such differences and ...
Dally Saoussen - - 2010
Among the players involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in heart tissue are SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase)-type Ca(2+) pumps. Until recently, human heart was known to coexpress major SERCA2a and minor SERCA2b isoforms. Here, we will summarize data showing that nonfailing human heart is equipped with an increasing variety of SERCA ...
Liang Shufang - - 2009
14-3-3 proteins regulate many cellular processes that are implicated in cancer development, and the seven 14-3-3 isoforms have different expression level and isoform-specific roles in different tumors. However, the biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins and their correlations with renal carcinoma have not been investigated so far. In our study, the ...
Roch Christina - - 2010
The xylosyltransferase (XT) isoforms XT-I and XT-II initiate the posttranslational glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. Here, we determined the relative expression of both isoforms in 33 human cell lines. The majority of tested cell lines showed dominant XYLT2 gene expression, while only in 23132/87, JAR, NCI-H510A and THP-1 was the XT-I mRNA ...
Nakanishi Jotaro - - 2010
Members of the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like kallikrein family are important in the desquamation process. In this study, we isolated cDNA clones encoding trypsinogen 4 (brain trypsinogen) and a previously unreported isoform of trypsinogen from a human keratinocyte cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the new isoform only differs from those ...
Earl Lesley A - - 2010
Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside-binding protein highly expressed in the thymus, induces apoptosis of specific thymocyte subsets and activated T cells. Galectin-1 binds to N- and O-glycans on several glycoprotein receptors, including CD7, CD43, and CD45. Here we show that galectin-1 signaling through CD45, which carries both N- and O-glycans, is regulated ...
Duelli Annette - - 2009
Serglycin (SG) proteoglycan consists of a small core protein to which glycosaminoglycans of chondroitin sulfate or heparin type are attached. SG is crucial for maintaining mast cell (MC) granule homeostasis through promoting the storage of various basic granule constituents, where the degree of chondroitin sulfate/heparin sulfation is essential for optimal ...
Farhi Jacob - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptors, GDNF alpha 1 (GFR-alpha1) and tyrosine kinase receptor for rearranged during transfection (RET), in human ovaries at the protein and mRNA levels. DESIGN: Samples were prepared for immunohistochemical staining for GDNF, GFR-alpha1, and RET and ...
Peir? R - - 2010
The association of the 2464G > A SNP found in the promoter region of the rabbit progesterone receptor gene with progesterone receptor (PR) expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. This SNP was associated with 2 lines divergently selected for uterine capacity, the high line selected to increase uterine capacity ...
Nishimoto Yoshinori - - 2010
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been recently identified as a major component of the ubiquitinated inclusions found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diseases that are collectively termed TDP-43 proteinopathies. Several amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations of the TDP-43 gene have also been identified; however, ...
Clelland Eric S - - 2010
In fishes, variation in paracellular permeability is important for regulating salt and water balance. Paracellular permeability is maintained by TJs in vertebrate epithelia. This study examined the spatial distribution and effects of salinity on claudin-3 isoform mRNA expression and abundance along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the euryhaline puffer fish ...
Dorszewska Jolanta - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo2dG) and expression of three isoforms of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), OGG1-1a, 1b, and 1c, and OGG1 protein and Ser326Cys and Arg46Gln polymorphisms of the OGG1 gene, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ...
Malloy Peter J - - 2009
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its corepressor Hairless (HR) are thought to regulate key steps in the hair cycle because mutations in VDR or HR cause alopecia in humans and mice. Many mammalian cells express two major HR isoforms due to alternative splicing of exon 17. HR isoform-a encodes ...
Nair T Murlidharan - - 2009
Alternative splicing of human pre-mRNA is a very common phenomenon and is a major contributor to proteome diversity. mRNA isoforms that arise as a result of alternative splicing also provide a more complete picture of the transcriptome as they reflect the additional processing a pre-mRNA undergoes before being translated into ...
Paynel Florence - - 2009
In hypocotyls of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cadmium-induced reorientation of growth (i.e. an increase in expansion and a decrease in elongation) coincides with marked changes in the methylesterification and cross-linking of homogalacturonans within various cell-wall (CW) domains. The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of pectin methylesterase ...
Liu B B Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901-6523, - - 2009
Progesterone action is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PRA and PRB), three membrane progesterone receptor (mPR) subtypes (mPRalpha, mPRbeta and mPRgamma) and at least one progesterone membrane-binding protein [PR membrane component 1 (PRmc1)] have been identified in reproductive tissues and brain of various ...
Hinton Andrea C - - 2010
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may regulate uterine activation and cervical ripening for labor through specific contractile and relaxatory receptors (EP1-4). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PGE2 receptor isoforms in pregnant rat cervix during RU486-induced labor and progesterone supplementation to delay labor. Localization and expression of ...
Tondeleir Davina - - 2009
The dynamic actin cytoskeleton, consisting of six actin isoforms in mammals and a variety of actin binding proteins is essential for all developmental processes and for the viability of the adult organism. Actin isoform specific functions have been proposed for muscle contraction, cell migration, endo- and exocytosis and maintaining cell ...
Pires Susana S - - 2009
Melanopsin is the photopigment that confers photosensitivity to a subset of retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that regulate many non-image-forming tasks such as the detection of light for circadian entrainment. Recent studies have begun to subdivide the pRGCs on the basis of morphology and function, but the origin of these differences ...
Nazir Asiya - - 2010
This study reports differential expression of endoglucanase (EG) and beta-glucosidase (betaG) isoforms of Aspergillus terreus. Expression of multiple isoforms was observed, in presence of different carbon sources and culture conditions, by activity staining of poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. Maximal expression of four EG isoforms was observed in presence of ...
Kropyvko Sergii - - 2010
Intersectin 1 (ITSN1) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein that functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cell signalling and cytoskeleton rearrangements. The ITSN1 gene encodes two main isoforms: a short form (ITSN1-s), which is ubiquitously expressed and consists of two Eps15 homology (EH) domains and five Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and ...
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