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Qin Dandan D State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE), Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Genetic Improvement (MOA), Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Plant Gene Research Centre (Beijing), China Agricultural University, Yuanmingyuan Xi Road NO. 2, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193, - - 2014
Previously, we found an ethylene-responsive transcriptional co-activator, which was significantly induced by heat stress (HS) in both thermo-sensitive and thermo-tolerant wheat. The corresponding ORF was isolated from wheat, and named TaMBF1c (Multiprotein Bridging Factor1c). The deduced amino acid sequence revealed the presence of conserved MBF1 and helix-turn-helix domains at the ...
Holzerova K K Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. - - 2014
Continuous normobaric hypoxia (CNH) renders the heart more tolerant to acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Protein kinase C (PKC) is an important component of the protective signaling pathway, but the contribution of individual PKC isoforms under different hypoxic conditions is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression ...
Chen Miao M State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a ubiquitous transcription factor formed by three distinct subunits, namely NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. A stress-responsive cDNA of NF-YC (Cdt-NF-YC1) was isolated from triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis), and its role in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in this study. Cdt-NF-YC1 transcript was detected in ...
Nakaminami Kentaro K RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, - - 2014
Overwintering plants are capable of exhibiting high levels of cold tolerance, which is acquired through the process of cold acclimation (CA). In contrast to CA, the acquired freezing tolerance is rapidly reduced during cold de-acclimation (DA) and plants resume growth after sensing warm temperatures. In order to better understand plant ...
Kelsoe Garnett G Department of Immunology and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, - - 2014
Aicda is crucial for antibody diversification by mediating Ig class-switch recombination, V(D)J hypermutation (SHM) and, in some species, gene conversion. Recently, evidence has accumulated to show that Aicda is expressed during B-cell development and that this expression in some unknown way, mediates tolerance in immature and transitional B cells. In ...
Plautz Carol Zygar CZ Shepherd University, Department of Biology, Shepherdstown, WV, - - 2014
Background: Specific molecules involved in early inductive signaling from anterior neural tissue to the placodal ectoderm to establish a lens-forming bias, as well as their regulatory factors, remain largely unknown. In this study we sought to identify and characterize these molecules. Results: Using an expression cloning strategy to isolate genes ...
Wang Zhe Z Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Z.W, JJ.Z, RR.Z, T.L, WC.L) and Division of Rehabilitation Medicine (XH.F), Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China; National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University (X.B), Jinan 250100, China; Central Research Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University (QY.Z), Jinan 250033, China; Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (QY.Z, ZW.L), Jinan 250100, - - 2014
Context: It is well known that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are abnormal in Graves'disease (GD) and play crucial roles in the breakdown of immune tolerance and GD development. However, there are controversies about whether the quantity and/or function of Tregs is aberrant in GD. The molecular mechanism of Tregs abnormality ...
Xie Lan L Magee-Womens Research Institute, Department of OBGYN and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213 - - 2014
Early in pregnancy, trophoblast invasion into the decidua and inner myometrium is essential for establishment of proper implantation, maternal-fetal exchange, and immunological tolerance of the feto-placental allograft. Unlike villous trophoblasts, extravillous trophoblasts are unique in their capacity to invade the maternal decidua and myometrium. The largest human microRNA (miRNA) gene ...
Chen Yi-Shih YS Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Life Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli City, - - 2014
Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. ...
Katsuhara Maki M Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, 20-1, Chuo-2-chome, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-0046, Japan, - - 2014
Previous reports indicate that salt stress reduces the root hydraulic conductance and the expression of plasmamembrane-type aquaporins (PIPs). As a molecular mechanism for this phenomenon, the present study found evidence that the osmotic component, but probably not an ion-specific component, decreases PIP transcripts. Eight of ten PIP transcripts were reduced ...
Xin Shichao S Key Lab of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 12 South Street, Zhongguancun, Beijing, 100081, - - 2014
Three independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing SlTIP2;2 from Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Lichun under the control of its endogenous promoter were used to analyze the expression of SlTIP2;2 and the salt stress tolerance under NaCl concentration gradient treatment. The expression patterns of SlTIP2;2 were shown to be tissue-specific and NaCl ...
Zhao Guo-Yang GY Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212000, P.R. - - 2014
Iron metabolism is tightly regulated in osteoblasts, and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the only identified iron exporter in mammals to date. In the present study, the regulation of FNP1 in human osteoblasts was investigated following various iron treatments. The human osteoblast cell line hFOB 1.19 was treated with ferric ammonium ...
Liu Xiao-Min XM Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, Republic of - - 2014
ZAT11, a Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11, is a dual-function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni (2+) tolerance. Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11 (ZAT11) is a C2H2-type zinc finger protein that has been reported to function as an active transcriptional repressor. However, ...
Macedo Claudia C Molecular Immunogenetics Group, Department of Genetics, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, - - 2014
The downregulation of PTA genes in mTECs is associated with the loss of self-tolerance, and the role of miRNAs in this process is not fully understood. Therefore, we studied the expression of mRNAs and miRNAs in mTECs from autoimmune NOD mice during the period when loss of self-tolerance occurs in ...
Benjamin Julie-Anna M JA Department of Biochemistry, RNA Group, University of Sherbrooke, 3201 Jean Mignault Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1E 4K8, - - 2014
Aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein and a major enzyme of the TCA cycle that catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate under iron-rich conditions. In Escherichia coli, aconitase B (AcnB) is a typical moonlighting protein that can switch to its apo form (apo-AcnB) which favors binding its own mRNA 3'UTR ...
Silva Bruno B Departamento de Genética Humana, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, - - 2014
Dietary iron absorption regulation is one of the key steps for the maintenance of the body iron homeostasis. HFE gene expression undergoes a complex post-transcriptional alternative splicing mechanism through which two alternative transcripts are originated and translated to a soluble HFE protein isoform (sHFE). The first purpose of this study ...
Zhao Guo-Yang GY Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212001, - - 2014
Hepcidin is a key player in the regulation of mammalian iron homeostasis. Because iron overload may be one of the causes of osteoporosis, hepcidin may have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis patients. However, the effects of hepcidin on bone metabolism are not fully clear. We recently found that hepcidin can increase ...
Schmidt Christopher C Molecular Microbiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale, Germany, - - 2014
The zinc importer ZupT is required for an efficient allocation of zinc to zinc-dependent proteins in the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans but not for zinc import per se. Expression of zupT is up-regulated under conditions of zinc starvation. C. metallidurans contains three members of the Fur family of regulators, which ...
Sun Shengming S Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Huzhou 313001, China; Key Laboratory of Genetic Breeding and Aquaculture Biology of Freshwater Fishes, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, - - 2014
Ferritin, a major iron storage protein in most living organisms, plays a crucial role in iron metabolism. In this study, the ferritin subunit MnFer was identified in the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and functionally characterized. The full-length cDNA of MnFer is 999 bp in size with a 122-bp 5'-untranslated ...
Xiao Guiran G State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences , Tsinghua University , Beijing , - - 2014
The intracellular iron transfer process is not well understood and the identity of the iron transporter responsible for iron delivery to the secretory compartments remains elusive. Here we show Drosophila ZIP13 (Slc39a13), a presumed zinc importer, fulfills the iron effluxing role. Interfering with dZIP13 expression causes iron-rescuable iron absorption defect, ...
Zumbrennen-Bullough Kimberly K Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, United - - 2014
Systemic iron balance is controlled by the liver peptide hormone hepcidin, which is transcriptionally regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD pathway. In iron deficiency, liver BMP-SMAD signaling and hepcidin are suppressed as a compensatory mechanism to increase iron availability. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that have an increasingly ...
Gaun Vera V Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, United States; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, United - - 2014
Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver, decreases intestinal iron absorption and macrophage iron release via effects on ferroportin. Bone morphogenic protein and Stat3 signaling regulate Hepcidin's transcription. Hepcidin is a potential drug target for patients with iron overload syndromes because its levels are inappropriately low in these individuals. ...
Gulec Sukru S University of - - 2014
Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a number of important physiologic roles in humans, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Iron absorption by the proximal small bowel is a critical check point in the maintenance of whole-body iron levels as, unlike most other essential nutrients, no ...
Shanmugam Nanda Kumar N NK Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129; - - 2014
States of chronic inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease are often associated with dysregulated iron metabolism and the consequent development of an anemia that is caused by maldistribution of iron. Abnormally elevated expression of the hormone hepcidin, the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, has been implicated in these abnormalities. ...
Arenas-Hernández Margarita M P MM Posgrado en Microbiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal, 1622, Puebla, Puebla, México; Licenciatura en Biomedicina, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1622, Puebla, Puebla, México; Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1622, Puebla, Puebla, - - 2014
The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the Long Polar Fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest ...
Nishimura Kazuhiko K Laboratory of Bioenvironmental Sciences, Course of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ohrai-Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, - - 2014
Erythropoietin (EPO) and iron are both indispensable hematopoietic factors and are often studied in humans and rodents. Iron activates prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and promotes the degradation of the α-subunit of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which regulates EPO production. Iron also causes oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to alterations in the ...
Moya Diana D Department of Pediatrics, SUNY at Buffalo, United States; Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Center, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, United - - 2014
Iron may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as it catalyzes the production of potent reactive oxygen species. We aim to examine iron status in pediatric NASH. Serum indices of NASH patients (N = 36) were compared to those in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination ...
Wang Xunde X National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United - - 2014
In adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), markers of iron burden such as serum ferritin are associated with excessive production of the angiogenic protein placenta growth factor (PlGF) and high estimated pulmonary artery pressure. Enforced PlGF expression in mice stimulates production of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, producing pulmonary hypertension. We ...
Przybyszewska Justyna J Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, - - 2014
introduction and objective. The clinical consequences of malnutrition are multi-directional and result in dysfunctions of the majority of internal organs and systems. The results of recent studies suggest that a significant role is played by malnutrition in pathophysiology of iron homeostasis disorders, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The study ...
Padula Maria Carmela MC Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
HFE-hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal disease characterized by excessive iron absorption. Homozygotes for H63D variant, and still less H63D heterozygotes, generally do not express HH phenotype. The data collected in our previous study in the province of Matera (Basilicata, Italy) underlined that some H63D carriers showed altered iron metabolism, without ...
Jeong S M SM Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Iron metabolism is essential for many cellular processes, including oxygen transport, respiration and DNA synthesis, and many cancer cells exhibit dysregulation in iron metabolism. Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs), which control the expression of iron-related genes by binding iron-responsive elements (IREs) of target ...
Parrow Nermi L NL Division of Molecular and Clinical Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD - - 2014
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of signaling molecules. In addition to protean roles in embryonic development, germ-line specification, and cellular differentiation, a central role in iron homeostasis has recently been demonstrated for certain BMPs. Specifically, BMP6 serves to relate hepatic iron stores ...
Dostalikova-Cimburova Marketa M Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) often display disturbed iron indices. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, has been shown to be down-regulated by alcohol in cell lines and animal models. This down-regulation led to increased duodenal iron transport and absorption in animals. In this study, we investigated gene ...
Foster Andrew W AW Department of Chemistry, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE, - - 2014
The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2 Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated ...
Lortz S S Hannover Medical SchoolInstitute of Clinical Biochemistry, 30623 Hannover, Germany - - 2014
Free intracellular ferrous iron (Fe(2) (+)) is essential for the generation of the extremely toxic hydroxyl radicals, which contribute to β-cell destruction by cytokines. Therefore the expression of the different divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) isoforms and ferritin (Ft) subunits, responsible for iron import and chelation, was analyzed under pro-inflammatory ...
Goralska Małgorzata M Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) regulates expression of over 60 genes by binding to hypoxia response elements (HRE) located upstream of the transcriptional start sites. Many genes encoding proteins involved in iron transport and homeostasis are regulated by HIF. Expression of iron handling proteins can also be translationally regulated by binding ...
Mesquita S D SD 0000000207865010 1] Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Campus Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal [2] ICVS/3B's-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimaraes, - - 2014
The production, accumulation and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are influenced by different modulators. Among these are iron and iron-related proteins, given their ability to modulate the expression of the amyloid precursor protein and to drive Aβ aggregation. Herein, we describe that lipocalin 2 (LCN2), ...
Tsanova Borislava B Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2014
RNA degradation plays important roles for maintaining temporal control and fidelity of gene expression, as well as processing of transcripts. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RNA exosome is a major 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease and also has an endonuclease domain of unknown function. Here we report a physiological role for the exosome in ...
Pandey Satya Deo SD Department of Animal Sciences, Univerisity of Hyderabad, - - 2014
The influence of iron levels on the transcription of hupB gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the focus of this study. Studies in our lab showed HupB to be co-expressed with the two siderophores in low iron organisms. Mycobactin biosynthesis is repressed by IdeR-Fe(2+) complex that binds the IdeR box in ...
Li Liangtao L U of Utah, United - - 2014
Mmt1 and Mmt2 are highly homologous yeast proteins that are the only members of the cation diffusion facilitator transporter family localized to mitochondria. Overexpression of MMT1/2 led to changes in cellular metal homeostasis (increased iron sensitivity, decreased cobalt sensitivity, increased sensitivity to copper), oxidant generation and increased sensitivity to H2O2. ...
Huang Suna S Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Department of Neurosurgery, South-west Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, - - 2014
The existence of all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the iron metabolism system, and the recent findings on the functions of angiotensin II (ANGII) in peripheral iron metabolism imply that ANGII might play a role in iron homeostasis by regulating expression of iron transport proteins in the brain. ...
Foka Pelagia P Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunobiotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, - - 2014
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with hepatic iron overload and elevated serum iron that correlate to poor antiviral responses. Hepcidin (HAMP), a 25-aa cysteine-rich liver-specific peptide, controls iron homeostasis. Its expression is up-regulated in inflammation and iron excess. HCV-mediated hepcidin regulation remains controversial. Chronic HCV patients possess relatively ...
Sheldon Jessica R JR Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, - - 2014
Staphylococcus aureus elaborates two citrate-containing siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB), that enhance growth under iron-restriction, yet, paradoxically, expression of the TCA cycle citrate synthase, CitZ, is down-regulated during iron starvation. Iron starvation does, however, result in expression of SbnG, recently identified as a novel citrate synthase that ...
Kim Don-Kyu DK 1] National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Nuclear Receptor Signals and Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. - - 2014
In response to microbial infection, expression of the defensin-like peptide hepcidin (encoded by Hamp) is induced in hepatocytes to decrease iron release from macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism by which Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), an intramacrophage bacterium, alters host iron metabolism for its own survival, we examined the ...
Kilinc Veli V Public Health Laboratory, 55139, Kurupelit, Trabzon, - - 2014
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as trichostatin A (TSA), and iron chelators, including deferoxamine (DFO) and phenanthroline (PHEN), appear to have anticancer effects. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitors and iron chelators would be synergistic with their effect on breast cancer cell line MCF7, because the HDAC inhibitors increase glucose-regulated ...
Sonnweber Thomas T Department of Internal Medicine VI, Medical University Innsbruck, , Innsbruck, - - 2014
Hypoxia affects body iron homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a standardised hypoxia chamber, 23 healthy volunteers were subjected to hypoxic conditions, equivalent to an altitude of 5600 m, for 6 h. Subsequent experiments were performed in C57BL/6 mice, CREB-H knockout mice, primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. ...
Chen Li-Hung LH Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, - - 2014
The ability of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for pathogenesis to citrus. We report a regulation of siderophore-mediated iron acquisition and ROS resistance by the NADPH oxidase (NOX), the redox activating YAP1 regulator, and the HOG1 MAP kinase. The A. alternata nonribosomal ...
Reyes-Becerril Martha M Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Mar Bermejo 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, La Paz, B.C.S. 23090, - - 2014
Ferritin is a major intracellular iron storage protein in higher vertebrates and plays an important role in iron metabolism. In this study, ferritin H subunit was cloned from the larvae of yellow snapper, Lutjanus argentiventris, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) following in silico transcriptome analysis. The full-length cDNAs ...
Chung Jacky J From the Division of Hematology, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Division of Hematology-Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts - - 2014
Mitochondrial iron is essential for the biosynthesis of heme and iron-sulfur ([Fe-S]) clusters in mammalian cells. In developing erythrocytes, iron is imported into the mitochondria by MFRN1 (mitoferrin-1, SLC25A37). Although loss of MFRN1 in zebrafish and mice leads to profound anemia, mutant animals showed no overt signs of porphyria, suggesting ...
Bandyopadhyay Sanghamitra S Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry-Neuroscience, Massachusetts General Hospital (East), Charlestown, MA 02129, United - - 2014
The neurotoxicity of amyloid beta (Aβ), a major cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is enhanced by iron, as found in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. By contrast, the long-known neuroprotective activity of APP is evident after α-secretase cleavage of the precursor to release sAPPα, ...
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