Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1744
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Gozen Oguz - - 2007
Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are suggested to play a role in several physiological processes including feeding, reward, neuroendocrine modulation, and the stress response. Although some studies implicate the modulation of CART peptide expression by glucocorticoids, direct evidence relating CART to the stress response is limited. The present study ...
Mravec Boris - - 2007
The hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) represents an important coordinate center for regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine systems, especially during stress response. The present study was focused on the gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and the protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in DMN, both in control and stressed rats. Moreover, pathways ...
Yin Yan-Yan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes (BCPT) has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in vitro and in vivo, which indicates BCPT may be a potential antidepressant. In this study we aimed to study the antidepressant effects of BCPT in the chronic ...
Doghman Mabrouka - - 2007
CONTEXT: Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) have a fetal adrenal phenotype and overexpress steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV)/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 mRNA is significantly down-regulated in childhood ACTs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure NOV protein levels in childhood ACTs and characterize NOV ...
Alderman Sarah L - - 2007
Our current understanding of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system distribution in the teleost brain is restricted by limited immunohistochemical studies and a lack of complete transcriptional distribution maps. The present study used in situ hybridization to localize and compare CRF, urotensin I (UI), and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) expression in the ...
Aguilera Greti - - 2007
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) coordinates behavioral, autonomic and hormonal responses to stress. Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis with stimulation of CRF and vasopressin (VP) release from hypothalamic parvocellular neurons, and consequent secretion of ACTH from the anterior pituitary and glucocorticoid from the adrenal cortex, is the major ...
Pelletier G - - 2007
It is well documented that oestrogen suppresses food intake by an action at the hypothalamic level. Using in situ hybridisation, we studied the effect of castration (CX) and short-term administration of oestradiol (E2) in CX female mice for three neuropeptides involved in feeding behaviour: two anorexigenic peptides, (i) the pro-opiomelanocortin ...
Wong D L - - 2007
This review summarizes knowledge on the effects of stress on two catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Information is presented on differential responses of the enzymes to a variety of stressors as well as differential responses of the enzymes localized to the central nervous system vs. ...
Huising Mark O - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in the regulation of the stress axis. In mammals, CRF as well as its receptors and its CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) are expressed in a variety of organs and tissues outside the central nervous system. One of these extrahypothalamic sites is the adrenal gland, ...
Sabban Esther L - - 2007
Here we review how prior experience with stress alters the response to a subsequent homotypic or heterotypic stressor, focusing on the catecholaminergic systems in the adrenal medulla and the locus coeruleus (LC). The changes in response to homotypic stress differ depending on the stressor applied. With immobilization stress (IMO), transcriptional ...
Johnston Heather - - 2007
ACTH has been shown to stimulate androgen production by the fetal/neonatal mouse testis through the melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). This study was designed to localize the expression of MC2R in the neonatal mouse testis and characterize the effects of ACTH on testicular androgen production. Using immunohistochemistry, MC2R was localized ...
Rondini Tatiane Araujo - - 2007
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide originating from prepro-MCH. In male rats, neurons expressing MCH are found in the lateral hypothalamic area and medial zona incerta, as well as, sparsely, in the olfactory tubercle and pontine reticular formation. The wide distribution of MCH fibers suggests the involvement of this neuropeptide ...
Xu Lu - - 2007
Long-term stress leads to the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and enzymatic activity in the adrenal medulla. This adaptive response is necessary to maintain the catecholamine biosynthetic capacity of adrenal chromaffin cells during periods of sustained catecholamine secretion. In this report we demonstrate that when rats are subjected to ...
Palermo F - - 2008
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is an important gene implicated in different functions, such as the stress response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether farming conditions, such as stocking density, can be considered a powerful stressor influencing in turn the growth rate in juvenile fish. ...
Kawasaki Makoto - - 2007
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino-acid peptide, and the GALP mRNA is restricted to pituicytes in the posterior pituitary gland (PP) and neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc). We examined whether the GALP gene expression in the PP and Arc would be induced after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ...
Martini Claudia N - - 2007
Different cytochromes P450 are involved in steroid biosynthesis. These cytochromes have heme as the prosthetic group. We previously reported that ACTH, an activator of glucocorticoid biosynthesis in adrenal, requires heme biosynthesis for a maximal response. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ACTH, and the effect of two ...
Gao Lu - - 2007
Throughout gestation, the chorion laeve controls the levels of biologically active prostaglandins (PGs) by its high level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 15-hydroxy PG dehydrogenase (PGDH). In this study, we investigate the effects mediated by CRH receptors on the expression of PGDH in the chorion. We found that both CRHR1 and ...
Markovic Danijela D Endocrinology and Metabolism, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, United - - 2007
CRH targets the human myometrium during pregnancy. The efficiency of CRH actions is determined by expression of functional receptors (CRH-R), which are dynamically regulated. Studies in myometrial tissue biopsies using quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the onset of labor, term or preterm, is associated with a significant 2- to 3-fold increase ...
Glavas Maria M - - 2007
The hypothalamic neurocircuitry that regulates energy homeostasis in adult rats is not fully developed until the third postnatal week. In particular, fibers from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, including both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-MSH fibers, do not begin to innervate downstream hypothalamic targets until the second postnatal week. However, alpha-MSH ...
Zmijewski Michal A MA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 930 Madison Avenue, RM525, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, - - 2007
We have investigated expression of molecular elements of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The presence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF); urocortins I, II and III; CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1); POMC and prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) mRNAs were shown by ...
Hudecova S - - 2007
AIM: The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a major Ca(2+) extrusion system in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes and an important component participating on the excitation-contraction coupling process in muscle cells. NCX1 isoform is the most abundant in the heart and is known to be changed after development of ischaemia or ...
Tai T C - - 2007
Immobilization (IMMO) stress was used to examine how stress alters the stress hormone epinephrine (EPI) in the adrenal medulla in vivo. In rats subjected to IMMO for 30 or 120 min, adrenal corticosterone increased to the same extent. In contrast, EPI changed very little, suggesting that EPI synthesis replenishes adrenal ...
Hunter Richard G RG Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, NY 10021, USA. rhunter@rockefeller.edu - - 2007
CART (Cocaine-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) has been shown to be regulated by corticosteroids in the hypothalamus, but its regulation by corticosteroids and stress has not been well examined in the hippocampus or the amygdala. Further, CART has been implicated in the transition to puberty. In this study we examine the effects of ...
Xu Meiyu - - 2007
A full-length cDNA encoding for prepro-orexin (prepro-OX) was cloned from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) hypothalamus using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 143 amino acids (aa) prepro-OX contains a 38 aa signal peptide, a 50 aa orexin-A peptide and a 29 aa orexin-B peptide. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR ...
Xu Cheng - - 2007
SIM1 is a transcription factor essential for the developmental expression of the endocrine hormone genes, e.g. vasopressin (Vp) and oxytocin (Ot), in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Mice mutant for Sim1 lack structural PVN and SON, attributed in previous studies to the death of ...
Iwasaki Yasumasa - - 2007
Starvation is known to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a representative antistress system in the living organism. In this study, we investigated in vitro whether activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to occur in intracellular energy depletion, influences the expression of POMC gene that encodes adrenocorticotropin. ...
Ralph Jennifer A - - 2007
Peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important regulator of localized inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to define the pathological signaling pathways in which peripheral CRH receptor-mediated responses reside. We report that PECAM-1-expressing synovial membrane endothelial cells are the principal source of CRH receptor subtype 1alpha in chronically ...
Park Joong Jean - - 2007
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic and hypothermic peptide. To understand its role in hypothermic conditions, male rats were placed in a 24 degrees C or 4 degrees C air chamber for 1.5 h. The expression of c-Fos protein, and NPY mRNA and protein, was analyzed in the hypothalamus 1 ...
Choi Dennis C - - 2007
Limbic and cortical neurocircuits profoundly influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress yet have little or no direct projections to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is well positioned to relay limbic information to the PVN. The ...
Huang L Z - - 2007
Maternal smoking results in low birth weight. Using a neonatal gastric intubation model corresponding to the third trimester in humans, nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, causes growth retardation in rat pups. Here, we wanted to determine the underlying mechanisms of nicotine's anorexic effects. In adults, body weight and ...
Girotti Milena - - 2007
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis diurnal cycle of activity is manifest in circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone secretion, which in the rat peak around the onset of the dark period. This cycle is thought to be driven by daily fluctuations in activity of CRH neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of ...
Romero Damian G DG Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Montgomery VA Medical Center and The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA. - - 2007
The differentiation of the adrenal cortex into functionally specific zones is probably due to differential temporal gene expression during fetal growth, development, and adulthood. In our search for adrenal zona glomerulosa-specific genes, we found that Disabled-2 (Dab2) is expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal gland using a ...
Chang Hong-Wei - - 2007
CONTEXT: The mechanism associated with the overproduction of aldosterone by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the role of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R) on aldosterone synthesis and secretion and clarify the clinical importance of this role on aldosterone overproduction in APA. ...
Gassanov Natig - - 2007
Despite the existence of a functional arginine vasopressin (AVP) system in the adult heart and evidence that AVP induces myogenesis, its significance in cardiomyogenesis is currently unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized a role for AVP in cardiac differentiation of D3 and lineage-specific embryonic stem (ES) cells expressing green ...
Vuorenoja Susanna - - 2007
Luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG) responsiveness of normal and pathological human adrenal glands as well as the possibility of constitutive expressions of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in adrenal cortex has been reported. Some recent studies showed a correlation between the LHR and abundant GATA-4 expression in both metastasizing and non-metastasizing human adrenocortical ...
Haase Matthias - - 2007
CITED2 gene deletion in mice leads to adrenal agenesis. Therefore, we analyzed CITED2, a CBP/p300 interacting transactivator with transforming activity, in the human adrenal gland. In this study, we examined CITED2 expression in human embryonic and adult adrenal glands as well as adrenocortical carcinomas. As ACTH and basic fibroblast growth ...
Nemoto Takahiro - - 2007
We previously demonstrated that urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells of rat pituitary. However, the regulatory mechanism of pituitary synthesis and secretion of Ucn 2 remained to be clarified. We hypothesized that hypothalamic hormones and glucocorticoids may control the expression and secretion of pituitary Ucn ...
Kim Jung Eun - - 2007
Psychological stress is known to aggravate inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and contact sensitivity by altering the cellular constituents of the immune system. The skin appendages function dually as prominent targets and sources of the peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone-proopiomelanocortin (CRH-POMC) axis. In this study, we examined the expression ...
Centeno Maria-Luisa - - 2007
Like women, female cynomolgus monkeys show differential sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. A combined social and metabolic stress (mild diet+moderate exercise+relocation) will rapidly induce anovulation in a third of female cynomolgus monkeys (stress-sensitive; SS); a third will ovulate once and then become anovulatory (medium stress-resilient; MSR) and a third are ...
Crowley W R - - 2007
The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its co-messenger, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in arcuate neurons of the hypothalamus is increased during lactation in rats. Our research has been addressing the questions of the physiological actions of these peptides during lactation and the physiological signals associated with lactation that result in ...
McCrohan Catherine R - - 2007
The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is unique to fish and has suggested homeostatic roles in osmoregulation and reproduction. Magnocellular neuroendocrine Dahlgren cells, located in the terminal segments of the spinal cord, project to a neurohaemal organ, the urophysis, from which neuropeptides are released. In the euryhaline flounder Platichthys flesus Dahlgren ...
Sitte Nicolle - - 2007
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived beta-endorphin1-31 (END) released from immune cells inhibits inflammatory pain. We examined the expression of END and POMC mRNA encoding the signal sequence required for entry of the nascent polypeptide into the regulated secretory pathway in lymphocytes of rats with inflamed hindpaws. Within 12 h of inflammation, END increased ...
Nishii Hisae - - 2007
Cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced cystitis is often used as an animal model of visceral pain. Various neuropeptides in the hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei are implicated in pain-induced responses. However, little information is available regarding the regulation of the neuropeptides in response to visceral pain. In the present study, we examined the effects ...
Parviainen Helka - - 2007
Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles. GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal. In vitro, GATA-4 regulates ...
Shigematsu Kazuto - - 2007
Ectopic or accessory adrenal tissues are usually found in the upper abdomen or along the path of descent of the gonads. The occurrence of supradiaphragmatic adrenal tissue is extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic adrenal tissue composed of both cortical and medullary cells in a 99-year-old woman. The ...
Wachira S J - - 2007
Melanocortin receptors have been implicated in the confounding factors of cardiovascular diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and salt-sensitive hypertension. The aim of this study was determine how increased dietary salt intake affects the expression profiles of melanocortin system genes in relevant endocrine tissues. Total RNA was isolated from the ...
Nakamura Nozomu H - - 2007
Since the first finding that 17beta-estradiol (E) can regulate CA1 pyramidal cell synapse formation, subsequent studies have explored many potential E-dependent mechanisms occurring within CA1 pyramidal cells. Fewer studies have focused on E-dependent processes outside of the pyramidal cell that may influence events activity of the pyramidal cells. This review ...
Slominski Andrzej A Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee, HSC, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. - - 2007
Human skin expresses elements of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), the CRH receptor-1 (CRH-R1), key enzymes of corticosteroid synthesis and synthesizes glucocorticoids. Expression of these elements is organized in functional, cell type-specific regulatory loops, which imitate the signaling hierarchy of the HPA axis. In ...
Kehoe Amy S - - 2007
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) are two neuropeptides involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. NPY stimulates feeding whereas CART inhibits feeding. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA and complete genomic DNA sequences for NPY and CART in ...
Bi Sheng - - 2007
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) is primarily expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Although Arc NPY gene expression is responsive to circulating leptin, the regulation of DMH NPY expression is leptin-independent. DMH NPY expression is increased in response to chronic food restriction, but not acute food ...
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