Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1742
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Kidane Adhanet H - - 2008
In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors PAC1-R, VPAC1-R, and VPAC2-R play a role in various physiological processes, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression. We have previously found that PACAP stimulates POMC gene expression, POMC biosynthesis, and alpha-MSH secretion in the melanotrope cell ...
Wang J T - - 2008
In this study, seventy 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 10 groups to investigate the effect of cold stress on the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in hypothalami. The chicks were maintained at 30 +/- 2 degrees C temperature and given ...
Liu Ning-Ai NA Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90048, - - 2008
The anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) comprises anterior and intermediate lobes (the pars distalis and pars intermedia) arising from placodal ectoderm at the anterior neural ridge. Signaling molecules including SHH, FGF, WNT, BMP and Notch are involved in regulating primordial pituitary proliferation and lineage determination. However, morphogenic events and molecular mechanisms ...
Huang Qian - - 2008
The gender difference in behavioral and hormonal response to stress is well known, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) are two major regulatory peptides in the brain involved in stress regulation. Their response to stress has been shown to be modulated by sex hormones. ...
Lavoie Pierre-Luc - - 2008
Cell-specific expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene depends on the combinatorial action of a large number of DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). These include general and cell-restricted factors, as well as factors that act as effectors of signaling pathways. We have previously defined in the distal POMC promoter a composite ...
Zhou Zhifeng Z Laboratory of Neurogenetics, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2008
Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic and its release is induced by stress. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic ...
Su Yixin Y Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences,Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA. - - 2008
Preparing the mammalian fetus for birth requires an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoid levels. The mechanisms facilitating this increase are not fully known. It has been shown in sheep that the prepartum elevation in fetal plasma cortisol is accompanied by increases in adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) expression in the fetal adrenal ...
Ebling F J P FJ School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK. - - 2008
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is not only essential for the regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, but also exerts complementary effects on energy metabolism within the brain. We hypothesised that increased activity of the TRH secretory system may contribute to seasonal adaptations in the Siberian hamster whereby food intake is decreased in ...
Yang Kaiping - - 2008
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in neural tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems and has a number of important functions besides regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a novel site of NPY biosynthesis and a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells. We ...
Serova L I - - 2008
Classically, upon hypothalamic stimulation, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released from the pituitary and acts on melanocortin 2 receptors (MC2R) in the adrenal cortex, stimulating glucocorticoid synthesis and release. Our earlier studies suggested that ACTH might have a direct effect on sympathetic ganglia. To analyze further the involvement of ACTH in ...
Bernier Nicholas J - - 2008
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)- and urotensin I (UI)-expressing cells of the preoptic area (POA) and caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) are considered key contributors to the regulation of the stress response in fish; however, the expression pattern of these neurons to environmental and social challenges have not been compared in a single ...
Reiprich Simone - - 2008
Sry-box (Sox)8, Sox9, and Sox10 are all strongly expressed in the neural crest. Here, we studied the influence of these closely related transcription factors on the developing adrenal medulla as one prominent neural crest derivative. Whereas Sox9 was not expressed, both Sox8 and Sox10 occurred widely in neural crest cells ...
Ueberberg B - - 2008
Ghrelin is a newly characterized, widely distributed peptide thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite. Significant effects on the release of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH have been demonstrated. This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. ...
Palermo F A - - 2008
Endogenous cannabinoids, through the CB1 receptor, are involved in the control of several functions including stress responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cannabinoid receptor CB1 in the sole ovary by partial cloning of brain CB1 cDNA; in a stress paradigm of disturbance by handling, ...
Tóth Zsuzsanna E - - 2008
In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic repeated restraint (RR) on prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) expression. In the brainstem, where PrRP colocalize with norepinephrine in neurons of the A1 and A2 catecholaminergic cell groups, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has also been examined. In the brainstem, but not ...
Ye Ping P MRC Blood Pressure Group, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, - - 2008
Using a highly sensitive quantitative RT-PCR method for the measurement of CYP11B1 (11beta-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) mRNAs, we previously demonstrated that CYP11B2 expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is subject to regulation by dietary sodium. We have now quantified the expression of these genes in the CNS of ...
Paulsen Sarah Juel - - 2008
In a search for novel genes involved in the hypothalamic control of body energy homeostasis bioinformatic tools were applied. Analysis of the presence of structural features characteristic for secretory peptides was used as a first step in the identification of novel neuropeptides, and was followed by analysis of expression patterns. ...
Yao Meng - - 2008
Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert feedback regulation on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in mammals. The nature of GC actions is cell-type specific, being either inhibitory (e.g. paraventricular nucleus) or stimulatory (e.g. amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Nothing is known about differential regulation of CRF gene expression by GCs in ...
Alderman S L - - 2008
The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in the co-ordination of the physiological response to stress in vertebrates. Although the binding protein (BP) for CRF-related peptides, CRF-BP, is an important player in the many functions of the CRF system, the distribution of CRF-BP and the impact of stressors ...
Sucajtys-Szulc Elzbieta - - 2008
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found in neurons of the brain and in the neurons that innervate abdominal organs including liver. Major biological function of hypothalamic NPY is regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis. In the periphery, biological function of NPY varies, depending on the organ/tissue. Increased hypothalamic NPY mRNA ...
Belgorosky Alicia - - 2008
Adrenarche is the direct consequence of the organogenesis of the zona reticularis (ZR). Proliferation of cortical cells could take place in the outermost layers of the adrenal cortex. Cells could then migrate to differentiate the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) during fetal life, and the ZR during postnatal ...
Wildner Hendrik - - 2008
Insm1 (IA-1) encodes a Zn-finger factor that is expressed in the developing nervous system. We demonstrate here that the development of the sympatho-adrenal lineage is severely impaired in Insm1 mutant mice. Differentiation of sympatho-adrenal precursors, as assessed by the expression of neuronal subtype-specific genes such as Th and Dbh, is ...
Nilaweera Kanishka N - - 2008
In a previous study performed in mouse models of energetic challenge, there was evidence to suggest that the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPCR101 may have a role in the regulation of energy balance. To further investigate this possibility, we utilised in situ hybridisation to determine the effect of energetic challenges ...
Tateno Toru - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Differential expression of several genes between ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors causing Cushing' disease (CD), silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFT) was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used tissue specimens from 35 pituitary tumors (12 CD, 8 SCA, and 15 NFT). Steady-state mRNA levels of the genes related ...
Ghayee Hans K - - 2007
The biosynthesis of steroid hormones requires the coordinated expression of the enzymes that comprise the pathways via which specific hormones are synthesized. These pathways and their associated enzymes are typically subject to regulation consisting of trophic hormone stimuli and feedback mechanisms. Very few tissues contribute substantially to de novo steroidogenesis, ...
Staszkiewicz J - - 2007
The objective of the study was to examine the expression of the genes coding for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) in porcine luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 3-6, 8-10 and 13-16 of the oestrous cycle. Total RNA was purified from non-incubated cells and ...
Rebuffat Piera - - 2007
Previous studies showed that adrenomedullin (AM) gene expression was up-regulated in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex after enucleation and contra-lateral adrenalectomy, the effect being significant at day 1 after surgery and peaking between days 3 and 7. Using the same experimental model, we investigated by real time-polymerase chain reaction the ...
Chandrasekar Gayathri - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the physiological regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis mediating endocrine, behavioral, autonomic, and immune responses to stress. Despite the wealth of knowledge about the physiological roles of CRH, the genetic mechanisms by which CRH neurons arise during development are poorly understood. As a ...
Ogura Eriko - - 2008
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to stress and stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the corticotrophs. Estrogens acting centrally are able to modulate the stress responses. In fact, direct estrogenic regulation of CRF gene expression has been demonstrated in various tissues. ...
Leriche Mariana - - 2007
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a large proteic precursor which originates several biologically actives neuropeptides, such as beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH), beta-endorphin (beta-END), adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the main POMC producing cell group in brain and innervates several areas of the limbic system and ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the two major regulatory peptides in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. CRF, produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to stress, is secreted into the pituitary portal circulation, resulting in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary. AVP is synthesized ...
Chen Gui-Qian - - 2007
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important orexigenic agents in central regulation of feeding behavior, body weight and energy homeostasis in domestic chickens. To examine differences in the hypothalamic NPY between layer-type and meat-type of chickens, which are two divergent kinds of the domestic chickens in feeding behavior ...
Bosutti Alessandra - - 2007
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is characterized by persistent systemic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis that the balance between synthetic capacity of pro-inflammatory, as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-10, may become progressively impaired during decline of renal function. Cytokine mRNA transcript levels (fraction ...
Tateno Toru - - 2007
Silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) is defined as an ACTH-producing pituitary tumor not associated with clinical and endocrine feartures of Cushing's syndrome, but its underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown thus far. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 responsible for proteolytic processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in ...
Ye Ping - - 2007
The source of aldosterone in 30-40% of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). The mechanisms causing elevated aldosterone production in APA are unknown. Herein, we examined the expression of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in APA and demonstrated that when compared with normal adrenals, there is a general ...
Maolood Nasren - - 2007
Noradrenalin (NA) regulates the expression of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) by magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothamalus. Nitric oxide (NO) may be one of the factors involved in the NA signaling pathway regulating AVP and OT expression. To test this possibility, we used an ex ...
Rebuffat Piera - - 2007
Adrenomedullin (AM) is an endogenous regulatory peptide that exerts growth-promoting action in several normal and neoplastic tissues, and we investigated whether its gene expression changes during rat adrenal regeneration after enucleation and contra-lateral adrenalectomy. Regenerating adrenals were collected at day 0 (just after enucleation; control rats), 1, 3, 7, 14 ...
Wu Xiang - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and connexin 43 (Cx43) play crucial roles in uterine contraction and the onset of labor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effects of CRH on Cx43 expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and, potentially, its activation of the c-Fos/activator protein ...
Kawagoe Rinko - - 2008
We examined the developmental change of GALP mRNA in male and female rat hypothalamus during postnatal day 1 to 60, using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the hypothalamus were also examined because they are important in the regulation of food intake. GALP mRNA ...
Egecioglu Emil - - 2008
We investigated whether ghrelin depletion (by gastrectomy surgery) and/or treatment/replacement with the gastric hormone ghrelin alters the expression of key hypothalamic genes involved in energy balance, in a manner consistent with ghrelin's pro-obesity effects. At 2 weeks after surgery mice were treated with ghrelin (12 nmol/mouse/day, sc) or vehicle for ...
Drouin J - - 2007
The pituitary gland orchestrates our endocrine environment: it produces hormones in response to hypothalamic factors that integrate neural inputs and its activity is balanced by the feedback action of peripheral hormones. Disruption of this equilibrium has severe consequences that affect multiple systems and may be fatal. Genetic analysis of pituitary ...
Rehman Khurram S - - 2007
As gestation progresses, human fetal adrenals (HFA) initiate the production of cortisol, which increases placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) biosynthesis. While adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is important for the onset of cortisol production, the late gestational surge in cortisol production occurs despite falling ACTH levels in the fetal circulation. The authors determine ...
Seki Mayumi - - 2008
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous ligand for GPR7, a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. NPW plays an important role in the regulation of both feeding and energy metabolism, and is also implicated in modulating responses to an acute inflammatory pain through activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. GPR7 mRNA ...
Schmidt Mathias V - - 2007
The function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during ontogeny differs markedly from the situation in adult animals. Postnatally mice undergo a so-called stress hypo-responsive period, which is characterized by a relative inability of mild stressors to induce a marked corticosterone response. Steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) have been shown ...
Hsieh Yih-Shou - - 2007
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite-controlling neuromodulator that contributes to the appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA). Aims of this study were to investigate whether protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is involved in regulating NPY gene expression and PPA-induced anorexia. Rats were given daily with PPA for 5 days. Changes in ...
da Silveira Lenise Trito Garcia - - 2007
1. This study presents a time course analysis of the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of c-fos, vasopressin (VP), and oxytocin (OT) in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), following acute and chronic dehydration by water deprivation. 2. Male Wistar rats were separated into five groups: nondehydrated (control group) and ...
Seo Y-J - - 2008
We examined proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and beta-endorphin expression in the hypothalamus of mice after various nociceptive stimuli. The time-course study (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 10 h) showed that the POMC mRNA level significantly increases from 1 h after s.c. formalin injection and returns to the ...
Chen Jia-Xu - - 2008
The effect of chronic immobilization stress (CIS) on the biochemical parameters has been one of the hot topics in neuroscience. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CIS on the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in brains of ...
Gozen Oguz - - 2007
Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are suggested to play a role in several physiological processes including feeding, reward, neuroendocrine modulation, and the stress response. Although some studies implicate the modulation of CART peptide expression by glucocorticoids, direct evidence relating CART to the stress response is limited. The present study ...
Mravec Boris - - 2007
The hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) represents an important coordinate center for regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine systems, especially during stress response. The present study was focused on the gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and the protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in DMN, both in control and stressed rats. Moreover, pathways ...
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