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Results 301 - 350 of 1740
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Braun Yvonne - - 2009
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae PG4180 synthesizes high levels of the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) at the virulence-promoting temperature of 18 °C, but negligible amounts at 28 °C. Temperature-dependent COR gene expression is regulated by a modified two-component system, consisting of a response regulator, CorR, the histidine protein kinase CorS, ...
Kinsey-Jones J S - - 2009
Identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of stress-induced suppression of reproduction. We examined the effects of: (i) three different ...
Kurrasch Deborah M - - 2009
Regulated secretion of specialized neuropeptides in the vertebrate neuroendocrine system is critical for ensuring physiological homeostasis. Expression of these cell-specific peptide markers in the differentiating hypothalamus commences prior to birth, often predating the physiological demand for secreted neuropeptides. The conserved function and spatial expression of hypothalamic peptides in vertebrates prompted ...
Soltani Y - - 2009
Adrenocortical cells of several species have been reported to express significant levels of Agouti-related protein (Agrp) as well as melanocortin 4-receptor (MC4-R). In this study, we used the mouse tumoral adrenal cell line ATC7- L that secretes corticosterone in basal conditions with a 2- fold increase in response to ACTH ...
Mitchell Gregory C - - 2008
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the neuropeptide Y gene has been associated with elevated serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease. The polymorphism (T1128C) changes the seventh amino acid in the prohormone from leucine to proline. It has been speculated this alters neuropeptide Y (NPY) synthesis, trafficking, or secretion. We ...
Alsop Derek - - 2009
The functions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis in teleosts have been studied primarily in juvenile and adult fish, whereas little is known about the molecular events leading to the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response during development. Here we summarize a number of studies that have examined changes in the ...
Ganceviciene R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The sebaceous gland exhibits an independent peripheral endocrine function and expresses receptors for neuropeptides. Previous reports have confirmed the presence of a complete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system in human sebocytes in vitro. The capability of hypothalamic CRH to induce lipid synthesis, induce steroidogenesis and interact with testosterone and growth ...
Gavrilovic Ljubica - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychsocial stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in gene expression and protein levels of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the adrenal medulla of naive ...
Justice Nicholas J - - 2008
In addition to its established role in initiating the endocrine arm of the stress response, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) can act in the brain to modulate neural pathways that effect coordinated physiological and behavioral adjustments to stress. Although CRF is expressed in a set of interconnected limbic and autonomic cell groups ...
Klenerova Vera - - 2008
The stress response in anterior pituitary (AP) is mediated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acting through CRH-R1 and -R2, however, the function of CRH-R2 in AP is still not fully elucidated. We used 1-h long restraint (IMO) as well as restraint combined with water immersion (IMO+C). Using real-time PCR we quantified ...
Tank A William - - 2008
It is well established that long-term stress leads to induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and TH protein in adrenal medulla and brain. This induction is usually associated with stimulation of the TH gene transcription rate. However, a number of studies have reported major discrepancies between the stress-induced changes in ...
Wong Dona L - - 2008
Stress effects on adrenergic responses in rats were examined in adrenal medulla, the primary source of circulating epinephrine (Epi). Irrespective of duration, immobilization (IMMO) increased adrenal corticosterone to the same extent. In contrast, Epi changed little, suggesting that Epi synthesis replenishes adrenal pools and sustains circulating levels for the heightened ...
Liu Xiaoping - - 2008
Stress triggers changes in gene expression mediating important adaptive and maladaptive responses. The full repertoire of genes whose expression in the adrenal medulla is altered by stress has not been previously determined. In this study, gene profiling (RAE 230 2.0 Affymetrix) was applied to elucidate global changes in gene expression ...
Matsumoto Shunichi - - 2009
The liver X receptors (LXR-alpha and -beta) are nuclear oxysterol receptors that play pivotal roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism. Recently, several groups have reported that the LXRs also regulate adrenal steroidogenesis. However, the roles of LXRs in the hypothalami-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially whether ...
Xing Yewei - - 2009
Recent studies have shown that the adrenal cortex expresses high levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), but its function remains unknown. Herein, using microarray technology, we tried to identify candidate FXR targeting genes in the adrenal glands, and showed that FXR regulated 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) expression in human ...
Inada Yuri - - 2009
Based on the reported anti-inflammatory and anti-stress responses by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling, endogenous CRF receptor agonists, CRF, urocortin (UCN) I and its related peptides, may play protective roles against cardiovascular stresses via the CRF receptor signaling. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the involvement of CRF ...
Nicol Moira R - - 2009
Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy and feminizing symptoms secondary to adrenal estrogen-secretion are extremely rare. The direct secretion of estradiol by adrenocortical tumors requires, in addition to the expression of aromatase (CYP19), the expression of one or more of the reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The expression of CYP19 transcripts and ...
Takahashi Shirushi - - 2008
Various stresses can be followed by sudden unexpected deaths, and autopsies sometimes fail to identify pathological findings that determine the cause of death. Pathologists occasionally explain such deaths as being due to overstimulation of sympathoadrenal systems, but postmortem assessment of antemortem sympathoadrenal activity has not been established. An animal model ...
Kirat Doaa - - 2009
This study provides novel information regarding the existence and precise cellular localization of various monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in the mammalian adrenal gland. RT-PCR results revealed that 10 MCT isoforms, namely MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT5, MCT8, MCT9, MCT10, MCT13, and MCT14 are expressed in the bovine adrenal gland. MCTs (MCT1-MCT8) ...
Geven Edwin J W - - 2009
In teleostean fishes the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) regulate the release of thyroid hormones (THs) and cortisol respectively. Since many actions of both hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, communication between both signal pathways can be anticipated. In this study, we ...
Iwasaki-Sekino Azusa - - 2009
Anorexia nervosa is mostly seen in adolescent females, although the gender-differentiation mechanism is unclear. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a key peptide for stress responses such as inhibition of food intake, increases in arousal and locomotor activity, and gonadal dysfunction, is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. CRF ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2009
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a major regulatory peptide in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under stress conditions. In response to stress, CRF, produced in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary (AP). ACTH in turn stimulates the release of glucocorticoid from the adrenal glands. Glucocorticoid then ...
Teshima Takahiro - - 2009
Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to negative feedback by glucocorticoids. In this study, we examined gene expression related to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and secretion, and the negative feedback by ...
Westphal Nicole J - - 2009
The CRH family of ligands signals via two distinct receptors, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. Previous studies localized CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 to a subset of anterior pituitary corticotropes and gonadotropes, respectively. However, numerous studies have indicated that stress and CRH activity can alter the secretion of multiple anterior pituitary hormones, suggesting a ...
Rasri K - - 2008
The sexually dimorphic vasopressin system of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is the most sensitive neurotransmitter system regulated by sex steroids in rats and mice. In addition to vasopressin, the BNST neurons also express a second neuropeptide, galanin, whose expression also appears to be regulated by testosterone ...
Zhao Yangu - - 2008
Here we analyze the role of the Lhx6 lim-homeobox transcription factor in regulating the development of subsets of neocortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons. An Lhx6 loss-of-function allele, which expresses placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), allowed analysis of the development and fate of Lhx6-expressing interneurons in mice lacking this homeobox transcription factor. ...
Al-Noori Salwa - - 2008
A limiting factor to the clinical management of diabetes is iatrogenic hypoglycemia. With multiple hypoglycemic episodes, the collective neuroendocrine response that restores euglycemia is impaired. In our animal model of recurrent hypoglycemia (RH), neuroendocrine deficits are accompanied by a decrease in medial hypothalamic activation. Here we tested the hypothesis that ...
Labeur Marta - - 2008
Interferon-gamma (IFNG) is a cytokine that exerts potent antiproliferative and tumoricidal effects in a variety of cancers. Moreover, IFNG modulates normal pituitary hormone secretion, and was shown to inhibit the expression of the ACTH precursor POMC in murine ACTH-secreting AtT-2010/21/2008 tumor cells. We have studied the functional role of IFNG ...
Keen-Rhinehart E - - 2009
An increase in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a putative factor in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. As CRF expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is important in adaptation to chronic stress, we hypothesized that unrestrained synthesis of CRF in CeA would mimic the consequences of chronic stress ...
Castino R - - 2008
Mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP)-neurophysin II (NP-II) gene that affect the folding and transport of the prohormone result in loss of secretion of the anti-diuretic hormone AVP from pituitary nerve terminals and cause autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI). One such mutation consists of the replacement of a ...
Morimoto Ryo - - 2008
Expression of peptide YY (PYY) in the human brain and pituitary tissues was studied by radioimmunoassay, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The polyclonal antibody raised against human PYY(1-36) in a rabbit was used in the assay, which showed 100% cross-reactivity with PYY(3-36) and no significant cross-reactivity with other ...
Wang Hui-Ling - - 2008
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and related peptides play a role in mediating neuronal effects of stress. These peptides mediate stress responses by their interactions with the CRF receptors and the CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP). Because the CRF-BP is implicated in neurotransmission within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we investigated whether the CRF-BP ...
Bali B - - 2008
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the parvocellular neurosecretory neurones of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus governs neuroendocrine stress cascade and is the major target of the negative feedback effect of corticosteroids. To assess whether glucocorticoids exert their inhibitory effect on CRH expression directly on parvocellular neurones or indirectly through a complex neuronal circuit, ...
Polkowska Jolanta - - 2008
It is assumed that hypothalamic somatostatin plays a role in the preovulatory phase of the oestrous cycle in sheep. The aim of the study was to investigate the processes of synthesis, storage and release of somatostatin in hypothalamic neurons, in immature female lambs, in the period approaching to puberty. Experiments ...
LaBerge Jennifer - - 2008
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide expressed in micturition reflex circuitry and different roles in these reflexes have been suggested. These studies examined the expression of CRF/CRF receptors in the urinary bladder during postnatal development in the rat. Urinary bladder was harvested from rats (postnatal (P) day 0-adult) euthanized ...
Rood B D - - 2008
Perinatal estrogens increase the number of vasopressin-expressing cells and the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive fibers observed in adult male rodents. The mechanism of action of estrogens on sexual differentiation of the extra-hypothalamic vasopressin system is unknown. We hypothesized that the sexually dimorphic expression of progestin receptors (PRs) during development would masculinize ...
Xu Cheng - - 2008
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) contain neuroendocrine cells that modulate pituitary secretion to maintain homeostasis. These two nuclei have a common developmental origin but they eventually form at locations distant from each other. Little is known about the molecular cues that direct the segregation of PVN ...
Girard Beatrice M - - 2008
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) peptides are expressed in micturition pathways, and PACAP expression is regulated by urinary bladder inflammation. Previous physiological studies have demonstrated roles for PACAP27 and PACAP38 in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contraction and a PAC1 receptor antagonist reduced cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced bladder hyperreflexia. To gain insight into ...
Kuulasmaa T - - 2008
The members of the Wnt glycoprotein family are important in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis, and deletion of WNT-4 gene in mice leads to improper development of many organs including the adrenals. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of WNT-4 gene in human adrenals and adrenocortical ...
Aluru Neelakanteswar - - 2008
ACTH, the primary secretagogue for corticosteroid biosynthesis, binds to melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and activates the signaling cascade leading to steroid biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex. Whereas MC2R regulation has been studied using mammalian models, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in ACTH signaling in nonmammalian vertebrates. A ...
Shigematsu Kazuto - - 2008
DESIGN AND METHODS: We have recently demonstrated that the adrenal cortices attached to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) contained microscopic subcapsular micronodules suggestive of active aldosterone production. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortices attached to cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) ...
Reyes B A S - - 2008
The interaction between the stress axis and endogenous opioid systems has gained substantial attention, because it is increasingly recognized that stress alters individual sensitivity to opiates. One site at which opiates and stress substrates may interact to have global effects on behavior is within the locus coeruleus (LC). We have ...
Erhardt A - - 2009
Accumulating evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurocircuitry modulate the neuroendocrine and behavioural phenotypes in depression and anxiety. Thus, the administration of the selective CRH-receptor 1 (CRHR1)-antagonist R121919/NBI 30775 has proven its ability to act as an anxiolytic in rats. It is still unclear whether vasopressinergic neuronal circuits, which are ...
Kim Ki Woo - - 2008
The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays essential roles in the development and function of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). Considerable evidence links the VMH and SF-1 with the regulation of energy homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that SF-1 colocalizes in VMH neurons with the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and ...
Seo Sanghee - - 2008
Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits food intake and induces c-fos expression in the hypothalamus. However, the effects of GLP-1 on hypothalamic neuronal activity or neuropeptide mRNA expression are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of GLP-1 on fasting-induced changes in the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic ...
Li Yanhua - - 2008
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is an endogenous peptide which is widely expressed in the CNS and PNS as well as in endocrine cells. Despite the functional knowledge about CART, the mechanisms that regulate CART gene transcription are poorly characterized. Here, we showed that neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) functions ...
Lee Kyun-Woo - - 2008
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a critical role in stress-response regulation in vertebrates. The activity of CRH depends on CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). CRH-BP is considered to play a chaperoning role in stress. Limited information mainly from the insects is available on the molecular structure and functions of invertebrate CRH and ...
Menon Ramkumar - - 2008
The objective of this study is to document differences in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), and CRH binding protein (CRHBP) gene expression in fetal membranes derived from African Americans and Caucasians in vitro in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and to assess racial disparity in CRH concentrations in ...
Kidane Adhanet H - - 2008
In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors PAC1-R, VPAC1-R, and VPAC2-R play a role in various physiological processes, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression. We have previously found that PACAP stimulates POMC gene expression, POMC biosynthesis, and alpha-MSH secretion in the melanotrope cell ...
Wang J T - - 2008
In this study, seventy 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 10 groups to investigate the effect of cold stress on the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in hypothalami. The chicks were maintained at 30 +/- 2 degrees C temperature and given ...
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