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Results 251 - 300 of 1740
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Liu Ying - - 2009
Elevations of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), the repressor isoform of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), are associated with protein binding to the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) promoter and termination of CRH transcriptional responses to stress. To determine whether endogenous ICER production represses CRH transcription, we examined the effect of ...
Yuan P-Q - - 2010
Little is known about CRF expression and regulation in the rat colon compared to the brain. We investigated CRF gene expression, cellular location, and regulation by endotoxin and corticosterone in the male rat colon at 6h after intraperitoneal (ip) injection. CRF mRNA level, detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...
Bibeau Karine - - 2010
By feeding a low-sodium diet to dams over the last third of gestation, we have developed an animal model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Given that fetal adrenal development and maturation occur during late gestation in rats, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proteins and ...
Stroth N - - 2010
Stress responses are elicited by a variety of stimuli and are aimed at counteracting direct or perceived threats to the well-being of an organism. In the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, specific cell groups constitute signaling circuits that indicate the presence of a stressor and elaborate an adequate response. ...
Tena-Sempere M - - 2010
Kisspeptins, the products of Kiss1 gene acting via G protein-coupled receptor 54 (also termed Kiss1R), have recently emerged as essential gatekeepers of puberty onset and fertility. Compelling evidence has now documented that expression and function of hypothalamic Kiss1 system is sensitive not only to the activational effects but also to ...
Cheng Shu-Yuan - - 2009
While both the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system are important in mediating the catecholaminergic response to stress, there are crucial differences in the mechanism. Stress elevates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA levels in both the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. In the adrenal medulla, transcription of the TH ...
Nogueira Edson F - - 2010
Aldosterone production in the adrenal glomerulosa is mainly regulated by angiotensin II and K+. Adrenal glomerulosa cells are uniquely sensitive to extracellular K+. Genetic deletion of subunits of K+-selective leak-channels (KCNK), TASK1 and/or TASK3, in mice generates animals with hyperaldosteronism and histological changes in the adrenal cortex. Herein, we studied ...
Li Ping - - 2009
Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA ...
Otsuki Koji - - 2010
There is growing evidence that aberrant transcriptional regulation is one of the key components of the pathophysiology of mood disorders. The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a negative regulator of genes that contain the repressor element-1 (RE-1) binding site. REST has many target genes, including corticotropin releasing hormone ...
Shimizu Hiroshi - - 2010
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the regulation of physiological functions such as cell growth and proliferation, and glucocorticoids reportedly inhibit mTOR signaling in peripheral tissues. Recent studies suggest that the mTOR signaling in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this ...
Morris Harvey M HM Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2009
Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of ...
Wenzel Jan - - 2009
Hypocretins/orexins act through two receptor subtypes: OX(1) and OX(2). Outside the brain, orexin receptors are expressed in adrenal glands, where orexins stimulate the release of glucocorticoids. To further address the regulation of steroidogenesis, we analyzed the effect of orexins on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in human adrenocortical National Cancer ...
Shigematsu Kazuto - - 2009
DESIGN AND METHODS: The adrenal cortex is not considered to be an intrinsic part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, but adrenocortical neoplasms possess neuroendocrine properties. In this study, we examined synaptophysin (SYP) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in adrenocortical adenomas in relation to adrenal function. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis ...
Ching Saunders - - 2009
Development of the mammalian adrenal gland is regulated by a diverse network of growth and transcription factors. Disruptions in these pathways often result in adrenal insufficiency because of adrenal hypoplasia. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the Hedgehog signaling pathway, which controls many aspects of tissue and organ patterning, ...
Pace Thaddeus W W - - 2009
Although previous studies have examined the extent to which adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion depends on endogenous glucocorticoid levels, few have examined the parallel glucocorticoid dependency of gene expression within the corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neuron containing subregion of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This study examined resting and stress-induced expression ...
Brown Russell E - - 2009
Intraventricular resistin is known to reduce food intake, modify hypothalamic gene expression (e.g. NPY, POMC) and influence the activity of novel metabolic enzymes (e.g. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase; AMPK) in the rodent brain. Previously we demonstrated that the hypothalamus, and the N-1 hypothalamic neuronal cell line, also expressed several adipokines, including ...
Zubair Mohamad - - 2009
Deficiency of adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1; NR5A1) impairs adrenal development in a dose-dependent manner, whereas overexpression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Despite its essential roles in adrenal development, the mechanism(s) by which Ad4BP/SF-1 regulates this process remain incompletely understood. We previously identified a fetal adrenal ...
Das G - - 2009
FosB is a member of the Fos family transcription factors. To determine whether FosB expression is regulated by glucocorticoids (GCs) in the hypothalamus, rats underwent sham adrenalectomy (sham-ADX) or bilateral ADX, and FosB/DeltaFosB (DeltaFosB, a truncated splice variant of FosB)-immunoreactivity (ir) was determined in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic ...
Banerjee Avantika - - 2010
Relaxin-3 (RLX3), a newly identified member of the relaxin peptide family, is distinguished by its enriched expression in GABA projection neurons of the pontine nucleus incertus (NI), which are postulated to participate in forebrain neural circuits involved in behavioural activation and stress responses. In this regard, corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 receptor (CRF(1)) ...
Zhou Chunlei - - 2009
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by epidermal keratinocytic hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation. It is one of the most illustrative examples of the close relation between exacerbation of disease and the psychopathologic burden of the patients. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In recent years, evidence has suggested that ...
Alsi? Johan - - 2009
Elite athletes, body builders and adolescents misuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in order to increase muscle mass or to enhance physical endurance and braveness. The high doses misused are associated with numerous adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic supratherapeutic AAS treatment on circulating ...
Nguyen Phong - - 2009
The catecholamine epinephrine is physiologically important in cardiac function and blood pressure regulation. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is the terminal enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for epinephrine biosynthesis, and is primarily localized in the adrenal gland. In hypertensive rats, adrenal PNMT mRNA, protein and enzyme activity are elevated along ...
Suzuki Hitoshi - - 2010
The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system is known to be involved in the regulation of body fluid balance, reproduction and stress response. Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60-amino acid peptide, which has been isolated and cloned from porcine hypothalamus. GALP is abundantly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) neurons of the hypothalamus and ...
Forbes Sarah - - 2009
The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as ...
Kawabata Kyuichi - - 2010
The flavonoid quercetin is considered to have beneficial effects on human health. We recently have shown that quercetin-enriched foods reduced the duration of immobility time in a rat forced swimming test, indicating that dietary quercetin is promising as an antidepressant-like factor, whereas its mechanism of action is poorly understood. The ...
Greetfeld M - - 2009
The importance of restraining stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system within tolerable limits requires efficient mechanisms for feedback inhibition. Recently, central corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor type 1 (CRHR1) has been shown to mediate HPA system feedback inhibition. To date, most of the data regarding stress-associated expression changes of CRHR1 ...
Pournajafi-Nazarloo Hossein - - 2009
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of social isolation stress on the expression of messengers ribonucleic acid (mRNAs) for corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2 receptor), urocortin 1 (Ucn 1) and urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) in the cardiovascular system of female and male prairie voles ...
Ganceviciene Ruta - - 2009
Central or peripheral stress may induce the development of clinical inflammation in the pilosebaceous unit (PSU) leading to the development or to exacerbation of preexisting acne. The presence of a complete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system has been confirmed in human sebocytes in vitro. CRH is capable to induce lipid synthesis, ...
Kim Kyoung Sun - - 2009
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an essential role in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and is the precursor of biologically active peptides such as adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), beta-melanocyte-stimulation hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin. We have synthesized two different forms of POMC cDNA clones, POMC-I and POMC-II, from a pituitary ...
Lachize Servane - - 2009
Adaptation to stress in vertebrates occurs via activation of hormonal and neuronal signaling cascades in which corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role. Expression of brain CRH is subject to strong, brain-region specific regulation by glucocorticoid hormones and neurogenic intracellular signals. We hypothesized that Steroid Receptor Coactivator 1 (SRC-1), a ...
Wakamatsu Shiho - - 2009
Secretory-type Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is known to play roles in both acid and sodium excretion, and is more abundant in dehydration. To determine the mechanisms by which dehydration stimulates NKCC1 expression, the effects of vasopressin, oxytocin and hyperosmolality on NKCC1 mRNA and protein expressions in the outer medullary collecting duct ...
Pak Toni R - - 2009
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide expressed in several brain regions. In addition to its well-characterized role in osmoregulation, AVP regulates paternal behavior, aggression,circadian rhythms, and the stress response. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), AVP gene expression is tightly regulated by gonadal steroid hormones. However, the ...
Alderman Sarah L - - 2009
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in fish functions to maintain homeostasis during stress in part by regulating cortisol production via the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Towards understanding the role of the CRF system in vertebrate development, we describe the ontogeny of the CRF system, cortisol, and the stress response in the ...
Hotta Kikuko - - 2009
Functional variations in the secretogranin III (SCG3) gene are associated with susceptibility to obesity. SCG3 forms secretory granules with orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and POMC in the hypothalamus. In this study, we screened proteins for SCG3-binding activity and identified secretogranin II (SCG2) using a yeast two-hybrid system. ...
Vicentini Elena - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Converging findings support a role for extra-hypothalamic CRF in the mediation of the stress response. The influence of CRF in the amygdala is well established, while less is known of its role in other areas of the forebrain where CRF and CRF(1) receptors are also expressed. In the present ...
Costa Marcia Helena Soares - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the aberrant expression of the GIPR and LHCGR in different forms of adrenocortical hyperplasia: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH), primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and diffuse adrenal hyperplasia secondary to Cushing's disease (DAHCD). METHODS: We quantified GIPR and LHCGR expressions using real time PCR in 20 ...
Yuan Lixia - - 2009
Layer and broiler chickens demonstrate striking differences in body weight and body composition. However, the mechanism underlying such difference is elusive. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates energy homeostasis and body size in mammals, but information in birds is scarce. Here we test the hypothesis that such breed difference is more associated ...
Nakamura Yasuhiro - - 2009
The human adrenal gland produces small amounts of testosterone that are increased under pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms through which the adrenal gland produces testosterone are poorly defined. Our objective was to define the role of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) in human adrenal production of testosterone. Adrenal vein sampling ...
Kuo Dong-Yih - - 2009
Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant, is an appetite suppressant and may be regarded as a neurotoxin. It was reported that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) participated in AMPH-mediated behavior response. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this action are not well known. Using feeding behavior as an indicator, this study investigated ...
Kaminski Tadeusz - - 2010
Orexin A and B, also termed hypocretin 1 and 2, are associated with the stimulation of food intake and arousal. The biological actions of the hormones are mediated via two distinct G protein-coupled receptors, termed orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). OX1R is selective for orexin A ...
MacDonald Erin - - 2009
cDNAs encoding for neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were cloned in winter flounder, a species that undergoes a period of natural fasting during the winter. Tissue distribution studies show that these peptides are present in several peripheral tissues, including gut and gonads, as ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2009
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in regulating stress responses. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), CRF, produced in response to stress, stimulates the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary. ACTH then stimulates the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands; circulating glucocorticoids are critical for recovery from ...
Rucinski Marcin - - 2009
Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2009
Urocortins (Ucns) are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides. Ucns would have potent effects on the cardiovascular system via the CRF receptor type 2 (CRF(2) receptor) in the cardiovascular system. However, an endogenous role and regulation of each Ucn have not been determined in the system. In ...
Torres-Farfan C - - 2009
Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response ...
MacDonald Erin - - 2009
cDNAs encoding for neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were cloned in an elasmobranch fish, the winter skate. mRNA tissue distribution was examined for the three peptides as well as the effects of two weeks of fasting on their expression. Skate NPY, CART and CCK ...
Pournajafi-Nazarloo Hossein - - 2009
This study compares the effect of an acute stressor (restraint for 1h) versus a chronic stressor (social isolation for 4 weeks) on the expression of mRNAs for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and type 2 (CRH-R2) in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary of socially monogamous female prairie ...
Kuo Dong-Yih - - 2009
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite stimulant in the brain. Although regulation of NPY expression has been reported to contribute to the appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), it is still unknown if protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in this effect. Rats were daily treated with PPA for 4 ...
Carlson Drew E - - 2009
Loss of appetite occurs in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in conjunction with the activation of central neural stress pathways. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is upregulated by several stressors and is stimulatory to feeding. To examine the response of NPY ...
Kos K - - 2009
CONTEXT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inactivates the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide. It can also affect the orexigenic hormone neuropeptide Y (NPY(1-36)) which is truncated by DPP-IV to NPY(3-36), as a consequence NPY's affinity changes from receptor Y1, which mediates the antilipolytic function of NPY, to other NPY receptors. Little is ...
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