Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1741
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Galac S - - 2010
Studies of human adrenocortical tumors (ATs) causing Cushing's syndrome suggest that hypersecretion of cortisol is caused by altered expression of steroidogenic enzymes and that steroidogenesis can only be maintained when there is expression of the ACTH receptor (ACTH-R). Here we report the screening for the mRNA expression of the ACTH-R, ...
Tillinger Andrej - - 2010
Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) mediate transmitter uptake into neurosecretory vesicles. There are two VMAT isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, encoded by separate genes and displaying different cellular distributions and pharmacological properties. We examined the effect of immobilization stress (IMO) on expression of VMATs in the rat adrenal medulla. Under basal conditions, ...
Kim Seok Hyeon - - 2010
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, is expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and its expression is upregulated in stress-related disorders. We investigated here the effect of noxious colorectal distension (CRD) on the expression of CRF in the CeA of conscious and unconscious ...
Borges L E - - 2011
Fallopian tube (FT) and endometrial urocortin 1 (Ucn1) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-receptor (CRH-R1/CRH-R2) expression were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in nonpregnant and pregnant women (intrauterine, IUP; ectopic pregnancy, EP). Tubal Ucn1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was higher in luteal compared to follicular phase (P ...
Fuzzen Meghan L M - - 2011
Sexually dimorphic stress responses are present in species across all vertebrate taxa and it has been suggested that these effects are mediated by circulating sex steroids. While a few species of fish have been identified as having a sexually dimorphic stress response, there is conflicting evidence as to the effects ...
Boulkroun Sheerazed - - 2010
Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension with hypokalemia and suppressed renin-angiotensin system caused by autonomous aldosterone production. Our aim was to compare zona glomerulosa (ZG) structure and function between control adrenals and the peritumoral tissue from patients operated on for aldosterone-producing adenoma. ZG morphology and CYP11B1, ...
Guo Hong-wei - - 2011
Alopecia areata (AA) is a hair follicle-specific autoimmune disease that is inherited genetically but triggered environmentally. Stress response is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of AA. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), known as the stress axis, plays a cardinal role in the stress response. Growing evidence demonstrates ...
Kulkarni Saurabh S - - 2010
Direct developing frogs lack a free-living larval phase, such that miniature adults hatch directly from the eggs. Even under such extreme reorganization of the ancestral biphasic developmental pattern, direct developers still undergo thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent post-embryonic development. Hypothalamic regulation of TH synthesis and release plays a central role in controlling ...
Sharma Dharmendra - - 2011
Regulation of arginine vasotocin (AVT), avian neurohypophyseal hormone, is an important component of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Changes in plasma osmolality levels and sex steroids are known to affect AVT gene expression. The present study reports the effect of water deprivation and testosterone treatment independently, as well as simultaneously, on the ...
Cespedes Isabel C - - 2010
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and act centrally to provoke stress-like autonomic and behavioral responses. Urocortins 1-3 are additional ligands to the CRF receptors 1 and 2. Ucn 1 neurons are primarily concentrated in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus and also have been ...
Sanchez R L RL Division of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR 97006, - - 2010
A significant number of postmenopausal women report increased anxiety and vulnerability to stress, which has been linked to decreased secretion of ovarian steroids. Communication between the serotonin system and the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system determines stress sensitivity or resilience. This study examines the effects of the ovarian steroids, estradiol ...
Hsieh Yih-Shou - - 2011
It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes to the behavioral response of amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant. The present study examined whether protein kinase C (PKC)-λ signaling was involved in this action. Moreover, possible roles of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were also examined. Rats were ...
Williamson Martin - - 2010
Testosterone contributes to sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in humans and rodents, but the central organization of this regulation remains unclear. The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) stands out as an important candidate in this regard because it contains androgen receptors and projects to forebrain nuclei integrating cognitive-affective information and ...
Campos Vinicius F - - 2010
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in vertebrates, mammals and fish. However, the present knowledge about feeding behaviour in fish is still limited and based on studies in a few species. The Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus is being considered for aquaculture, and it ...
Sun Lingli - - 2010
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has been considered a classic adrenocorticotropic hormone and the key pituitary-derived peptide controlling steroidogenesis in the adult adrenal. ACTH is encoded by the propiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, and its active form is mainly synthesized and processed from the POMC-encoded multihormone precursor in the anterior pituitary. The ACTH level has ...
Jang Soo Hwa - - 2010
The hypothalamus plays an important role in maintaining a homeostasis of the body against stress response. In particular, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is a critical region for disorders related to the autonomic nervous system, such as congestive heart failure and hypertension. αB-crystallin is a family of heat shock ...
Karteris Emmanouil - - 2010
Two types of CRH receptors mediate the diverse biological functions of CRH and CRH-related peptides. The type 1 CRH-R (CRH-R1) is extensively targeted by pre-mRNA splicing mechanisms that give rise to multiple mRNA splice variants. RT-PCR amplification of CRH-R1 sequences from human myometrium yielded cDNAs that encode a novel CRH-R1 ...
Bräutigam Lars - - 2010
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family consists of four paralogous genes, CRH and urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3. In a previous study, we analyzed CRH in the teleost model organism zebrafish and its transcript distribution in the embryonic brain. Here, we describe full-length cDNAs encoding urotensin 1 (UTS1), the teleost ...
Kim Yangha - - 2010
Catecholamines are among the first molecules that displayed a kind of response to prolonged or repeated stress. It is well established that long-term stress leads to the induction of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) in adrenal medulla. The aim of the present study ...
Nemoto Takahiro - - 2010
We have previously shown that urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family that binds to CRF type 2 receptor, is expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells of rat pituitary and that its secretion and expression are increased by CRF in both the anterior and intermediate ...
Assie Guillaume - - 2010
CONTEXT: Stimulation of cortisol secretion through abnormally expressed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a frequent feature of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH). This has opened a pharmacological strategy that targets GPCRs for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome in AIMAH. However, only few drugs are available for the presently described GPCRs. ...
Nakakura Takashi - - 2010
The number of corticotrophs increases in the anterior pituitary (AP) gland in adrenalectomized (AdX) rats. In this study, aimed at identifying the growth factor implicated in this proliferation, we analyzed proteins secreted from a cDNA library of the AP of AdX rats, using the signal sequence trap method. A PCR ...
Killough S A - - 2010
To investigate whether dental pulp fibroblasts express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY-Y1 in vitro and to determine the effects of the cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), TGF- β(1) , substance P and NPY on the expression of NPY Y1. Three primary fibroblast cell strains were obtained from freshly extracted human third ...
Kageyama K - - 2010
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in controlling the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stressful periods. CRF neurones are activated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to stress, whereas the activated CRF neurones in the PVN are suppressed by glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids may act directly on CRF neurones because glucocorticoid ...
Silva L E C M - - 2010
Estradiol participates in the control of energy homeostasis, as demonstrated by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain after ovariectomy in rats. In the present study, female Wistar rats (200-230 g, N = 5-15 per group), with free access to chow, were individually housed in metabolic cages. ...
Paschke Lukasz - - 2010
Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and ...
Boyle Belema - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas. EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR ...
Kaminski T - - 2010
Orexin A and B are hypothalamic peptides involved in the control of food intake, sleep patterns, autonomic and neuroendocrine systems. The biological actions of orexins are mediated via two G-protein coupled receptors, termed orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). The present study analyzed mRNA and protein expressions ...
Souvannakitti Dangjai - - 2010
We recently reported that adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) from neonatal rats treated with intermittent hypoxia (IH) exhibit enhanced catecholamine secretion by hypoxia. In the present study we examined whether neonatal IH also facilitate AMC responses to nicotine, a potent stimulus to chromaffin cells. Experiments were performed on rats exposed to ...
Laalaoui Abdelhadi - - 2011
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a 36kDa glycoprotein implicated in homeostatic balance. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry coupled with quantitative autoradiography to determine the anatomical distribution of POMC mRNA-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (AN) and to examine the effects of prolonged dehydration on POMC gene expression in a semi-desert rodent, ...
Weinberg M S MS Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, - - 2010
Recent findings suggest that the expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response adaptation in rats depends on top-down neural control. We therefore examined whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) modulates expression of stress response habituation. We transiently suppressed (muscimol microinfusion) or stimulated (picrotoxin microinfusion) mPFC neural activity in rats and ...
Raverot Gérald - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) are rare pituitary tumours immunoreactive for ACTH, but without clinical evidence of Cushing's disease. We characterized SCAs based on clinical, hormonal and molecular data, and compared the characteristics of these tumours with those of macro (MCA)- and micro (mCA)-ACTH adenomas with Cushing's disease. METHODS: Fifty ...
Hahner S - - 2010
To characterize intraadrenal adaptations for inhibition of cortisol synthesis, we analyzed the effects of etomidate (ETO) on steroid hormone secretion and expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis and proliferation in human NCI-h295 adrenocortical cancer cells. Etomidate potently blocked 11beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), and side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1). This ...
Harada Keita - - 2010
The localization of the type-2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2) in the adrenal glands of rats, guinea pigs, bovines, and humans was examined at the mRNA and protein levels. PCR products for AT2 were detected in the adrenal cortices and adrenal medullae of all the mammals examined with an RT-PCR technique. ...
Briski K P - - 2010
Arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related pepide (AgRP) neurones regulate energy homeostasis, and express the putative glucosensor, glucokinase (GCK). The present study performed multi-transcriptional profiling of these neurones to characterise NPY, AgRP and GCK gene expression during intermediate insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, and to determine whether these transcriptional responses acclimate to repeated insulin dosing. ...
Ruginsk S G - - 2010
The endocannabinoid system includes important signaling molecules that are involved in several homeostatic and neuroendocrine functions. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the type 1 cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, rimonabant (10 mg/kg, p.o.), on hormone secretion, neuronal activation and mRNA expression in the hypothalamus following isotonic (I-) ...
Ferenczi Szilamér - - 2010
Many signals reflecting energy balance and stress are integrated at the hypothalamic orexigenic NPY neurons. To determine transcriptional changes of the NPY gene in response to stress, we followed the time course and compared the expression of heteronuclear (hn)- and messenger (m)RNA levels by in situ hybridization histochemistry and by ...
Du F - - 2010
Infrasound is a kind of environmental noise and threatens the public health as a nonspecific biological stressor. Upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor CRH-R1 in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was reported to be responsible for infrasonic noise-induced stress and injuries. Recent studies revealed ...
Ehrlich Stefan - - 2010
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and its derived peptides, in particular alpha-MSH, have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of hunger, satiety and energy homeostasis. Studies in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest an abnormal expression of appetite-regulating hormones. Hormone expression levels may be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which ...
Takahashi K - - 2010
(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, is a 350 amino acid protein with a single transmembrane domain. In the present study, the expression of (P)RR in the human brain and pituitary, and its co-localisation with arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in the human hypothalamus were studied by ...
Kaprara Athina - - 2010
Malignant tumors express multiple factors that have some role in the regulating networks supporting their ectopic growth. Recently, increased interest has been developing in the expression and biological role of the neuropeptides and receptors of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system, the principal neuroendocrine mediator of the stress response, especially ...
Ding Ying-Xue - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) has been the standard treatment to infantile spasms (IS). However, the mechanism of ACTH therapy is still unclear. ACTH exerts the function via melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). Our previous study showed a common 4-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype TCCT at the MC2R promoter was strongly associated ...
Katayama Sachiko - - 2010
Norepinephrine (NE), synthesized in both the central and peripheral nervous system, is involved in food intake regulation of both mammals and chickens. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigenic peptide, is colocalized with NE neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, suggesting an interaction. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of ...
Sztainberg Y - - 2010
Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to have an anxiolytic effect in several animal models; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes are not understood. In this study, we have shown that the anxiolytic effect of EE is associated with alterations in the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) expression ...
Rucinski Marcin - - 2010
Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In ...
Ko Takehiro - - 2010
A serine protease prostasin has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the activation of the epithelial sodium channel. Systemic administration of adenovirus carrying human prostasin gene in rats resulted in an increase in plasma prostasin and aldosterone levels. However, the mechanism by which the elevation of prostasin levels ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2010
In the hypothalamus, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in regulating stress responses. Cytokines are important mediators of the interaction between the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and are implicated in the regulation of CRF expression. Following inflammatory challenges, interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. CRF promoter contains ...
Gavrilovic Ljubica - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is regarded as one of the most relevant causes of diseases in mammalian species. The activation of the sympathoneural system represents one of the key components of the stress response. The sympathetic nervous system is one of the major pathways involved in immune-neuroendocrine interactions. The aim of ...
Simi Lisa - - 2010
Seladin-1 overexpression exerts a protective mechanism against apoptosis. Seladin-1 mRNA is variably expressed in normal human tissues. Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC). Since up to now seladin-1 mutations were not described, we investigated whether promoter methylation could account ...
Totlandsdal Annike I - - 2010
Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs) has been associated with several adverse health outcomes in which inflammation seems to play a key role. DEPs contain a range of different inorganic and organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the metabolic activation of PAHs, CYP1A1 enzymes are known to ...
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