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Andrews M - - 2012
Adipose tissue secretes numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α that can lead to insulin resistance (IR). In the liver, both IL-6 and TNF-α induce IR by inhibiting phosphorylation or ubiquitination of IRS1. In IR development, Fe is a risk factor in type-2 diabetes development. ...
Liu Min - - 2012
Super elongation complexes (SECs) contain two different transcription elongation factors, P-TEFb and ELL1/2, linked by the scaffolding protein AFF4 or AFF1. They stimulate the expression of both normal and disease-related genes, especially those of HIV or those involved in leukemogenesis. Among all SEC subunits, ELL2 is stoichiometrically limiting and uniquely ...
Galvão António - - 2012
We hypothesized that in mares, cytokines influence luteal angiogenesis, while angiogenic factors themselves can also regulate luteal secretory capacity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cytokines--tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG) and Fas ligand (FASL)--on in vitro modulation of angiogenic activity and ...
Shi Xiaowei - - 2012
Arginine kinase (AK) catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of L-arginine to form phosphoarginine, and plays a critical role in energy metabolism in invertebrates. In the present study, a scallop AK gene was identified from Chlamys farreri with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1101 bp encoding for a protein of 366 ...
Tkačik Gašper - - 2012
Living cells must control the reading out or "expression" of information encoded in their genomes, and this regulation often is mediated by transcription factors-proteins that bind to DNA and either enhance or repress the expression of nearby genes. But the expression of transcription factor proteins is itself regulated, and many ...
Bandyopadhyay Mausumi M Department of Ophthalmology, Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, - - 2012
Mechanistic studies have shown that inflammation, complement activation, extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, growth factor imbalance, and oxidative stress are fundamental components of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate ECM turnover but also process various bioactive molecules. Here, we tested whether complement attack on RPE monolayers changes MMP secretion ...
Dickmann Leslie J - - 2012
Exposure to cytokines can down-regulate hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. Accordingly, relief of inflammation by cytokinetargeted drug therapy has the potential to up-regulate cytochrome P450s and thereby increase clearance of co-administered drugs. This study examined the effects of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-1β /interleukin 6 (IL-6) combinations on ...
Liu Zhaohui - - 2012
BACKGROUND: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important inflammatory factor that is closely related to mortality in patients with sepsis. High magnesium therapy has been proved to reduce sepsis-related mortality and sepsis-induced pathologic complications. These effects result from reduced expression and release of many inflammatory cytokines, although it ...
Guo Zhong Z Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2012
Human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) gene expression is regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific microRNA (miRNA) directly regulate hiNOS gene expression. Sequence analysis of the 496-bp hiNOS 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) revealed five putative miR-939 binding sites. The hiNOS 3'-UTR ...
Gold J R - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) is influenced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in critically ill humans. Information about the association of cytokines with the HPA axis in neonatal foals is lacking. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe for hospitalized septic and nonseptic foals (1) temporal changes in blood ...
Garcia-Verdugo Ignacio - - 2012
Eicosanoids are metabolites of arachidonic acid produced by cyclooxygenases (COXs) or lipoxygenases (LOXs). They mediate inflammation and mucus secretion in chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. The gel-forming mucin MUC5AC is over-expressed in the airways of patients with these diseases. MUC5AC expression is mediated by an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/Sp1 dependent mechanism. ...
Choi Jinyong - - 2012
PG201, an ethanol extract from a mixture of 12 herbs, has strong antiarthritic activity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects, PG201-mediated suppression of inflammatory mediators was studied in Raw264.7, a mouse macrophage cell line. PG201 decreased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CC chemokine ligand-2, but ...
Koshy Cherian Ajeesh - - 2012
CNS neurons exhibit sustained activation by recurring hypoglycemia in the presence of estrogen. We investigated the impact of estradiol on fuel uptake and detection of energy imbalance by hindbrain A2 metabolosensory neurons during acute vs. chronic hypoglycemia. A2 neurons were laser dissected from estradiol benzoate (EB)- and oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized ...
Pandey Deepesh D Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, - - 2012
The expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its five isoforms in vascular cells is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine whether Nox5-α, -β, -δ, -γ, and -ε (short) are expressed in human blood vessels and evaluate their respective functions. Nox5 mRNA and ...
Deng Yu - - 2012
Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) can lead to manganism, a type of neurotoxicity accomplished with extracellular glutamate (Glu) accumulation. To investigate this accumulation, this study focused on the role of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GluTs) and glutamine synthetase (GS), which have roles in Glu transport and metabolism, respectively. And the ...
Sen Alaattin - - 2012
Humans are exposed to acrylamide in their diet and cigarette smoke. Acrylamide is metabolized into glycidamide by CYP2E1. However, very few studies regarding the effects of acrylamide on cytochrome P450 and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes have been pursued. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of acrylamide ...
Hollmann Axel - - 2012
Prokaryotes commonly present outer cell wall structures composed of a crystalline array of proteinaceous subunits, known as surface layers (S-layers). The ORF encoding the S-layer protein (SlpA) of Lactobacillus brevis was cloned into Lactococcus lactis under the transcriptional control of the xylose-inducible expression system (XIES). SlpA was secreted into the ...
Matsuya Yuji - - 2012
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in neuronal synaptic plasticity. A decrease of plasticity in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. Pyrethroid insecticides, which affect sodium channels in neurons, are widely used to control insect pests in agriculture and in the ...
Xu Li - - 2012
Diapause in Bombyx mori eggs is induced by temperature and photoperiod at the stage of embryonic development in the maternal generation. In those diapause eggs, Esterase-A4 is suggested to serve as a diapause-termination timer (TIME-EA4), because its ATPase activity shows an interval-timer elevation after acid treatment or chilling of eggs ...
Al Ghouleh Imad - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Expression of inflammatory cytokines is regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. We previously showed that NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide induces inflammatory mediators in response to TNF-αand LPS. In this study, we examined the role of endothelial NADPH oxidase in the regulation of mRNA stability of three inflammatory mediators: interleukin-8 (IL-8) ...
Bellini C - - 2012
The role of lymphatics in placentation has been scantily studied and the true existence of placental lymphatics is under debate. Numerous blood and lymphatic-lineage molecule markers are now available and they are expressed in human placental tissue. D2-40 expression at the placental stromal level seems to indicate that network-forming, podoplanin-expressing ...
Du Mengfang - - 2012
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In the present study, a DGAT2 gene from Bombyx mori was characterized. Temporal expression profiles indicated that BmDGAT2 steadily increased from 96 h before eclosion (-96 h) to an expression peak in the pheromone glands (PGs) of new-emerged female (0 ...
Nguyen Duy - - 2012
Regulation of the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, plays a major role in controlling mammalian transcription and this is accomplished in part by controlled release of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP that sequesters the kinase in an inactive state. We demonstrate here that a similar P-TEFb control system exists in ...
Mitterberger Maria C - - 2012
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO(2) have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in ...
Wang Zesong - - 2012
Previously, we reported that the expression of Bombyx mori 30Kc6 gene in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increases recombinant protein production by both inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing specific productivity. In this study, in order to gain a thorough understanding of the roles of 30Kc6 gene in antibody production, the mechanisms ...
Maldonado-Cervantes M I - - 2012
We determined in cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK(1)) the effects of high glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on mRNA and protein expression of the renal glucose transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2. Cultured monolayers were incubated with similar concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α to those produced by LLC-PK(1) in ...
Whitham Martin - - 2012
Exercise increases the expression of the prototypical myokine IL-6, but the precise mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be identified. To mimic exercise conditions, C2C12 myotubes were mechanically stimulated via electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). We compared the responses of EPS with the pharmacological Ca(2+) carrier calcimycin (A23187) because ...
Zhao Wei - - 2012
TLR signaling is associated with the transcription of various proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. After transcription, the mRNA of these proinflammatory cytokines needs to be tightly controlled at the posttranscriptional level to achieve an optimal expression. However, the precise mechanism of posttranscriptional regulation is not fully understood. In ...
Smits Veronique A J - - 2012
Tight regulation of p53 is essential for its central role in maintaining genome stability and tumor prevention. Here, EDD/ UBR5/hHyd, hereafter called EDD, is identified as a novel regulator of p53. Downregulation of EDD results in elevated p53 protein levels both in transformed and untransformed cells. Concomitant with a rise ...
Smits Veronique A J - - 2012
Tight regulation of p53 is essential for its central role in maintaining genome stability and tumor prevention. Here, EDD/ UBR5/hHyd, hereafter called EDD, is identified as a novel regulator of p53. Downregulation of EDD results in elevated p53 protein levels both in transformed and untransformed cells. Concomitant with a rise ...
Liu Junwen - - 2012
RAW264.7 macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with LPS to determine the expression of KLF4 and release of IL-1β. A full-length cDNA or short interference RNA of KLF4 was transfected into RAW264.7 macrophages; the expression and release of IL-1β were analyzed. The transcription and DNA binding activities ...
Takahashi Akinori - - 2012
The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show ...
Meares Gordon P GP Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, - - 2012
Astrocytes have an important role in the regulation of inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS). In neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, numerous cytokines and chemokines are elevated including IL-6, IL-17, and CCL20. IL-17 enhances IL-6 signaling and subsequent IL-6 expression in astrocytes. CCL20 is a CC motif chemokine ...
Bogen Oliver O Department of Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, University of California at San Francisco, California 94143-0440, - - 2012
Isolectin B(4)-positive [IB(4)(+)] primary afferent nociceptors challenged with an inflammatory or neuropathic insult develop a PKCε-dependent long-lasting hyperalgesic response to a subsequent challenge by the proinflammatory cytokine prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a phenomenon known as hyperalgesic priming. Here we demonstrate that the neuroplasticity underlying nociceptor priming requires 72 h to be ...
Catarino Steve - - 2012
Purpose:  This study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of IL-8 production by several oxysterols in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods:  A human cell line from RPE (ARPE-19) was used to test the role of cholesterol and several oxysterols (25-OH, 7-KC and 7β-OH) in the ...
Islam Mohammad Ariful - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to determine the age-related kinetic changes of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and downstream genes expression, and secretion of cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated porcine alveolar macrophages (AM). For this purpose, AMs were isolated from 5-day-old newborn piglets and 120-day-old young pigs. mRNA expression and ...
Noell Susan - - 2012
In human glioblastoma, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is disturbed. According to our concept, the glio-vascular relationships and thus the control of the BBB are essentially dependent on the polarity of astroglial cells. This polarity is characterized by the uneven distribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), dystroglycan and other ...
Satsu Hideo - - 2012
In this study, we examined the effects of 20 amino acids on the expression level of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in human intestinal LS180 cells. Five amino acids were associated with significant increases in NQO1 mRNA expression; the most substantial increase was induced by cysteine, which markedly increased the NQO1 ...
Guo Feng - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The development of sepsis is multifactorial. Tissue damage and organ dysfunction may be caused not only by the microorganisms but also by the inflammatory mediators released in response to the infection. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels in serum are well known to be up-regulated in ...
Chai S-P - - 2012
BACKGROUND:We have demonstrated previously that endothelin-1 (ET-1) may stimulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) release from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we further examined the combined effect of ET-1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on IL-6 release.METHODS:IL-6 release was measured by enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and real-time PCR analyses were used to ...
Brancaccio Andrea - - 2012
DAG1 encodes for a precursor protein that liberates the two subunits featured by the dystroglycan (DG) adhesion complex that are involved in an increasing number of cellular functions in a wide variety of cells and tissues. Aside from the proteolytic events producing the α and β subunits, especially the former ...
Truong-Bolduc Que Chi - - 2012
We previously showed that at acid pH, the transcription of norB, encoding the NorB efflux pump, increases due to a reduction in the phosphorylation level of MgrA, which in turn leads to a reduction in bacterial killing by moxifloxacin, a substrate of the NorB efflux pump. In this study, we ...
Ciasca Maria - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and cytokine expression profiles of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM; Brasseler, Savannah, GA) putty, ERRM flowable, and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN) using osteoblast cells (MG-63). Four millimeters in diameter of each material was ...
Fukushima T - - 2012
This study investigated the influence of salinity and ammonium levels on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) by monitoring their amo subunit A (amoA) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The aerobic mini-continuous stirred-tank reactors (mini-CSTRs) were operated for 48 h under different salinity or ammonium levels. Quantification of archaeal and bacterial ...
Lemkens P - - 2012
We tested the hypotheses that TSP-1 participates in the initiation of remodeling of small muscular arteries in response to altered blood flow and that the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (hepI) can reverse the pathological inward remodeling of resistance arteries from SHR.We measured (1) changes in gene/protein expression in MA of ...
Chen Qun - - 2012
NO plays an important role in cartilage destruction by inducing apoptosis of chondrocytes. Here we investigated the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathways in the apoptosis induced by NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rabbit articular chondrocytes. We used Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated ...
Wilson Nicole H - - 2012
Gradients of secreted morphogens, such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt, and TGFβ/Bmp, have classically been shown to control many aspects of early development by regulating cell proliferation and determining cell fate. However, recent studies demonstrate that these molecules also play important and evolutionarily conserved roles in later aspects of neural ...
Jia Jing - - 2012
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of testosterone propionate on oxidative stress and cytokine gene expression in endosulfan-treated mice. The levels of endosulfan and testosterone propionate were 0 and 0 mg⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (control group), 0.8 and 0 mg⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (endosulfan-treated group), and 0.8 and 10 mg⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (experimental group), ...
Annibalini Giosue - - 2012
Alternative splicing generates several interleukin-6 (IL-6) isoforms; for them an antagonistic activity to the wild-type IL-6 has been proposed. In this study we quantified the relative abundance of IL-6 mRNA isoforms in a panel of mouse tissues and in C2C12 cells during myoblast differentiation or after treatment with the Ca(2+) ...
Yatsenko O P - - 2012
The spectrum of alternatively spliced IL-4 and IL-6 gene mRNA was studied in peripheral blood mononuclears from healthy donors and in human fetal tissues. It was found that the expression of alternatively spliced IL-4 and IL-6 gene mRNA in fetal tissues is tissue specific and that hemopoiesis- and immunopoiesis-related tissues ...
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