Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1740
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Ziolkowska Agnieszka - - 2006
Beacon, a hypothalamic peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, has been recently shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex, and to inhibit its secretion and growth. To further characterize the role of beacon in the control of adrenal growth, we investigated the level of beacon gene expression ...
To Thuy Thanh - - 2007
To further elucidate pituitary adrenal interactions during development, we studied the organogenesis of the interrenal organ, the teleost homolog of the mammalian adrenal gland, in zebrafish. To this end we compared wild-type zebrafish interrenal development with that of mutants lacking pituitary cell types including corticotrophs. In addition, we studied the ...
Kontopoulos Eftichia V - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of beta-adrenergic agonists on the regulation of the expression of the placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene. STUDY DESIGN: Term placentae were collected at the time of elective cesarean section, and trophoblast cells were harvested, isolated, and cultured. The isolated trophoblasts were plated, cultured and subsequently ...
Schmidt M V - - 2006
The postnatal development of the mouse is characterised by a period of hypo-responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to moderate stressors. Maternal separation disinhibits this blockade of the HPA axis, but the mechanism responsible is not clear. The present study examined the influence of metabolic signals on the central and ...
Park Sung-Woo - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a key regulator of the stress response. We investigated the effects of the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine on CRF mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus following immobilization stress. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg quetiapine significantly reduced the immobilization stress-induced increase in CRF mRNA expression in the paraventricular ...
Gu Feng-ming - - 2006
Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing water permeability of the collecting duct as a hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary. A clinical study reported that plasma levels of arginine vasopressin were significantly higher in patients suffering from Meniere's disease. It was histologically confirmed that chronic administration of ...
Lage Ricardo - - 2006
Caffeine has marked effects on sleep, arousal and food intake. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these actions are not fully understood. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide regulating both sleep and feeding. Here, we examined the effect of acute and chronic caffeine treatment on the expression of neuropeptide ...
Nilsson Maria - - 2007
The nuclear hormone receptors liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha) (NR1H3) and LXRbeta (NR1H2) are established regulators of cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism and are attractive drug targets for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adrenal steroid hormones including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are known to interfere with glucose metabolism, insulin ...
Compère V - - 2006
In peripheral organs, gonadal and adrenal steroids regulate diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mRNA expression. In order to further investigate the involvement of peripheral steroid hormones in the modulation of brain DBI mRNA expression, we studied by semiquantitative in situ hybridization the effect of adrenalectomy (ADX) and castration (CX) and short-term replacement ...
Lai Feng-Jie - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes of adrenal neuronal nitrite oxide synthase (nNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein of rats after deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt treatment. We determined adrenal nNOS expression in 12 vehicle-treated and 13 DOCA-salt-treated rats by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and multiplex RT-PCR ...
Shieh, Kun-Ruey
The functional significance of the novel estrogen receptor β in brain areas that exclusively contain the ERβ receptor subtype such as the paraventricular (PVN) and the supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus is not yet fully understood. The present study attempts to characterize the peptidergic nature of the ERβ-containing neuronal ...
Zbytek Blazej - - 2006
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), a messenger of stress at the central level, is expressed in the epidermis where it operates within local equivalent of hypothalamo-pituitary axis. CRH inhibits NF-kappaB activity in human immortalized epidermal (PIG1) melanocytes. In melanocytes CRH stimulates pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) peptide production. Knockdown of ...
Choi Dennis C - - 2006
Prolonged social subjugation produces physiological indices of chronic stress in rats. In the current study, we examined the impact of social stress on glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoforms, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin mRNA expression in forebrain stress circuitry, using the visible burrow system model of dominance-subordination. Subordinate male rats ...
Eva Carola - - 2006
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most prominent and abundant neuropeptides in the mammalian brain where it interacts with a family of G-protein coupled receptors, including the Y(1) receptor subtype (Y(1)R). NPY-Y(1)R signalling plays a prominent role in the regulation of several behavioural and physiological functions including feeding behaviour ...
Kim Jae Geun - - 2006
TTF-1 is a member of the NKx family of homeodomain genes, and is required for morphogenesis and fetal diencephalon development. Our previous studies have shown that TTF-1 expression is maintained in some regions of the postnatal rat brain and transactivates the gene expression of several neuropeptides. In this study, a ...
Shepard Jack D - - 2006
Elevated corticosterone in the amygdala leads to cautious avoidance behaviors on the elevated plus maze. The current study examined the effect of elevated corticosterone in the amygdala on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BNST). Exposure to the elevated plus maze increased CRF ...
Henion, Paul Dean
The choice and regulation of neurotransmitter phenotype is of critical importance for the appropriate function of the nervous system. Although many neurotransmitters have been identified and localized to specific regions of the nervous system, the mechanisms which regulate the developmental expression of neurotransmitters is poorly understood. In particular, very little ...
Jiménez-Vasquez Patricia A - - 2007
Previously we reported that basal neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity-(LI) in hippocampus of the "depressed" Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats was lower compared to the control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) and that electroconvulsive stimuli (ECS) raise NPY-LI in discrete brain regions. Here we studied NPY mRNA expression, NPY Y(1) receptor (Y(1)) ...
Willenberg Holger S - - 2006
Decrease in connexin (Cx) expression and loss of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) have been associated with aberrant cell growth and enhanced neoplastic phenotype. We studied the expression of Cx26, Cx32, Cx43, and Cx50 in chromaffin cells of 10 normal human adrenal glands, 10 benign, and 13 malignant pheochromocytomas. Immunohistochemistry ...
Isobe Kazumasa - - 2006
Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) have been associated with susceptibility to pheochromocytoma. However, few reports have examined the level of SDH mRNAs expression. In this study, we examined the level of expression of mRNAs encoding SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD in pheochromocytoma, pheochromocytoma subgroups, and normal adrenal gland, ...
Singh Gurminder - - 2006
Deorphanised G-protein-coupled receptors represent new and expanding targets for drug development. Neuropeptide B (NPB) and W (NPW) have recently been identified as the cognate endogenous ligands for the orphan receptor GPR7, now designated as NPBW(1). NPB and NPW also bound to a second related orphan receptor, GPR8, now designated as ...
Asif Abdul R - - 2006
Several important physiological functions are regulated by cortisol. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) in cortisol release. In the present study, we investigated the influence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and estrone sulfate on cortisol release in a human adrenocortical cell line (NCI-H295R) compared with ...
Koylu Ersin O - - 2006
CART is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus, major corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenaline sources, respectively. There is a bidirectional relation between CART and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. CART stimulates CRF, adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoid secretion, whereas CRF and glucocorticoids increase the transcriptional activity of the ...
Terado M - - 2006
AIM: To elucidate the distribution and regulation of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in testes under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as testicular development, fasting and experimental cryptorchidism. METHODS: In the first experiment, C57BL/6J male mice at the ages of 3 days as well as 2, 3, 5 and 8 ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2006
Urocortin (UCN) is a 40-amino acid neuropeptide sharing 45% sequence homology with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The human endometrium expresses both UCN and CRF, and CRF/UCN receptors type-1 (CRF-R1) and -2 (CRF-R2). CRF-R1 activation inhibits cell growth and proliferation of a tumor cell line derived from the human endometrium, and the ...
Gentili S - - 2006
The fetal pituitary-adrenal axis plays a key role in the fetal response to intrauterine stress and in the timing of parturition. The fetal sheep adrenal gland is relatively refractory to stimulation in midgestation (90-120 days) before the prepartum activation, which occurs around 135 days gestation (term=147+/-3 days). The mechanisms underlying ...
Stein Jeffrey - - 2006
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are expressed in several neuroendocrine tissues, including hypothalamus, pituitary, gut, adrenal and pancreas, and are involved in regulating important biological processes including feeding/appetite, drug reward and stress. CART is synthesized as larger, inactive peptide precursors (pro-CART) that require endoproteolytic processing to generate smaller, active ...
Larsen Philip J - - 2006
Cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) was first identified as a complete mRNA transcript 10 years ago. Since then it has been demonstrated that CART is a peptide neurotransmitter which has a role in a number of physiological processes, including body weight homeostasis and energy balance, in a number of vertebrate species. ...
Helwig M - - 2006
A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40%) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. ...
Kubovcakova L - - 2006
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC 2.1.1.28) is the terminal enzyme of the catecholaminergic pathway converting noradrenaline to adrenaline. Although preferentially localized in adrenal medulla, evidence exists that PNMT activity and gene expression are also present in the rat heart, kidney, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, thymus, retina and different parts of the ...
Kobayashi Hironobu - - 2006
An important role for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), p27Kip1 and p57Kip2, in the proliferation and differentiation of adrenal cells has been suggested by their knockout mice, which display adrenal hyperplasia. Adrenal development and function are primarily regulated by ACTH. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ACTH ...
Zubair Mohamad - - 2006
The orphan nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 (adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1) is essential for the proper development and function of reproductive and steroidogenic tissues. Although the expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is specific for those tissues, the mechanisms underlying this tissue-specific expression remain unknown. In this study, we used transgenic mouse assays ...
Zbytek Blazej - - 2006
CRH, the main regulator of the systemic response to stress, is also expressed in the skin where it is incorporated into a local homolog of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate the mechanisms of the induction of the CRH-proopiomelanocortin (POMC) response in human melanocytes, we used UVB as an epidermal-specific stressor. ...
Mera T - - 2006
The effects of i.c.v. administration of prolactin-releasing peptide on neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of rats and plasma corticosterone levels were examined by measuring changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity, c-fos mRNA using in situ hybridization histochemistry, and plasma corticosterone using a specific radioimmunoassay. Approximately 80% of corticotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive cells exhibited ...
Ishimoto Hitoshi - - 2006
CONTEXT: Matricellular proteins are a group of secreted, multifunctional extracellular matrix glycoproteins that includes thrombospondins (TSPs), tenascin-C, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). They may be implicated in the dynamic developmental processes of the human fetal adrenal (HFA) in which the outer, definitive zone (DZ) cells are ...
Dylag Tomasz - - 2006
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides attracted much attention after the discovery that the level of CART mRNA is increased in rat striatum after acute administration of cocaine and amphetamine. The most widely investigated sequence is CART (55-102), whose roles were confirmed in modulation of various physiological processes such as ...
Urban Janice H - - 2006
Regulation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion involves integration of neural signals from hypothalamic osmoreceptors, ascending catecholaminergic and peptidergic cell groups in the brain stem, and local and autoregulatory afferents. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one factor that stimulates the release of VP and OT from the supraoptic (SON) and ...
Bamberger C M - - 2007
Urocortin (UCN) is a 40 amino acid peptide which is closely related to corticotropin-releasing hormone and binds with high affinity to both CRH type 1 and type 2 receptors. UCN is expressed in human reproductive tissues including endometrium, ovary, and placenta. This study was designed to investigate the cellular localization ...
Kvetnansky R R Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. - - 2006
Epinephrine (EPI) synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC 2.1.1.28) is primarily localized in the adrenal medulla (AM). We have recently described existence of the PNMT gene expression in cardiac atria and ventricles and in sympathetic ganglia of adult rats and mice. The aim of the present work was to study ...
Caviedes-Bucheli J - - 2006
AIM: To quantify the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue. METHODOLOGY: Six pulp samples were obtained from teeth having a clinical diagnosis of acute irreversible pulpitis. Another 12 ...
Kauser Sobia - - 2006
Human skin is a local source of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and expresses CRH and CRH receptors (CRH-R) at mRNA and protein levels. Epidermal melanocytes respond to CRH by induction of cAMP with up-regulation of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and subsequent production of adrenocorticotropin hormone. However, the role of CRH/CRH-R in melanocyte ...
Silva Alberto B - - 2006
Evidence suggests that the immune and neuroendocrine systems cross talk by sharing ligands and receptors. Hormones and neuropeptides produced by the neuroendocrine system often modulate the function of lymphoid organs and immune cells. We have previously reported the intrathymic expression of somatostatin (SOM) in the mouse and that several neuropeptides, ...
Salomé Nicolas - - 2006
Wistar rats have been selectively bred for high (HABs) or low (LABs) anxiety-related behavior based on results obtained in the elevated-plus maze. They also display robust behavioral differences in a variety of additional anxiety tests. The present study was undertaken to further characterize physiological substrates that contribute to the expression ...
Imperatore Alberto - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Urocortin 2 (UCN2) and urocortin 3 (UCN 3) are recently identified neuropeptides showing homology to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). In the present study, we evaluated their expression and localization in gestational tissues (placenta, decidua, fetal membranes), and their effect on placental adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed ...
Zhao L-F - - 2006
Although recent studies have suggested that purinergic receptors are expressed in the anterior pituitary gland, their involvement in the regulation of pituitary hormone gene expression is not completely understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of purinergic receptors and the effects of purinergic receptor ligands on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) ...
Goto Masahiro - - 2006
In humans, sexual differentiation of the external genitalia is established at 7-12 weeks post conception (wpc). During this period, maintaining the appropriate intrauterine hormone environment is critical. In contrast to other species, this regulation extends to the human fetal adrenal cortex, as evidenced by the virilization that is associated with ...
Hendy Geoffrey N - - 2006
Chromogranin A (CgA), originally identified in adrenal chromaffin cells, is a member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins that are expressed in endocrine cells and neurons. CgA has been proposed to play multiple roles in the secretory process. Intracellularly, CgA may control secretory granule biogenesis and target neurotransmitters ...
Salinas Armando - - 2006
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a peptide neurotransmitter that has been implicated in drug reward and reinforcement. CART mRNA and peptide expression are highly concentrated in several compartments of the mesolimbic reward pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that CART peptides may contribute to rewarding behaviors and the addiction ...
Mikkelsen Jens D - - 2006
The mechanisms by which electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes its antidepressive effect are unknown. Because ECT requires repeated induction of electroconvulsive seizures, adaptive changes in the brain and regulation of gene expression, are likely to be the fundamental basis on which ECT acts. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression is increased after ...
Fenoglio Kristina A - - 2006
An eloquent example of experience-induced neuroplasticity involves the enduring effects of daily "handling" of rat pups on the expression of genes regulating hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Handling-evoked augmentation of maternal care of pups induces long-lasting reduction of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) expression and upregulates hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >