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Martorana Alessandra M - - 2011
The E. coli yrbG-lptB locus (yrbG kdsD kdsC lptC lptA lptB) encodes genes for outer membrane biogenesis, namely, kdsC and kdsD for biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide inner core sugar Kdo, and lptA, lptB, and lptC for lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. Three promoters (yrbGp, kdsCp and the σ(E)-dependent lptAp) ...
Matsuo Miki - - 2011
Bacterial cell surface charge is responsible for susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Previously, Staphylococcus aureus dlt and mprF were identified as factors conveying a positive charge to cell surfaces. In this study, we investigated the regulation of cell surface charge during growth. Using a group of S. aureus MW2 ...
Fode Peder - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The DEFB103 gene encodes human β-defensin 3, which has a high activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In the general population 20% are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus, which is a problem for their general health. DEFB103 shows extensive variation in copy number. Copy number variations (CNVs) are believed to ...
Fang Zhengyu - - 2011
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene has been shown to be involved in genetic instability and to be downregluated in several human carcinomas. The chromosome locus of APC, 5q21-22, is frequently deleted in colorectal cancers (CRCs). The functional impact of such regions needs to be extensively investigated in large amount ...
Lale Rahmi - - 2011
The inducible Pm promoter integrated into broad-host-range plasmid RK2 replicons can be fine-tuned continuously between the uninduced and maximally induced levels by varying the inducer concentrations. To lower the uninduced background level while still maintaining the inducibility for applications in, for example, metabolic engineering and synthetic (systems) biology, we report ...
Bhatt Shantanu S Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2011
Bacteria evolve their capacity to cause disease by acquiring virulence genes that are usually clustered in discrete genetic modules termed pathogenicity islands (PAI). Stable integration of PAIs into pre-existing transcriptional networks coordinates expression from PAIs with ancestral genes in response to diverse environmental cues. Such transcriptional controls are evident in ...
Sonoda Hiroyuki - - 2011
The effects of cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones on the secretory production of an anti-bovine ribonuclease A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 3A21 in Escherichia coli were investigated. Co-expression of a cytoplasmic chaperone, GroEL/ES, DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE, trigger factor, or SecB with 3A21 scFv affected the proportions of antigen-binding activity in the cytoplasmic soluble ...
Diebold Marie-Laure - - 2011
Macromolecular complexes are responsible for most of the essential mechanisms in cells, leading to a broad interest in their purification and characterization. Co-expression is now widely recognized as a major technique for assembling multiprotein complexes and many co-expression systems are currently available for performing co-expression experiments in different hosts. However, ...
Peyrot Sara M SM Dept of Molecular and Cell Biology and Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2011
The development of the vertebrate dorsal midline (floor plate, notochord, and hypochord) has been an area of classical research and debate. Previous studies in vertebrates have led to contrasting models for the roles of Shh and Notch signaling in specification of the floor plate, by late inductive or early allocation ...
Shuo-Shuo Cui - - 2011
The cold-active lipase gene Lip-948, cloned from Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Psychrobacter sp. G, was ligated into plasmid pCold I. The recombinant plasmid pCold I+Lip-948 was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there was substantive expression of lipase LIP-948 in E. coli with a yield of about ...
Rolfe Matthew D - - 2011
Oxygen availability is the major determinant of the metabolic modes adopted by Escherichia coli. Although much is known about E. coli gene expression and metabolism under fully aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the intermediate oxygen tensions that are encountered in natural niches are understudied. Here, for the first time, the transcript ...
Igarashi Kazuei - - 2011
Polyamines are essential for normal cell growth and exist mainly as RNA-polyamine complexes in cells. Thus, effects of polyamines on protein synthesis have been studied. It was found that several kinds of protein synthesis, which are important for cell growth, were enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation. We ...
Tang Yanping - - 2011
miRNAs have been found to repress gene expression at posttranscriptional level in cells. Studies have shown that expression of miRNAs is tissue-specific and developmental-stage-specific. The mechanism behind this could be explained by miRNA pathways. In this study, totally 54 miRNAs were analysed in 7 matched human foetal and adult organs ...
Gao He - - 2011
The osmotic regulator OmpR in Escherichia coli regulates differentially the expression of major porin proteins OmpF and OmpC. In Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, OmpR is required for both virulence and survival within macrophages. However, the phenotypic and regulatory roles of OmpR in Y. pestis are not yet fully understood. ...
Ji Sang Chun - - 2011
Quantitative analyses of the 5' end of gal transcripts indicate that transcription from the galactose operon P1 promoter is higher during cell division. When cells are no longer dividing, however, transcription is initiated more often from the P2 promoter. Escherichia coli cells divide six times before the onset of the ...
Asada Hidetsugu - - 2011
Various protein expression systems, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), insect cells and mammalian cell lines, have been developed for the synthesis of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for structural studies. Recently, the crystal structures of four recombinant human GPCRs, namely β2 adrenergic ...
Muncan Vanesa V Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2011
In many mammalian species, the intestinal epithelium undergoes major changes that allow a dietary transition from mother's milk to the adult diet at the end of the suckling period. These complex developmental changes are the result of a genetic programme intrinsic to the gut tube, but its regulators have not ...
Yamada Mitsuhiro M Center for Airways Disease, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7248, - - 2011
Neutrophils are usually the first circulating leukocytes to respond during bacterial pneumonia. Their expression of oxidants, proteases, and other mediators present in granules is well documented, but their ability to produce mediators through transcription and translation after migration to an inflammatory site has been appreciated only more recently. Interferon (IFN)-γ ...
Shin Yoon Kyung - - 2010
Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, has been considered as a promising anticancer drug in the treatment of recurrent multiple myeloma and some solid tumors. The bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) is a prominent cause of dose-limiting toxicities after bortezomib treatment. In this study, we found that BIPN in a mouse model is ...
Kim Nag-Jong - - 2011
Dissolved oxygen (DO)-controlled nar promoter expression vectors were constructed, and their expression efficiency was compared with that of the T7 promoter pET22 expression vector by expressing human growth hormone (hGH), enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and β-tyrosinase in Escherichia coli cells. The nar promoter expression vector pRBS, which was engineered ...
Cui Huachun - - 2011
Interleukin-2 enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), also named as nuclear factor 45 (NF45), plays important roles in regulating interleukin-2 expression in mammals. In the present study, a novel ILF2 gene (designated EcILF2) was cloned and well characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length EcILF2 cDNA is composed of 1544 bp and ...
Islam Md Shahidul - - 2011
Expression of the genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli is primarily co-ordinated by expression of the LEE1 operon. GrlA is a LEE-encoded transcription regulator that has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of expression of the LEE1 operon. We describe a simple ...
He Ye Y Department of Neuroscience and Genetics and Genomics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2010
Fast axonal conduction depends on myelin, which is formed by Schwann cells in the PNS. We found that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is crucial for peripheral myelination. Conditional ablation of Yy1 in the Schwann cell lineage resulted in severe hypomyelination, which occurred independently of altered Schwann cell ...
Emery Ben - - 2010
Despite the importance of myelin for the rapid conduction of action potentials, the molecular bases of oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination are still incompletely understood. Recent results have greatly advanced this understanding, identifying new transcriptional regulators of myelin gene expression, elucidating vital roles for microRNAs in controlling ...
Ritz Marie-Françoise - - 2010
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the blood-spinal cord barrier and reduces the blood supply caused by microvascular changes. Vessel regression and neovascularization have been observed in the course of secondary injury contributing to microvascular remodeling after trauma. Spatio-temporal distribution of blood vessels and modulation of gene expression of several ...
Pomerantz Richard T - - 2010
Replication forks and transcription complexes often collide, which can result in mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements. Recent studies of E. coli demonstrate a role for transcription factors in reducing conflicts between replication and transcription. These findings suggest that transcription regulators preserve genome integrity by preventing replication fork arrest.
Donnelly Eleanor M - - 2010
Following spinal cord injury, a highly inhibitory environment for axonal regeneration develops. One of the main sources of this inhibition is the glial scar that is formed after injury by reactive astrocytes. The inhibitory environment is mainly a result of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). NG2, [corrected] one of the main ...
Donnelly Eleanor M - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Following spinal cord injury, a highly inhibitory environment for axonal regeneration develops. One of the main sources of this inhibition is the glial scar that is formed after injury by reactive astrocytes. The inhibitory environment is mainly a result of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Neuroglycan 2 (NG2), one of ...
Ahmed Zubair - - 2011
Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is prevented by inhibitory molecules present in myelin, which bind to a receptor complex that leads to downstream RhoGTP activation and axon growth cone collapse. Here, we compared expression of Citron kinase (Citron-K), a target molecule of RhoGTP in non-regenerating dorsal ...
Savvaki Maria - - 2010
Myelinated fibers are organized into specialized domains that ensure the rapid propagation of action potentials and are characterized by protein complexes underlying axoglial interactions. TAG-1 (Transient Axonal Glycoprotein-1), a cell adhesion molecule of the Ig superfamily, is expressed by neurons as well as by myelinating glia. It is essential for ...
Küspert Melanie - - 2011
The HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10 is expressed throughout oligodendrocyte development and is an important component of the transcriptional regulatory network in these myelin-forming CNS glia. Of the known Sox10 regulatory regions, only the evolutionary conserved U2 enhancer in the distal 5'-flank of the Sox10 gene exhibits oligodendroglial activity. We found ...
Farrell Barbara C - - 2011
Central nervous system development is a complex process involving many interacting factors. MicroRNAs have recently been identified as playing key intrinsic roles in development however few of their specific targets have been identified in vivo. The transcription factor Sox9 has recently been identified as a target of miR-124 in the ...
Wang Tao - - 2011
During the maturation of oligodendrocytes, cells are characterized by their morphological changes such as the number of process extensions and sheet-like membranes. This process relies critically on cytoskeleton rearrangement, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this are still unclear. Here, we identify human Ermin (hErmin), a novel cytoskeletal molecule that is ...
Shin Tae-Young - - 2011
Introduction.  Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is implicated in bladder fibrosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) and in the fibrosis in the corpus cavernosum tissue after cavernous nerve injury. Aim.  We investigated the differential expression of TGF-β1 and the Smad transcription factor, the key molecule for the initiation of TGF-β-mediated fibrosis, ...
Parenti Rosalba - - 2010
The study shows the dynamic expression of connexin47 (Cx47) in oligodendrocytes and myelin of mice, either in myelinogenesis occurring in early development or in an experimental model of new-myelinogenesis of adult mice. Cx47 first appeared in the embryonic mouse brain at E10.5 successively the expression increased, principally in regions populated ...
Fernández M - - 2010
Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls are ubiquitous in foodstuffs of animal origin and accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals and humans. The most toxic congener is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a lipophilic endocrine-disrupting molecule that accumulates in adipose tissue, placenta and milk. polychlorinated biphenyls and TCDD are known to ...
Liu Gang G Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, - - 2010
There are two major aspects to a spinal cord injury (SCI): an acute, primary mechanical trauma and a progressive phase of secondary tissue damage provoked by inflammation, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and demyelination. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, ~22 nucleotide, non-protein-coding RNAs that function at the post-transcriptional level to regulate gene expression. They ...
Panayi Helen H The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 2370 - - 2010
During mouse development, the ventral spinal cord becomes organized into five progenitor domains that express different combinations of transcription factors and generate different subsets of neurons and glia. One of these domains, known as the p2 domain, generates two subtypes of interneurons, V2a and V2b. Here we have used genetic ...
Kasai Masaki - - 2011
An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of ...
Cui Qiao Ling - - 2010
We examined the effects of growth factors and axonal signals on the differentiation of human fetal and adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and determined whether these effects translated into enhanced axonal ensheathment. Only small numbers of fetal OPCs grown in defined medium expressed the oligodendroglial lineage markers Olig2 and O4. ...
Maire Cécile L - - 2010
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Olig1 and Olig2 are required for oligodendrocyte specification and differentiation during central nervous system (CNS) development but the effects of overexpression of these factors in murine development are not well understood. To test whether Olig1 and Olig2 may reprogram CNS stem/progenitors toward an oligodendroglial fate ...
Verrier Jonathan D JD Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0244, - - 2010
The process of Schwann cell myelination requires precisely coordinated gene expression. At the onset of myelination, there is an increase in the expression of differentiation-promoting transcription factors that regulate key Schwann cell genes. Further control of myelin gene expression occurs at the posttranscriptional level and, in part, is mediated by ...
Esmaeili A - - 2011
Study design:Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in alterations in the regulation of many genes that may influence neuronal death and the subsequent loss of motor function and neuropathic pain. The subtype expression mRNA levels of glycine receptors (GlyRs) after SCI are unknown.Methods:Using real-time reverse transcription PCR, this study analyzed changes ...
Ganfornina Maria D - - 2010
Glial cells are a key element to the process of axonal regeneration, either promoting or inhibiting axonal growth. The study of glial derived factors induced by injury is important to understand the processes that allow or preclude regeneration, and can explain why the PNS has a remarkable ability to regenerate, ...
Berg Alexander - - 2010
Netrin G-2 ligand (NGL-2) and synaptic adhesion like molecules induce synapses in vitro. We investigated the expression of these molecules in a model of CNS synaptic detachment and restoration in vivo. After axotomy of spinal motoneurons, synapses are lost from the somata of lesioned motoneurons. We could not detect any ...
Mozer Anthony B - - 2010
The endothelial-specific expression of plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein-1 (PV-1) is typical of fenestrated endothelium observed in pulmonary capillaries and some endocrine organs. In the central nervous system (CNS) it is expressed during development but disappears concomitant with maturation of the blood-CNS barrier [1]. Consistent with observations made in models of ...
Bourikas Dimitris - - 2010
LINGO-1 is a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and hence may play a pivotal restrictive role during remyelination in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, little is known as to which stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation are inhibited by LINGO-1, which domains of the protein are involved and whether ...
Doukhanine Evgueni - - 2010
The quaking viable (qk(v)) mice represent an animal model of dysmyelination. The absence of expression of the QKI-6 and QKI-7 cytoplasmic isoforms in oligodendrocytes (OLs) during CNS myelination causes the qk(v) mouse phenotype. The QKI RNA-binding proteins are known to regulate RNA metabolism of cell cycle proteins and myelin components ...
Yang Lixin - - 2010
In the zebrafish spinal cord, two classes of neurons develop from the lateral floor plate: Kolmer-Agduhr' (KA') and V3 interneurons. We show here that the differentiation of the correct number of KA' cells depends on the activity of the homeobox transcription factor Nkx2.9. This factor acts in concert with Nkx2.2a ...
Barnich Nicolas - - 2010
Abnormal expression of CEACAM6 is observed at the apical surface of the ileal epithelium in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and CD ileal lesions are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC). The paper of Carvalho et al. recently reported that CD associated AIEC colonize and induce strong gut inflammation in ...
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