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Park Juw Won - - 2013
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a powerful and increasingly cost-effective technology for analysis of transcriptomes. RNA-Seq has several significant advantages over gene expression microarrays, including its high sensitivity and accuracy, broad dynamic range, nucleotide-level resolution, ability to detect novel mRNA transcripts, and ability to analyze pre-mRNA alternative splicing. A ...
Kawai Nobuyuki - - 2013
A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We ...
Sinha Swati - - 2013
Aebp1 is a transcription factor that negatively regulates adipogenesis and also is upregulated in primary GBM as against secondary GBM. Here we describe a systematic approach to map the in vivo occupancy sites of Aebp1 by using a combination of chromatin immune-precipitation technique and hybridization to Agilent high resolution human ...
Spracklen Andrew J - - 2013
Drosophila oogenesis or follicle development has been widely used to advance the understanding of complex developmental and cell biologic processes. This methods paper describes how to isolate mid-to-late stage follicles (Stage 10B-14) and utilize them to provide new insights into the molecular and morphologic events occurring during tight windows of ...
Mino Takashi T a Laboratory of Infection and Prevention, Department of Biological Responses , Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University , Kyoto , - - 2013
Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host defense. Cytokine production is regulated during transcription and post-transcription. Post-transcriptional regulation modifies mRNA stability and translation, allowing for the rapid and flexible control of gene expression, which is important for coordinating the initiation and resolution of inflammation. We review here a variety ...
Smith Ezra - - 2012
Emotional faces are motivationally salient stimuli that automatically capture attention and rapidly potentiate neural processing. Because of their superior temporal resolution, scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) are ideal for examining rapid changes in neural activity. Some reports have found larger ERPs for fearful and angry faces compared to both neutral and ...
Trapnell Cole C Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2013
Differential analysis of gene and transcript expression using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is complicated by several sources of measurement variability and poses numerous statistical challenges. We present Cuffdiff 2, an algorithm that estimates expression at transcript-level resolution and controls for variability evident across replicate libraries. Cuffdiff 2 robustly identifies differentially ...
Rajaei Mehrdad - - 2012
Polymorphism of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the promoter region of X-ray repair cross-complementing 5 (MIM: 194364, XRCC5; rs6147172) was reported. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on XRCC5 mRNA levels. Genotypes of XRCC5 VNTR were determined by high resolution ...
Harris Richard J - - 2012
Whether the brain represents facial expressions as perceptual continua or as emotion categories remains controversial. Here, we measured the neural response to morphed images to directly address how facial expressions of emotion are represented in the brain. We found that face-selective regions in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and the ...
Yoon Hyun Kyung - - 2012
Objective. Aberrant splicing is one of the most significant components generating functional diversity in many pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to analyse the mutations or aberrant splicing of A20 transcript, the region encompassing the ovarian tumour (OTU) domain [which is functionally important as an inhibitor of nuclear ...
Connelly Colleen M CM Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene regulators and have been shown to regulate many biological processes including embryonal development, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. Variations in the expression of certain miRNAs have been linked to a wide range of human diseases - especially cancer - ...
Darmon Sarah K - - 2012
Polyadenylation is a 3' mRNA processing event that contributes to gene expression by affecting stability, export and translation of mRNA. Human polyadenylation signals (PAS) have core and auxiliary elements that bind polyadenylation factors upstream and downstream of the cleavage site. The majority of mRNAs do not have optimal upstream and ...
Leibowitz-Amit Raya - - 2012
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Since the seminal discovery that aberrant miRNA expression has a causative role in leukemogenesis, the involvement of miRNAs in cancer initiation, propagation, and metastasis has been widely studied. In this review, we provide a ...
Goel Atul - - 2012
A convenient synthesis of natural and synthetic pterocarpans was achieved in three steps. Optical resolution of the respective enantiomers was accomplished by analytical and semi-preparative HPLC on a chiral stationary phase. For medicarpin and its synthetic derivative 9-demethoxymedicarpin, the absolute configuration was confirmed by a combination of experimental LC-ECD coupling ...
Jacobs Elina - - 2012
As more information is gathered on the mechanisms of transcription and translation, it is becoming apparent that these processes are highly regulated. The formation of mRNA secondary and tertiary structures is one such regulatory process that until recently it has not been analysed in depth. Formation of these mRNA structures ...
Case Adam J - - 2012
Mammary gland development is a multistage process requiring tightly regulated spatial and temporal signalling pathways. Many of these pathways have been shown to be sensitive to oxidative stress. Understanding that the loss of manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) leads to increased cellular oxidative stress, and that the loss or silencing of ...
Gehlbach Peter L - - 2012
AbstractWe delivered adenovirus vector (Ad) via intravitreous injection and monitored transgene (luciferase) expression in living mice (BALB/c) at multiple time points. In vivo live imaging technology was able to assess dynamically intraocular luciferase expression in a single animal population throughout the entire experiment period. Using this information, we were able ...
Staab Julia - - 2012
Expression of cytokine-regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins was histochemically assessed in patients diagnosed as having Hashimoto's disease or focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 10). All surgical specimens showed histological features of lymphocytic thyroiditis, including a diffuse infiltration with mononuclear cells and an incomplete loss of thyroid ...
Jo Joon-Jung - - 2012
Secondary structure matters: We have constructed artificial intragenic riboswitches to probe ribosome accessibility to the 5' mRNA coding region at three-base resolution in Escherichia coli. We show that only mRNA folding stability in the +1 to +15 nt region affects the translation process.
Sturgeon Xiaolu H - - 2012
When applied to complex transcript datasets, current tools for automated assembly of mRNA sequences require long run times and produce exponentially increasing numbers of splice variants. Here, we describe RCDA, a genome-based transcript assembly tool comprising RCluster, that recursively clusters transcripts, and DAssemble, that generates composite transcript sequences through path-finding ...
Wang Yu-Zhong - - 2012
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the innate immunity components, have been demonstrated to participate in multiple autoimmune diseases. However, our knowledge of the roles of TLRs in myasthenia gravis (MG) is still scarce. In this study, we detected the mRNA expression of TLR1 to TLR10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of ...
Mangos Steve S Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, - - 2012
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an endocrine hormone that is secreted by bone and acts on the kidney and parathyroid glands to regulate phosphate homeostasis. The effects of FGF23 on phosphate homeostasis are mediated by binding to FGF receptors and their coreceptor, αklotho, which are abundantly expressed in the ...
Costa-e-Sousa Ricardo H RH Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2012
TSH is the most important biomarker in the interpretation of thyroid function in man. Its levels are determined by circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels that feed back centrally to regulate the expression of the subunits that comprise TSH from the pituitary. The nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1), is a critical coregulator ...
Yoshihara Aya - - 2012
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macromolecular precursor in thyroid hormone synthesis to which iodine is stably bound. Tg, which is stored in the follicular space, is also a potent negative feedback regulator of follicular function, and this is achieved by suppressing mRNA levels of thyroid-specific genes such as the sodium/iodide symporter ...
Coon Steven L - - 2012
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the ...
Sue Mariko - - 2012
Propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) are drugs that are widely used to treat Graves' disease. Although both exert an antithyroid effect primarily by blocking thyroid peroxidase activity, their molecular structure and other actions are different. We hypothesized that PTU and MMI may have differential effects on thyroid-specific gene expression and ...
Wang Yan - - 2012
Thymomas of the same histological subtype sometimes manifest different biological behaviors. Metastasis Tumor Antigen-2 (MTA2) is targeted by the transcriptional repressor Kaiso, the distribution which is thought to be modulated by p120catenin (p120ctn). It is currently unclear if expression of p120ctn, Kaiso, and MTA2 relates to the biological behavior of ...
He Chengyong - - 2012
Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in regulating development, morphogenesis, growth, and behavior in fishes. Some environmental pollutants have adverse effects on either development or function of the thyroid gland in fish. However, there are few reports on the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on fish thyroid. In the present ...
Santillo Alessandra - - 2012
Thyroid hormone receptor-β (trβ) cDNA was identified in the adult of Pelophylax esculentus (previously: Rana esculenta), a seasonally breeding species, in order to detect spatial brain trβ expression, its levels through the seasons and in response to 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, T(4) and T(3) administrations as well as to thermal manipulations. The deduced ...
Faustino Larissa C - - 2012
α-Class GST (Gsta) represents an essential component of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in both the liver and the kidney. Estrogens and thyroid hormones (TH) play central roles in animal development, physiology, and behavior. Evidence of the overlapping functions of thyroid hormones and estrogens has been shown, although the molecular mechanisms ...
Romitti Mírian - - 2012
Background: Thyroid hormone regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. The thyroid-hormone-inactivating type 3 deiodinase (DIO3, D3) has been shown to be reactivated in human neoplasias. Here, we evaluated DIO3 expression in human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: Tumor and surrounding normal ...
Yu Dongfang - - 2012
The aim of the study was to elucidate aquaporin (AQP) family member mRNA expression and protein expression/localization in the rat lacrimal functional unit. The mRNA expression of all rat AQPs (AQP0-9, 11-12) in palpebral, fornical, and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland was measured by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain ...
Celano Marilena - - 2012
Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are known to receive an increased blood influx necessary to sustain their high rate of growth and hormone production. Here, we investigated the expression of hematic and lymphatic vases in a series of 20 AFTN compared with the contralateral non-tumor tissues of the same patients, ...
Yuan Songli - - 2012
The symbiosis receptor kinase (SymRK) is required for morphological changes of legume root hairs triggered by rhizobial infection. How protein turnover of SymRK is regulated and how the nodulation factor signals are transduced downstream of SymRK are not known. In this report, a SymRK-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (SIE3) was shown ...
Ward Y - - 2012
CD97, a member of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), complexes with and potentiates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling to the downstream effector RHOA. We show here that CD97 was expressed in a majority of thyroid cancers but not normal thyroid epithelium and that the level of CD97 expression ...
Zhang Zhe - - 2012
The miR-200 family was recently identified as a suppressor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The loss or gain of miR-200 family members is associated with cancer invasion. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATCs). The activation of EGFR by its ligand, epidermal ...
Cassone Cristina - - 2012
In a recent egg injection study, we showed that in ovo exposure to perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) affects the pipping success of developing chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos. We also found evidence of thyroid hormone (TH) pathway interference at multiple levels of biological organization (i.e. somatic growth, mRNA expression and circulating ...
Neumann Susanne - - 2012
Fibroblasts (FIBs) within the retro-orbital space of patients with Graves' disease (GOFs) express thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and are thought to be an orbital target of TSHR-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Recently, we developed a low molecular weight, drug-like TSHR antagonist (NCGC00229600) that inhibited TSHR activation in a model cell ...
Zhang Pi-Xian - - 2012
This study investigated the distribution of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin receptor (NGALR) in human embryonic, fetal and normal adult tissues. Tissue microarray technology was used to perform immunohistochemical examination on human embryos, fetuses at 4-22 weeks of gestation and adult tissue specimens. Results demonstrated that during the ...
Vaira Valentina - - 2012
A subset of over-expressed microRNAs identified in parathyroid carcinomas (Ca) compared to normal glands, belong to C19MC, a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 involved in stem cell biology and tumorigenesis. In the present study, the expression of C19MC-MIR371-3 clusters and the molecular mechanisms presiding their modulation were investigated in a series ...
Araujo Priscila Pereira Costa - - 2012
Literature has consistently shown associations of BRAFV600E mutation with papillary thyroid cancer clinical features. However, the clinical utility of BRAF expression has not been clinically explored so far. We studied 67 thyroid nodules (32 benign nodules and 35 PTC cases). BRAF mRNA expression levels measured by a quantitative real-time PCR ...
Geysens Stijn - - 2012
Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) are important in early brain development long before the onset of embryonic TH secretion, but information about the regulation of TH availability in the brain at these early stages is still limited. We therefore investigated in detail the mRNA distribution pattern of the TH activating type ...
Liu Chunrong - - 2012
Thyrotropin (TSH) is a protein that plays a key role in the control of thyroid function. TSH consists of a common α-subunit and a unique β-subunit; the latter is responsible for hormone specificity. A novel splice variant of human TSHβ was identified in 2009. To date, only the tissue distribution ...
Cotomacci Guilherme - - 2012
AIMS: To investigate the role of TH (thyroid hormones) in 5'-nucleotidase activity and expression in cardiac soluble fraction (SF). MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats received daily injections of T4 (10, 25 or 50μgT4/ 100g body weight) for 14days to develop a hyperthyroidism condition. Thyroidectomy was performed in other animals to ...
Costa-e-Sousa Ricardo H - - 2012
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays an important role in development and adult life. Many organisms may have evolved under selective pressure of exogenous TH, suggesting that thyroid hormone signaling is phylogenetically older than the systems that regulate their synthesis. Therefore, the negative feedback system by TH itself was probably the ...
Evans Juanita J - - 2012
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive and rapidly fatal neoplasm. The aim of this study was to identify a limited cell cycle associated protein expression pattern unique to ATC and to correlate that pattern with clinical outcome. This represents one of the largest tissue micro-array projects comparing the ...
Gewartowski Kamil - - 2012
The THO complex is a nuclear structure whose architecture is conserved among all kingdoms and plays an important role in mRNP biogenesis connecting transcription elongation with mRNA maturation and export. Recent data indicates that the THO complex is necessary for the proper expression of some genes, assurance of genetic stability ...
Jóźwiak Paweł - - 2012
The enhancement of glucose metabolism in neoplastic cells is mediated by the overexpression of key glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters (GLUTs). In particular, an increased expression of hypoxia-related GLUT1 and GLUT3 has been found in a variety of malignancies. The aim of this study was to examine the expression levels ...
Rebuffat Sandra A - - 2012
Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNFα are known to affect thyroid function. They stimulate IL-6 secretion and modify epithelium integrity by altering junction proteins. To study the role of cytokines on thyroid epithelia tightness in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), we analyzed the expression profiles of junction proteins (ZO-1, Claudin, ...
Cheng Yong - - 2012
It is very important to develop an effective, specific, and robust expression cassette that ensures a high level of expression in the mammary glands. In this study, we designed and constructed a series of mammary gland-specific vectors containing a complex hybrid promoter/enhancer by utilizing promoter sequences from milk proteins (i.e., ...
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