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Sharma Ankita A a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources , Karnal , Haryana , - - 2014
In the present study, expression level of various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) viz., ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCG5; associated transcription factors viz., SREBF1, LXRα (NR1H3), PPARA, and Solute Carriers (SLC); or Glucose transporters (GLUT) viz., SLC2A1(GLUT1), SLC2A4 (GLUT4), SLC2A8 (GLUT8), and SLC2A12 (GLUT12) superfamily of transporters were compared across physiological ...
Nye Monica D MD UNC, United - - 2014
The biological role of the transcription factor GLI1 in the regulation of tumor growth is well established, however, the molecular events modulating this phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying the role of GLI1 as an effector of TGFβ signaling in the regulation of gene expression in ...
Mattox Taylor A TA Department of Pharmacology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, - - 2014
MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1's role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, ...
Afroz Taliman - - 2014
Titratable systems are common tools in metabolic engineering to tune the levels of enzymes and cellular components as part of pathway optimization. For non-model microorganisms with limited genetic tools, inducible sugar utilization pathways offer built-in titratable systems. However, these pathways can exhibit undesirable single-cell behaviors that hamper the uniform and ...
Li Shuijie S Univ. Grenoble Alpes Laboratory for Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetic (LBFA), Grenoble, - - 2014
ATAD3 is a vital ATPase of the inner mitochondrial membrane of pluri-cellular eucaryotes with largely unknown functions. Invalidation of ATAD3 blocks organism development at early stages requiring mitochondrial mass increase. Since ATAD3 knock-down (KD) in C. elegans inhibits first of all the development of adipocyte-like intestinal tissue, we used mouse ...
Zhou Xiaodan - - 2014
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a central regulator of fatty acid catabolism, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional regulator of the gene encoding the carnitine transporter novel organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) in cattle. Whether PPARbeta/delta, another PPAR subtype, which has partially overlapping functions as PPARalpha and is ...
Vazquez-Pianzola Paula P Institute of Cell Biology, University of Bern, 3012 Berne, - - 2014
Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), microtubules and their motors form a transport machinery that localizes a remarkable diversity of mRNAs to specific cellular regions during oogenesis and embryogenesis. Bic-D family proteins also promote dynein-dependent transport of Golgi vesicles, lipid droplets, synaptic vesicles and nuclei. However, the transport of these different cargoes ...
Göpel Yvonne Y Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Immunobiology and Genetics, Center of Molecular Biology, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, - - 2014
Bacteria use intricately interconnected mechanisms acting at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level to adjust gene expression to their needs. An intriguing example found in the chitosugar utilization systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella is uncovered in a study by Plumbridge and colleagues in the current issue of Molecular Microbiology. Three ...
Landry Benjamin D BD Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, - - 2014
To maintain genome stability, regulators of chromosome segregation must be expressed in coordination with mitotic events. Expression of these late cell cycle genes is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), which phosphorylates a network of conserved transcription factors (TFs). However, the effects of Cdk1 phosphorylation on many key TFs are not ...
Ng Sophia S ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, - - 2014
Mitochondrial biogenesis and function in plants requires the expression of over one thousand nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins (NGEMPs). The expression of these genes is regulated by tissue-specific, developmental, internal and external stimuli that result in a dynamic organelle involved in both metabolic and a variety of signalling processes. Although ...
Schaffner Carlos A CA Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091, Zurich, - - 2014
The organic solute transporters alpha and beta (OSTα-OSTβ) form a heterodimeric transporter located at the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. Liver injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion, cancer, inflammation or cholestasis can induce a state of hypoxia in hepatocytes. To study the effect of hypoxia on the expression of ...
Nijland Philip G PG Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
To ensure efficient energy supply to the high demanding brain, nutrients are transported into brain cells via specific glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism are thought to play an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated ...
Watanabe Jun J *Division of Medical Life Sciences, Department of Pathologic Analysis, Graduate School of Health Sciences, and †Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki; ‡Department of Pathology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara; and §J-Pharma Co, Ltd; and ∥Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2014
The aims of this study were to determine whether the altered L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression is related to clinicopathologic factors, expressions of Ki-67, p53, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor and clarify the significance of LAT1 as a prognostic factor and the novel possibility of using it to ...
Kang Jeong-Woo JW Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University; 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 - - 2014
Myeloid-specific CD18 associates with CD11 and plays a critical role in leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. In this study, we observed that CD18 expression was decreased by IL-32α in THP-1 and K562 cells upon PMA stimulation, and investigated the mechanism by which IL-32α down-regulated CD18 expression. We found that IL-32α ...
Zubo Yan O YO Institute of Biology-Genetics, Humboldt University, Chaussestr. 117, 10115 Berlin, - - 2014
Mitochondrial transcription rate and RNA steady-state levels were examined in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings. The shoots were treated with inhibitors of complex III and IV of the cytochrome pathway (CP) and with an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase (AOX) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The inhibition of AOX and ...
Bader Sandra S Institute for Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University - - 2014
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty ...
Ng Raymond R Agency for Science Technology and Research, - - 2014
The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperlipidemia, with their associated risks of end stage liver and cardiovascular diseases, is increasing rapidly due to the prevalence of obesity. Although the mechanisms of NAFLD have been studied extensively, the underlying pathogenesis and the role of microRNAs in this process, ...
Kim Yun J YJ Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Institute of Integrative Genome Biology University of California, Riverside, CA, - - 2014
microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are small RNAs that repress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants and animals. Small RNAs guide Argonaute-containing RNA-induced silencing complexes to target RNAs in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in mRNA deadenylation followed by exonucleolytic decay, mRNA endonucleolytic cleavage, or translational inhibition. ...
Ikeda Yoshito Y Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, - - 2014
Resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are adipokines, which are secreted from adipocytes. Increased plasma resistin and PAI-1 levels aggravate metabolic syndrome through exacerbation of insulin resistance and induction of chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between resistin and PAI-1 gene expression remains unclear. Previously, we found that resistin regulates lipid ...
Percipalle Piergiorgio P Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Box 285, 171-77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
During mRNA biogenesis regulation of mRNA transport and localization is an essential step. It guarantees asymmetric protein distribution across the cell necessary for specialized cellular functions, and it is a driving force for cellular differentiation and development. mRNA transport and localization depends on the interactions between cis-acting elements located across ...
Van Zyl John Henry D JH Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7602, South - - 2014
SNAREs (soluble NSF [N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor] attachment receptor proteins) are required at the majority of fusion events during intracellular membrane transport and play crucial roles in facilitating protein trafficking between the various membrane-enclosed organelles and the plasma membrane. We demonstrate increases in the secretion of the Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (a cellobiohydrolase) ...
Bae Jiyoung J The University of Tennessee, - - 2014
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR), toll-like receptors (TLR), and nucleotide-oligomerization domain containing proteins (NOD) play critical roles in mediating inflammation and modulating functions in white adipocytes in obesity. However, the role of PRR activation in brown adipocytes, which are recently found to be present in adult humans, has not been studied. ...
Ouazia D D Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de chimie, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, - - 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, via the oxidative stress that it generates in the cytosol, could contribute to the selective loss of neurons observed in PD. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is ...
Feng D D Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, - - 2014
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by a reduction in excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression and severe amino acid excitotoxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effect of ceftriaxone (CEF), a potent compound that up-regulates EAAT2, against EBI and the ...
Wooding F B P FB Department of Physiology Development and Neuroscience, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Tragulus, the mouse deer, is considered the most primitive ruminant, with a diffuse placenta grossly quite unlike the cotyledonary type of the other ruminants. This immunocytochemical investigation of placental transporters was designed to elucidate possible mechanisms of evolution to the cotyledonary form. Tragulus expresses several of the major transport systems ...
Du Fukuan F Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, - - 2014
Estuarine tapertail anchovy (Coilia nasus, junior synonym C. ectenes) is a widely distributed and commercially important aquaculture species, although its growth in aquaculture settings is so slow as to pose a serious practical problem. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of growth, we cloned the myostatin gene in C. ...
Richards Jacob J University of Florida, United - - 2014
It has been well established that blood pressure and renal function undergo circadian fluctuations. We have demonstrated that the circadian protein Per1 regulates multiple genes involved in sodium transport in the collecting duct of the kidney. However, the role of Per1 in other parts of the nephron has not been ...
Liu Dong D CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2014
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), as a critical adaptor of RIG-I signaling, bridges viral RNA recognition and downstream signal activation. However, the regulating mechanisms of MAVS are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that eukaryotic elongation factor 1B gamma (eEF1Bγ) activates NF-кB signaling pathway through targeting MAVS. GST-pull down ...
Plumbridge Jacqueline J UPR9073-CNRS# (associated with Université Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité), Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, 13, Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, - - 2014
E. coli and Salmonella can use chitin-derived oligosaccharides as carbon and nitrogen sources. Chitosugars traverse the outer membrane through a dedicated chitoporin, ChiP, and are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane by the chitobiose transporter (ChbBCA). Previous work revealed that synthesis of the chitoporin, ChiP, requires transcription of the chbBCARFG operon. ...
Kim Min Soo MS College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang - - 2014
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive neuronal loss and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) are the major characteristics during pathogenesis in the brain. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether representative ginsenosides from ginseng can regulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are required ...
Wei Yao Y Nanjing University School of Life Sciences, - - 2014
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs), ~22 nt noncoding RNAs regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, have been recently shown to be transported into the nucleus where they modulate the biogenesis of other miRNAs or their own expression. However, the mechanism that governs the transport of mature miRNAs from cytoplasm to ...
Shi Yixin Y Arizona State University, United - - 2014
Riboswitches are a class of cis-acting regulatory RNAs normally characterized from the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of bacterial transcripts that bind a specific ligand to regulate expression of associated genes by forming alternative conformations. Here, we present a riboswitch that contributes to transcriptional regulation through sensing Mn2+ in Salmonella typhimurium. ...
Ekman Mari M 1] Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Biomedical Centre, BMC D12, Lund, Sweden [2] Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Sölvegatan 35, Lund, - - 2014
Prior work demonstrated increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the bladder following outlet obstruction, associated with bladder growth and fibrosis. Here we hypothesized that HIF induction in outlet obstruction also switches energetic support of contraction from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis. To address this hypothesis, we created infravesical outlet obstruction ...
Spyroglou Ariadni A Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, - - 2014
Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone secretion is a prerequisite to define potential targets and biomarkers in the context of primary aldosteronism. After a genome-wide association study with subjects from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 survey, we observed a highly significant ...
Guo Shoudong S Key Laboratory of Atherosclerosis in Universities of Shandong Province, Institute of Atherosclerosis, Taishan Medical University, Taian, 271000, - - 2014
Both sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and estrogen have been documented to play endothelial protective roles. However, it remains unclear whether estrogen could regulate the anabolism of the bioactive molecule S1P and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, 108 healthy participants were separated into three age groups, and their plasma S1P levels ...
Matsubara Ai A Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Na(+) and Cl(-) are dominant ions in the endolymphatic fluid in the endolymphatic sac and are important for volume regulation in the endolymphatic sac. An epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and other Na(+) transporters have been identified in the endolymphatic sac epithelia, and they are involved in the regulation of endolymph. ...
Shimada Ryo - - 2014
Objectives: An association has been suggested between trauma and neurological degenerative diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause primary lesions in the midbrain including the substantia nigra (SN). Dopamine transporter (DAT) is mainly expressed in the SN, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and retrorubral field ...
Ursache Robertas R Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, - - 2014
The development and growth of higher plants is highly dependent on the conduction of water and minerals throughout the plant by xylem vessels. In Arabidopsis roots the xylem is organized as an axis of cell files with two distinct cell fates: the central metaxylem and the peripheral protoxylem. During vascular ...
Wex Thomas T Medical Laboratory for Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Genetics, Otto von Guericke University, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany ; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto von Guericke University, D-39120 Magdeburg, - - 2014
Intracellular zinc homeostasis is tightly regulated under physiological conditions; however, dysregulation of zinc levels has been reported in various chronic inflammatory and malignant diseases. In this study, we aimed to assess the expression pattern of the 24 currently known zinc transporters in resting and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...
Wang Jiaji J Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; School of Basic Medical Sciences; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences; Ministry of Education of China; Peking University, Beijing, P.R. - - 2014
Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate some protein-coding genes. miRNAs play an important role in many cardiac pathophysiological processes, including myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. miR-499, specifically expressed in skeletal muscle and cardiac cells, is differentially regulated and functions in ...
Jambor Helena H European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, - - 2014
mRNA transport coupled with translational control underlies the intracellular localization of many proteins in eukaryotic cells. This is exemplified in Drosophila, where oskar mRNA transport and translation at the posterior pole of the oocyte direct posterior patterning of the embryo. oskar localization is a multistep process. Within the oocyte, a ...
Harrell Constance S CS Department of Physiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
Cerebral glucose uptake is mediated by several members of the family of facilitated glucose transporters (protein nomenclature GLUT; gene nomenclature solute carrier family 2 Slc2a). Glucose uptake differs between the sexes and also varies with menstrual status in women and across the rodent oestrous cycle. This study demonstrates the extent ...
Plante Samuel S Universite de Sherbrooke, - - 2014
Meiosis requires copper to undertake its program in which haploid gametes are produced from diploid precursor cells. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, copper is transported by three members of the copper transporter (Ctr) family, namely Ctr4, Ctr5 and Ctr6. Although central for sexual differentiation, very little is known about the expression profile, ...
Yoon John C JC Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
Mitochondrial defects underlie a multitude of human diseases. Genetic manipulation of mitochondrial regulatory pathways represents a potential therapeutic approach. We have carried out a high-throughput overexpression screen for genes that affect mitochondrial abundance or activity using flow-cytometry-based enrichment of a cell population expressing a high-complexity, concentration-normalized pool of human ORFs. ...
Khan Khalid K Chemical Genetic Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 645 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, - - 2014
Splicing, a process for mRNA maturation, is essential for correct gene expression after transcription. However, recent studies also suggest that splicing affects transcription, but its mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that treatment with spliceostatin A (SSA), a specific splicing inhibitor targeting the splicing factor SF3b, leads to transcriptional activation ...
Joy Melanie S - - 2014
Objective: Leukocyte mRNA expression patterns of drug metabolizing enzyme genes and transporter genes that are relevant for the disposition of cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate were studied. The relationships between expression and patient-level data and pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Methods: The study included patients with glomerulonephritis secondary to lupus nephritis (SLE, n = ...
Ohno Yoshinori Y Department of Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Department of Bioscience and Genetics, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, Japan Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Department of Life Sciences, Meiji University School of Agriculture, Kawasaki, Japan Department of Molecular Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Department of Food and Fermentation Science, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Beppu University, Beppu, Japan Department of Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, - - 2014
Geminin performs a central function in regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation in development and also in stem cells. Interestingly, down-regulation of Geminin induces gene transcription regulated by E2F, indicating that Geminin is involved in regulation of E2F-mediated transcriptional activity. Since transcription of the Geminin gene is reportedly regulated via an ...
Najimi Mustapha M Mustapha Najimi, Xavier Stéphenne, Etienne Sokal, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Laboratory of Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy, Brussels 1200, - - 2014
To investigate the activity and expression of EAAT2 glutamate transporter in both in vitro and in vivo models of cholestasis. This study was conducted on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell cultures, the liver of bile duct ligated rats and human specimens from cholestatic patients. EAAT2 glutamate transporter activity and expression were ...
Huang Carlos P CP Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0819, USA. - - 2014
Mammalian cells express two copper (Cu) influx transporters, CTR1 and CTR2. CTR1 serves as an influx transporter for both Cu and cisplatin (cDDP). In mouse embryo fibroblasts, reduction of CTR1 expression renders cells resistant to cDDP whereas reduction of CTR2 makes them hypersensitive both in vitro and in vivo. To ...
Kim Ji Hye JH CHA Univ., Applied Bioscience, Korea, Republic of ; - - 2014
Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show promise for cell therapy, there is a tremendous need for developing ASC activators. In the present study, we investigated whether or not vitamin C increases the survival, proliferation, and hair-regenerative potential of ASCs. In addition, we tried to find the molecular mechanisms underlying the ...
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