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Forini Francesca F Consiglio Nationale delle Ricerche (CNR) Institute of Clinical Physiology (F.F., C.K., G.N., L.M., G.I.,L.P), Via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa, Italy; Department of Pathology (R.Z., G.I.), University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (M.M., G.I.), Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, Pisa, Italy; CNR/Tuscany Region G Monasterio Foundation (G.I.), Via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa, - - 2014
Mitochondrial dysfunctions critically affect cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this scenario p53 activates multiple signaling pathways that impair cardiac mitochondria and promote cell death. p53 is a validated target of miR-30 whose levels fall under ischemic conditions. Although triiodothyronine (T3) rescues post-ischemic mitochondrial activity and cell viability, no ...
Yang Bicheng B Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Guangzhou 510230, - - 2014
Promoter-targeted small activating RNAs (saRNAs) have been shown to be able to induce target gene expression, a mechanism known as RNA activation (RNAa). The present study tested whether saRNA can induce the overexpression of TRPV5 in human cells derived from the kidney and subsequently manipulate cell calcium uptake. Three saRNAs ...
Fu YuHong Y Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
Brain cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by a group of proteins called ATP-binding cassette subfamily A (ABCA) transporters. Certain ABCA transporters regulate amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing to generate amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and are associated with an increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ABCA5 is a little-known member of the ...
Keniya Mikhail V - - 2014
ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to confirm ...
Jansen Ralf-Peter RP Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 4, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Active transport and local translation of mRNAs ensure the appropriate spatial organization of proteins within cells. Recent work has shown that this process is intricately connected to membrane trafficking. Here, we focus on new findings obtained in fungal model systems. Important highlights are that RNA-binding proteins recognize cargo mRNA synergistically ...
Singer-Krüger Birgit B Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry; University of Tübingen; Tübingen, - - 2014
mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism that contributes to cell polarity and cellular asymmetry. In metazoan, mRNA transport participates in embryonic axis determination and neuronal plasticity. Since the mRNA localization process and its molecular machinery are rather complex in higher eukaryotes, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has ...
Peng Li-Ming LM 1Xiangya hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China 2Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate whether N-arachidonic acid ethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) transporter contributed to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)expression mediated by nitroglycerin (GTN) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers and its association with the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys (ALDH2*2) polymorphism. In 10 ALDH2*2-genotyped ...
Nikolova Yuliya S YS Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology &Neuroscience, and Institute for Genome Sciences &Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2014
We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same ...
Ji Shengyue S College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR - - 2014
PU.1, an Ets family transcription factor, was previously demonstrated expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and had an negative effect on adiopogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, miR-191 was identified as an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation through targeting the 3' untranslated regions of C/EBPβ, the initial factor in the C/EBPα/β-PPARγ ...
Seale Andre P AP Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Euryhaline teleosts are faced with significant challenges during changes in salinity. Osmoregulatory responses to salinity changes are mediated through the neuroendocrine system which directs osmoregulatory tissues to modulate ion transport. Prolactin (PRL) plays a major role in freshwater (FW) osmoregulation by promoting ion uptake in osmoregulatory tissues, including intestine. We ...
Bolleyn Jennifer J Department of Toxicology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090, Brussels, Belgium, - - 2014
In the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as key factors that negatively regulate mRNA expression. It has been estimated that more than 50 % of protein-coding genes are under microRNA control and each microRNA is predicted to repress several mRNA targets. In this respect, it is recognized that microRNAs play a ...
Zhang Xiaorong X State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, - - 2014
MicroRNAs are well known to mediate translational repression and mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Various microRNAs have also been detected in membrane-compartmentalized organelles, but the functional significance has remained elusive. Here, we report that miR-1, a microRNA specifically induced during myogenesis, efficiently enters the mitochondria where it unexpectedly stimulates, rather ...
Nouws Jessica J Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06437, - - 2014
Regulation of gene expression in mammalian mitochondria by microRNAs is reported by Zhang et al. During muscle cell differentiation, localization of a miRNA is increased within mitochondria, where it interacts with Ago2 to selectively activate translation of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. The findings represent a new mitochondrial regulatory pathway and a potentially powerful ...
Wu Yanling Y Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. - - 2014
Skeletal muscle formation is controlled by multiple processes. These processes are tightly regulated by muscle regulatory factors. Genes that are highly and specifically expressed during myogenesis need to be identified. In the present study, the role of an anti-adipogenic gene adipose (Adp) in myogenesis is demonstrated. We discover that the ...
Karki Pratap P Department of Physiology, Meharry Medical College, 1005 DB Todd Jr Blvd, Nashville, TN, 37208, - - 2014
Astrocytic glutamate transporters, the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 2 and EAAT1 (glutamate transporter 1 and glutamate aspartate transporter in rodents, respectively), are the main transporters for maintaining optimal glutamate levels in the synaptic clefts by taking up more than 90 % of glutamate from extracellular space thus preventing excitotoxic neuronal ...
Zhang Shihai S State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, - - 2014
Leucine has been shown to influence intestinal protein metabolism, cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, our previous study demonstrated that branched-chain amino acids could modulate the intestinal amino acid and peptide transporters in vivo. As the possible mechanisms are still largely unknown, in the present work, we studied the transcriptional and ...
Shi Chun C Department of Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510182, China, - - 2014
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism (s) of Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is still not fully understood. There is evidence that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is involved in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and is present in mitochondria. Using HT22 murine ...
Liang Jianfeng J Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029 - - 2014
Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate extracellular glutamate concentrations and play a role in preventing neuroexcitotoxicity. Since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against excitotoxic injury, we asked if DOR activation upregulates EAAT expression and function. We measured mRNA and protein expression of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in cultured mouse ...
Kobori Takuro T Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin - - 2014
 Altered expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux transporter expressed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), may contribute to the development of opioid analgesic tolerance, as demonstrated by cumulative evidence from research. However, the detailed mechanism by which chronic morphine treatment increases P-gp expression remains unexplained. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) are scaffold ...
Tang Shang-Jun SJ Department of General Surgery, Chen Xing Hai Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Zhongshan, China; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters often leads to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), which is the major factor contributing to the failure of chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of CEP-33779, a small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), on the efficacy ...
Jin Bo B Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Health Science Center, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, - - 2014
Cellular senescence is a stable state of proliferative arrest that provides a barrier against malignant transformation and contributes to the antitumor activity of certain chemotherapies. Unexpectedly, we found that the expression of proto-oncogene PIM-1, which can promote tumorigenesis, is induced at transcriptional level during senescence. Inhibition of PIM-1 alleviated both ...
Skop Vojtech V Center of Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Autophagy is essential for successful white adipocyte differentiation but the data regarding the timing and relevance of autophagy action during different phases of adipogenesis are limited. We subjected 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to a standard differentiation protocol and inhibited the autophagy within time-limited periods (days 0-2; 2-4; 4-6; 6-8) by asparagine or ...
Wilkins Heather M HM Department of Neurology University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease - - 2014
Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies, and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA), affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation, and neurogenesis we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 ...
Rack Paul G PG Departments of Chemical and Systems - - 2014
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation and Gli-dependent transcription play critical roles in embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. By conducting a genome-scale cDNA overexpression screen, we have identified the Rho GAP family member Arhgap36 as a positive regulator of the Hh pathway in vitro and in vivo. Arhgap36 acts in a ...
Choi Min-Koo MK College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, 119 Dandaero, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-714, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of a sodium-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 1 and an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to ribavirin uptake in human hepatocytes. The initial studies in oocytes expressing CNT1 and ENT1 showed increases in ribavirin uptake, indicating that ribavirin was a ...
Chen Taiyu T National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Centre of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, - - 2014
Engineering C4 photosynthetic metabolism into C3 crops is regarded as a major strategy to increase crop productivity, and clarification of the evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis can help the better use of this strategy. Here, Eleocharis baldwinii, a species in which C4 photosynthesis can be induced from a C3 -C4 ...
Ye Junyi - - 2014
Morphine has been widely used as a clinical anesthetic and analgesic. However, abuse of morphine might result in psychological and physiological dependence. Previous studies have indicated that memory mechanisms play critical roles in morphine dependence. Morphine dependence was established in mice utilizing place preference conditioning (CPP). We observed changes in ...
Kawashima Ryoko L RL Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Northridge, Northridge CA - - 2014
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of excess cholesterol from foam cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I, in a process called reverse cholesterol transport. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a lipolytic enzyme expressed by macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to genetically knock-down (KD) the expression ...
Shahbabian Karen K Département de Biochimie et Médecine Moléculaire, Université de Montréal, 2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7, - - 2014
Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is coupled to the translational repression of transcripts during their transport. It is still unknown if this coupling depends on physical interactions between translational control and mRNA localization machineries, and how these interactions are established at the molecular level. In yeast, localization of transcripts like ASH1 ...
Marguerat Samuel S Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment and UCL Cancer Institute; University College London; London, - - 2014
The cooperation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels of control to shape gene regulation is only partially understood. Here we show that a combination of two simple and non-invasive genomic techniques, coupled with kinetic mathematical modeling, afford insight into the intricate dynamics of RNA regulation in response to oxidative stress in ...
Yen Hsiu-Chuan - - 2014
Abstract Endogenous coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and essential for the electron transport chain. We previously demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide enhanced CoQ10 levels, whereas disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential by a chemical uncoupler suppressed CoQ10 levels, in human 143B cells. In this study, we investigated how CoQ10 levels ...
Gu Wanjun W Research Center for Learning Sciences, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China Wanjun.Gu@gmail.com akdongyi01@cau.ac.kr - - 2014
Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5' UTR; however, the ...
Pilyugin Maxim M Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Department of Medical Genetics and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed RNA molecules of more than 200 nucleotides without substantial ORFs. LncRNAs could act as epigenetic regulators of gene expression affecting transcription, mRNA stability and transport, and translation, although, precise functions have been attributed to only few of them. Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) represent ...
Sharma Ankita A a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources , Karnal , Haryana , - - 2014
In the present study, expression level of various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) viz., ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCG5; associated transcription factors viz., SREBF1, LXRα (NR1H3), PPARA, and Solute Carriers (SLC); or Glucose transporters (GLUT) viz., SLC2A1(GLUT1), SLC2A4 (GLUT4), SLC2A8 (GLUT8), and SLC2A12 (GLUT12) superfamily of transporters were compared across physiological ...
Vetere Gisella G Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council, Via del FossodiFiorano, 64/65, 00143, Roma, Italy; Fondazione Santa Lucia, Via del Fossodi Fiorano 64/65, 00143, Roma, - - 2014
Post-transcriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is implicated in memory formation; however, the function of miR-92 in this regulation is uncharacterized. The present study shows that training mice in contextual fear conditioning produces a transient increase in miR-92 levels in the hippocampus and decreases several miR-92 gene targets, including: ...
Kunze Annett A Novartis Pharma AG; Univsity of - - 2014
Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 are drug transporters mediating the active hepatic uptake of their substrates. Since they exhibit overlapping substrate specificities the contribution of each isoform to the net hepatic uptake needs to be considered when predicting drug-drug interactions. The relative contribution of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated ...
Takahashi Yoshinobu Y Department of Neurosurgery, Hokuto Hospital, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-0039, - - 2014
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis. [(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and L-(methyl-(11)C)-methionine (MET) are the most widely used tracers in oncological positron emission tomography studies for PCNSL and commonly identify hypermetabolic lesions through increased uptake of FDG and MET. However, ...
de Vreede Geert G Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, - - 2014
Scribble (Scrib) module proteins are major regulators of cell polarity, but how they influence membrane traffic is not known. Endocytosis is also a key regulator of polarity through roles that remain unclear. Here we link Scrib to a specific arm of the endocytic trafficking system. Drosophila mutants that block AP-2-dependent ...
Yan Lei L Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Nanjing Agriculture University, 210095 Nanjing, - - 2014
We have tested the hypothesis that increased concentrate intake induces mRNA abundance alterations of genes involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption in the rumen epithelium of goats and these changes of mRNA abundance are probably related to ruminal SCFA concentration and ruminal pH. Goats (n = 12) were randomly ...
Wang Kun K Division of Cardiovascular Research, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new players in gene regulation, but whether lncRNAs operate in the processing of miRNA primary transcript is unclear. Also, whether lncRNAs are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial network remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA, named ...
Jian Qiang Q Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, - - 2014
The influence of UV irradiation on pigmentation is well established, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling dendrite formation remain incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that participate in various cellular processes by suppressing the expression of target messenger RNAs. In this study, we investigated the ...
Tang Yujie Y 1] Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. [2] Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, - - 2014
Hedgehog signaling drives oncogenesis in several cancers, and strategies targeting this pathway have been developed, most notably through inhibition of Smoothened (SMO). However, resistance to Smoothened inhibitors occurs by genetic changes of Smoothened or other downstream Hedgehog components. Here we overcome these resistance mechanisms by modulating GLI transcription through inhibition ...
Liu Xuemei X Department of Gastroenterology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2014
Slc26a9 is an anion transporter that is strongly expressed in the stomach and lung. Slc26a9 variants were recently found associated with a higher incidence of meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis (CF) infants, raising the question whether Slc26a9 is expressed in the intestine and what its functional role is. Slc26a9 messenger ...
Hu Hailong H State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, - - 2014
Background: The chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) has been shown to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, it improves insulin sensitivity and promotes glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), as a major glucose transporter protein, plays a central role in glucose metabolism. Until now, it has ...
Jahnel Jorg J Medical University of Graz; - - 2014
Objective: The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BA) critically depends on absorption of BA in the terminal ileum and colon, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diarrhea in IBD is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption (BAM). We explored whether IBD alters mRNA expression of ...
Yang Zheng-Ting ZT State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai, - - 2014
The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers a well-conserved pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) in eukaryotic cells to mitigate the ER stress. Two signaling pathways,S2P-bZIP28 and IRE1-bZIP60, play important roles in transmitting the ER stress signals from the ER to the nucleus in ...
Li Yongzhen Y Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College , Tiantanxili No. 1, Beijing 100050, - - 2014
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter and receptor in promoting cholesterol efflux, and increasing the expression level of ABCA1 is antiatherogenic. In our previous study, rutaecarpine (RUT) was found to protect ApoE(-/-) mice from developing atherosclerosis through preferentially up-regulating ABCA1 expression. In the present work, a series ...
Yang Zhong-Fa ZF University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, - - 2014
Mitochondria are membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles that serve as the major source for ATP production in eukaryotic cells. GABP (also known as Nuclear Respiratory Factor 2) is a nuclear-encoded ets transcription factor that binds and activates mitochondrial genes which are required for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. We conditionally deleted Gabpa, ...
Soler Dellys M - - 2014
mRNA stability appears to play a key role in the ontogenic regulation of the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). The RNA binding proteins, Hu antigen R (HuR) and Tristetraprolin (TTP), stabilize and destabilize ASBT mRNA, respectively. Potential HuR binding sites were assessed by sequence analysis in the context ...
Buchwalter Abigail L AL Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N. Torrey Pines Road La Jolla, 92037 CA, - - 2014
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) plays a critical role in gene expression by mediating import of transcription regulators into the nucleus and export of RNA transcripts to the cytoplasm. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to mediating transport, a subset of nucleoporins (Nups) engage in transcriptional activation and elongation at ...
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