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Chen Cheng C Department of Orthopedics, The 163rd Central Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, PR - - 2014
Objective: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticatabolic properties and to be protective in animal models of OA. This study was aimed to investigate the possible protective effect ...
Huang Fu-Chen - - 2014
BackgroundThe human opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) carries the highest case fatality rate of all gram-negative infections. Unfortunately, antimicrobial therapy has not been demonstrated to improve clinical outcome and the emergence of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa has become a major concern in the hospital setting. Fever and diarrhea are ...
Mancini Stefano S Department Clinical Research, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern, - - 2014
Quinones are ubiquitous in the environment. They occur naturally, but are also in widespread use in human and industrial activities. Quinones alone are relatively benign to bacteria, but in combination with copper, they become toxic by a mechanism that leads to intracellular thiol depletion. Here, it was shown that the ...
Simmons Olga O Developmental Biology and Neonatal Medicine Program, HB Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, - - 2014
Background: Multiple BMP genes are expressed in the developing heart from the initiation to late-differentiation stages, and play pivotal roles in cardiovascular development. In this study, we investigated the requirement of BMP activity in heart development by transgenic over-expression of extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Results: Using Nkx2.5-Cre to drive lineage-restricted ...
Wang Qian Q Department of Neurology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Diseases, National Key Clinical Department, National Key Discipline, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Reports suggest that silent information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3) protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-mediated death. SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein, is an essential regulator of mitochondrial function, and this regulation is important in many cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in ischemia-induced neuronal death due ...
Rossi Franco R FR Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas-Instituto Tecnológico Chascomús, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (IIB-INTECH/UNSAM-CONICET), Chascomús, - - 2014
Polyamine biosynthesis starts with putrescine production through the decarboxylation of arginine or ornithine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, putrescine is synthesised exclusively by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), which exists as two isoforms (ADC1 and 2) that are differentially regulated by abiotic stimuli, but their role in defence against pathogens has not been studied ...
Pessina Federica F Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, 53100 Siena, - - 2014
Palmitoylethanolamide is both an endogenous mediator released together with the endocannabinoid anandamide from membrane phospholipids, and a plant-derived compound with analgesic and antinflammatory properties. Here, we verified if the pathophysiology of experimental cystitis involves changes in the levels of palmitoylethanolamide and of some of its targets [i.e. cannabinoid (CB1 and ...
Martin L L Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, - - 2014
SLC7A11 encodes a subunit of the xCT cystine/glutamate amino-acid transport system and has a critical role in the generation of glutathione and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Expression of SLC7A11 promotes tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance, but while SLC7A11 has been previously noted to be upregulated in hypoxic cells, ...
Merenlender-Wagner Avia A a The Adams Super Center for Brain Studies; The Lily and Avraham Gildor Chair for the Investigation of Growth Factors; The Elton Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology; Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sagol School of Neuroscience, Sackler Faculty of Medicine , Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv , - - 2014
Autophagy plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as manifested by a 40% decrease in BECN1/Beclin 1 mRNA in postmortem hippocampal tissues relative to controls. This decrease was coupled with the deregulation of the essential ADNP (activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox), a binding partner of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light ...
Zeilmaker Tieme T Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Arabidopsis downy mildew resistant 6 (dmr6) mutants have lost their susceptibility to the downy mildew Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Here we show that dmr6 is also resistant to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the oomycete Phytophthora capsici. Resistance is accompanied by enhanced defense gene expression and elevated salicylic acid levels. The suppressive ...
Guo Yuan-Jin YJ Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, People's Republic of - - 2014
In this study, we tried to explore the molecular mechanism that Corilagin protected against herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis through inhibiting the TLR2 signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. As a result, Corilagin significantly prevented increase in the levels of TLR2 and its downstream mediators following Malp2 or HSV-1 challenge. ...
Gu Wei W 1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity & Biotechnology and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Aquatic Crustacean Diseases, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, - - 2014
In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF ...
Neef Daniel W DW Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2014
Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that protects cells from protein-misfolding-induced stress and apoptosis. The mechanisms by which cytosolic protein misfolding leads to HSF1 activation have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that HSF1 is directly regulated by TRiC/CCT, a central ATP-dependent chaperonin complex that ...
Lu Xia X Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Marine Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, - - 2014
The copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) could effectively eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintain the redox balance of immune system. In the present study, the potential synergy of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD in immune system was investigated in the clam Meretrix meretrix. The expression of Cu/Zn-SOD ...
Li Dan D Department of Biopharmaceuticals, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Methyl glyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl metabolite, causes a range of changes within the cell. It forms adducts with DNA and protein and contributes to the progression of several diseases as well as causing hepatic damage. In this study, we have used human hepatoma (HepG2) cells as a model ...
Grether-Beck Susanne S IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against ...
Ciccone Nick A - - 2014
The mechanisms by which viruses modulate the immune system include changes in host genomic methylation. 5-hydroxmethylcytosine (5hmC) is the catalytic product of the Tet (Ten-11 translocation) family of enzymes and may serve as an intermediate of DNA demethylation. Recent reports suggest that 5hmC may confer consequences on cellular events including ...
Wang Yu-Chun YC Department of Pharmacology (the State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, - - 2014
Estrogen inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) induces cardiac hypertrophy. The present study was designed to test whether estrogen inhibited BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used in in vitro experiments. The female mice were performed with bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) operation and the in ...
Chen Xi X College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on the expressions of heat shock proteins (Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 27) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in neutrophils of broilers. One hundred eighty 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into two groups and were ...
Jin Yue Y Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunko District, Dalian 116044 - - 2014
Polysaccharides were extracted from Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae to investigate whether Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae polysaccharides (RDNP) can act as an antioxidant and PPARγ agonist to protect HUVECs from H2O2-induced injury. HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were treated with RDNP in the presence/absence of H2O2. Kits and Fenton reaction were used ...
Jeon Byoung-Kook BK BK21-plus Team, Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 570-749, Jeollabukdo, Republic of - - 2014
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) that protects against photodamage and photocarcinogenesis in mammals. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol transport protein that is found in basal layer keratinocytes. In this study, we have investigated the protective effect of EPA against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced AQP3 downregulation ...
Burra Dharani - - 2014
BackgroundPotato late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans can lead to immense yield loss. We investigated the transcriptome of Solanum tubersoum (cv. Desiree) and characterized the secretome by quantitative proteomics after foliar application of the protective agent phosphite. We also studied the distribution of phosphite in planta after ...
Fan Xiaomei X School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen - - 2014
Schisandra sphenanthera is widely used as a tonic and restorative in many countries to enhance the function of liver and other organs. Wuzhi tablet (WZ) is a preparation of an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. Our previous study has demonstrated that WZ exerts a protective effect towards acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. ...
Elsing Alexandra N AN Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, - - 2014
Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates ...
Martin Daniel D King's College London, United - - 2014
It is well-known that atherosclerosis occurs geographically at branch points where disturbed flow predisposes to the development of plaque via triggering of oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. In this study, we found that disturbed flow activated anti-oxidative reactions via up-regulating heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in an X-box binding protein 1 ...
Xue Mingzhan M University of Warwick, Medical School , walsgrave Hospital , Coventry, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, CV2 2DX ; - - 2014
Aims: Stress responsive signalling coordinated by Nrf2 provides an adaptive response for protection of cells against toxic insults, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Nrf2 regulates a battery of protective genes by binding to regulatory anti-oxidant response elements (AREs). The aim of this study was to examine how Nrf2 signals cell ...
Kauppinen Antti A Trinity College Dublin, Ireland - - 2014
According to legal expressivism, neither crime nor punishment consists merely in intentionally imposing some kind of harm on another. Crime and punishment also have an expressive aspect. They are what they are in part because they enact attitudes toward others-in the case of crime, some kind of disrespect, at least, ...
Yin Jian J CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Suzhou 215163, China; Suzhou Xiexin Photovoltaic Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215163, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, - - 2014
This paper aims to evaluate the individual and joint toxicities of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) and α-naphthoflavone (ANF) in zebrafish embryos. As a result, CdSO4 caused both lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) death and 72 hpf delayed hatching. However, ANF only caused sub-lethal effects, including 48 ...
Xu Mulin M College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, - - 2014
Big-leaf mulberry is a new hybrid plant from the application of cell engineering technology, but its effect in stress-induced testicular dysfunction is unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) is a tiny, highly reactive lipophilic molecule produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Three isoforms of NOS (neuronal NOS, inducible NOS and endothelial NOS) ...
Kim Kang Mi KM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626‑870, Republic of - - 2014
Chondrocyte senescence is associated with the aging and degeneration of cartilage, and eventually leads to joint destruction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the cytoprotective effects of heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) on chondrocytes in cartilage. Chondrocyte senescence was induced using cilostazol and measured using a specific ...
Brunquell Jessica J From the Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, - - 2014
The heat shock response (HSR) protects cells from protein-denaturing stress through the induction of chaperones. The HSR is conserved in all organisms and is mediated by the transcription factor HSF-1. We show here that a compound commonly used to prevent larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR), can enhance heat ...
Forini Francesca F Consiglio Nationale delle Ricerche (CNR) Institute of Clinical Physiology (F.F., C.K., G.N., L.M., G.I.,L.P), Via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa, Italy; Department of Pathology (R.Z., G.I.), University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (M.M., G.I.), Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, Pisa, Italy; CNR/Tuscany Region G Monasterio Foundation (G.I.), Via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa, - - 2014
Mitochondrial dysfunctions critically affect cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this scenario p53 activates multiple signaling pathways that impair cardiac mitochondria and promote cell death. p53 is a validated target of miR-30 whose levels fall under ischemic conditions. Although triiodothyronine (T3) rescues post-ischemic mitochondrial activity and cell viability, no ...
Yang Bicheng B Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Guangzhou 510230, - - 2014
Promoter-targeted small activating RNAs (saRNAs) have been shown to be able to induce target gene expression, a mechanism known as RNA activation (RNAa). The present study tested whether saRNA can induce the overexpression of TRPV5 in human cells derived from the kidney and subsequently manipulate cell calcium uptake. Three saRNAs ...
Niu Yufeng Y Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent University, Rozier 44, Gent, 9000, Belgium; The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, - - 2014
Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the ...
Fu YuHong Y Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
Brain cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by a group of proteins called ATP-binding cassette subfamily A (ABCA) transporters. Certain ABCA transporters regulate amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing to generate amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and are associated with an increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ABCA5 is a little-known member of the ...
Keniya Mikhail V - - 2014
ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to confirm ...
Jansen Ralf-Peter RP Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 4, 72076 Tübingen, - - 2014
Active transport and local translation of mRNAs ensure the appropriate spatial organization of proteins within cells. Recent work has shown that this process is intricately connected to membrane trafficking. Here, we focus on new findings obtained in fungal model systems. Important highlights are that RNA-binding proteins recognize cargo mRNA synergistically ...
Singer-Krüger Birgit B Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry; University of Tübingen; Tübingen, - - 2014
mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism that contributes to cell polarity and cellular asymmetry. In metazoan, mRNA transport participates in embryonic axis determination and neuronal plasticity. Since the mRNA localization process and its molecular machinery are rather complex in higher eukaryotes, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has ...
Peng Li-Ming LM 1Xiangya hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China 2Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate whether N-arachidonic acid ethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) transporter contributed to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)expression mediated by nitroglycerin (GTN) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers and its association with the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys (ALDH2*2) polymorphism. In 10 ALDH2*2-genotyped ...
Nikolova Yuliya S YS Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology &Neuroscience, and Institute for Genome Sciences &Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2014
We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same ...
Ji Shengyue S College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR - - 2014
PU.1, an Ets family transcription factor, was previously demonstrated expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and had an negative effect on adiopogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, miR-191 was identified as an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation through targeting the 3' untranslated regions of C/EBPβ, the initial factor in the C/EBPα/β-PPARγ ...
Seale Andre P AP Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Euryhaline teleosts are faced with significant challenges during changes in salinity. Osmoregulatory responses to salinity changes are mediated through the neuroendocrine system which directs osmoregulatory tissues to modulate ion transport. Prolactin (PRL) plays a major role in freshwater (FW) osmoregulation by promoting ion uptake in osmoregulatory tissues, including intestine. We ...
Bolleyn Jennifer J Department of Toxicology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090, Brussels, Belgium, - - 2014
In the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as key factors that negatively regulate mRNA expression. It has been estimated that more than 50 % of protein-coding genes are under microRNA control and each microRNA is predicted to repress several mRNA targets. In this respect, it is recognized that microRNAs play a ...
Zhang Xiaorong X State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, - - 2014
MicroRNAs are well known to mediate translational repression and mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Various microRNAs have also been detected in membrane-compartmentalized organelles, but the functional significance has remained elusive. Here, we report that miR-1, a microRNA specifically induced during myogenesis, efficiently enters the mitochondria where it unexpectedly stimulates, rather ...
Nouws Jessica J Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06437, - - 2014
Regulation of gene expression in mammalian mitochondria by microRNAs is reported by Zhang et al. During muscle cell differentiation, localization of a miRNA is increased within mitochondria, where it interacts with Ago2 to selectively activate translation of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. The findings represent a new mitochondrial regulatory pathway and a potentially powerful ...
Wu Yanling Y Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. - - 2014
Skeletal muscle formation is controlled by multiple processes. These processes are tightly regulated by muscle regulatory factors. Genes that are highly and specifically expressed during myogenesis need to be identified. In the present study, the role of an anti-adipogenic gene adipose (Adp) in myogenesis is demonstrated. We discover that the ...
Karki Pratap P Department of Physiology, Meharry Medical College, 1005 DB Todd Jr Blvd, Nashville, TN, 37208, - - 2014
Astrocytic glutamate transporters, the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 2 and EAAT1 (glutamate transporter 1 and glutamate aspartate transporter in rodents, respectively), are the main transporters for maintaining optimal glutamate levels in the synaptic clefts by taking up more than 90 % of glutamate from extracellular space thus preventing excitotoxic neuronal ...
Zhang Shihai S State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, - - 2014
Leucine has been shown to influence intestinal protein metabolism, cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, our previous study demonstrated that branched-chain amino acids could modulate the intestinal amino acid and peptide transporters in vivo. As the possible mechanisms are still largely unknown, in the present work, we studied the transcriptional and ...
Shi Chun C Department of Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510182, China, - - 2014
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism (s) of Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is still not fully understood. There is evidence that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is involved in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and is present in mitochondria. Using HT22 murine ...
Liang Jianfeng J Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029 - - 2014
Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate extracellular glutamate concentrations and play a role in preventing neuroexcitotoxicity. Since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against excitotoxic injury, we asked if DOR activation upregulates EAAT expression and function. We measured mRNA and protein expression of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in cultured mouse ...
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