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Gindner Antonia A Department of Microbiology and Archaea Center, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93053, Regensburg, - - 2014
Microbes are organisms which are well adapted to their habitat. Their survival depends on the regulation of gene expression levels in response to environmental signals. The most important step in regulation of gene expression takes place at the transcriptional level. This regulation is intriguing in Archaea because the eu-karyotic-like transcription ...
Seldin Marcus M MM Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
Mammalian hibernation elicits profound changes in whole-body physiology. The liver-derived hibernation protein (HP) complex, consisting of HP-20, HP-25 and HP-27, was shown to oscillate circannually, and this oscillation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to play a role in hibernation. The HP complex has been found in hibernating ...
Chaudhary Neelam N Laboratory of Cell Death & Cell Survival, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Nampally, Hyderabad 500001, - - 2014
The balance between transcription factor p73 and its functionally opposing N-terminal truncated ΔNp73 isoform is critical for cell survival but the precise mechanism that regulates their levels is not clear. In our study, we identified WWP2, an E3 ligase as a novel p73 associated protein that ubiquitinates and degrades p73. ...
Kim J J Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, - - 2014
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as multipotent stromal cells, are used in clinical trials. However, the use of MSCs for medical treatment of patients poses a potential problem due to the possibility of transdifferentiation into unwanted tissues. Disruption of the balance during MSC differentiation leads to obesity, skeletal fragility, ...
Tinoco Ana B AB Departamento de Fisiología (Fisiología Animal II). Facultad de Biología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid, - - 2014
Daily rhythms of feeding regulators are currently arousing research interest due to the relevance of the temporal harmony of endocrine regulators for growth and welfare in vertebrates. However, it is unknown the leptin circadian pattern in fish. The aim of this study is to investigate if leptin (gLep-aI and gLep-aII) ...
Rodriguez-Pacheco Francisca F Unidad de Gestion Clinica de Endocrinogía y Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Málaga (IBIMA), Hospital Regional Universitario, Malaga, Spain; CIBERDEM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Malaga, - - 2014
The effects that fatty acids (FAs) exert on G protein-coupled receptor-120 (GPR120) levels, a receptor for FAs, are still unknown. We analyzed the association between GPR120 and obesity, and the FA effects on its expression. GPR120 levels were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from nonobese and morbidly obese subject. ...
Chan Hsiao Chang HC Epithelial Cell Biology Research Center, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education of China, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong - - 2014
While microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as one of the important epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression in response to changes in environments, the links between environmental cues to alternation in miRNAs remain largely unknown. Localized to the cell membrane and recognized as an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane ...
Jofré Matías R - - 2014
SPI-18 is a pathogenicity island found in some Salmonella enterica serovars, including S. Typhi. SPI-18 harbors two ORFs organized into an operon, hlyE and taiA genes, both implicated in virulence. Regarding the hlyE regulation in S. Typhi, it has been reported that RpoS participates as transcriptional up-regulator under low pH ...
Trombley Susanne S Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, - - 2014
In mammals, leptin acts as an adiposity signal and is a crucial link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. So far the link between leptin and energy balance during sexual maturation in teleosts has been poorly investigated. In this study, seasonal gene expression changes in two leptin genes (lepa1 ...
Sharma Bal Krishan BK Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Oncology and Biomarkers Program, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA - - 2014
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its ...
Wang Yufeng Y Laboratory of Livestock physiology, Department of Biosystems, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, 3001 Leuven, - - 2014
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved cellular energy sensor, which plays a pivotal role in mammalian energy homeostasis. The present study was aimed to explore the possible involvement of hypothalamic AMPK in feed intake regulation of broiler chickens. Hence, diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% α-lipoic-acid (α-LA), a ...
Simons A M AM Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, - - 2014
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves when cues reliably predict fitness consequences of life-history decisions, whereas bet hedging evolves when environments are unpredictable. These modes of response should be jointly expressed, because environmental variance is composed of both predictable and unpredictable components. However, little attention has been paid to the joint expression ...
Xia T T Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of - - 2014
Background:In the central nervous system (CNS), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) plays an important role in regulating energy balance. We previously showed that dietary deprivation of leucine in mice increases energy expenditure through CNS-dependent regulation. However, the involvement of central TRH in this regulation has not been reported.Methods:Male C57J/B6 mice were maintained ...
Hiong Kum C KC Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore, 637616, Republic of - - 2014
This study aimed to clone and sequence Na (+) / K (+)-ATPase (nka) α-subunit isoforms from, and to determine their mRNA expression levels and protein abundance in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation in air. We obtained the full ...
Voss Cristina - - 2014
Many studies of the eukaryotic transcription mechanism and its regulation rely on in vitro assays. Conventional RNA polymerase II transcription assays are based on radioactive labelling of the newly synthesized RNA. Due to the inefficient in vitro transcription, the detection of the RNA involving purification and gel electrophoresis is laborious ...
Fishbach Ayelet A Booth School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. ayelet.fishbach@chicagobooth.edu - - 2014
I present evidence in favor of an overarching motivational self: a mental function that regulates expression of multiple goals. Goals often conflict with each other, and the role of a motivational self is to consciously or unconsciously prioritize pursuit of these goals. When observing inconsistency in expression of goals, it ...
Choi Young Jae - - 2014
Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis and reproductive function in fish, especially in reproduction. Migrating fish, such as salmonoids, are affected by external environmental factors, and salinity changes are a particularly important influence on spawning migrations. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in salinity ...
McEachern Lori A LA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, - - 2014
Antisense transcription is prevalent in mammalian genomes, yet the function of many antisense transcripts remains elusive. We have previously shown that the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) gene is regulated endogenously by an overlapping antisense gene called Nudix-type motif 6 (NUDT6). However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the balance of ...
Nteeba Jackson - - 2014
Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extra-ovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stage follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, ...
Kim Youn Jung YJ Kyung Hee University College of Nursing Science, Seoul, - - 2014
To assess innate and humoral immune responses in middle ear effusion of obese pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). We evaluated 219 children with OME, of whom 21 were obese and 198 were non-obese. We compared the expression in middle ear effusion of mRNAs encoding toll-like receptors (TLR) ...
Perkins S D SD Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL - - 2014
Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, two divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in forty-eight Angus-sired ...
Wang Weimin W College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agriculture University, Lanzhou, 730070, - - 2014
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, plays an important role in stimulating hormone secretion, development of gastrointestinal tract, food intake and regulating energy balance of animals. In this study we isolated the cDNA sequence of ovine Ghrelin from the abomasums of 7-day-aged lambs. Real-time PCR was used ...
Viesti A Collares Renata R Department of Surgery and Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, - - 2014
Obesity is a multifactorial disease, with epigenetic alterations. Have been described modifications in the expression of some microRNAs, and some proteins related to obesity. The objective was to determine and correlate, in obese patients, the gene expression of LEP, LEPR, IGF1, IL10 and of miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-143 and miR-145. RNA ...
Huang Zan Z 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210061, China - - 2014
Cell growth is tightly coupled with mitochondrial biogenesis in order to maintain energy and organelle homeostasis. Receptor tyrosine kinase Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play a critical role in the growth and survival of multiple cell lineages. Here we report that the expression of SCF and Kit ...
Li F F a Institute of Animal Nutrition , Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin , - - 2013
Abstract 1. Broiler breeders are unable to self-regulate feed intake to a level that permits reproductive function and restricted feeding is normal for broiler parent stock. The aim of this study was to determine whether myostatin (MSTN) and myogenin (MYOG) mRNA expression could be altered in relation to differences in ...
Liu Guan-Ying - - 2013
Arterial calcification is a complex and active regulated process, which results from a process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Leptin, the product of the ob gene, mainly regulates food intake and energy expenditure and recently has been considered correlated with the arterial calcification. However, the mechanisms ...
Hsieh Yih-Shou - - 2013
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated whether cerebral catecholamine (CA) might regulate NPY and POMC expression and whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) participated in activator protein-1 ...
Iwasa Takeshi T Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Institute of Health Biosciences, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan. - - 2013
Estrogen plays an important role in feeding and energy balance, and the critical role of estrogen in the control of appetite and energy balance is mediated by hypothalamic estrogen receptor (ER) alpha. In undernourished rodents, hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA expression are decreased. Responses of some hypothalamic factors to negative energy ...
Vamvini Maria T MT Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2013
Skeletal muscle is considered to be an endocrine organ that secretes a number of myokines including follistatin (FST), myostatin (MSTN), activin A, and the newly identified irisin. Irisin's biology and function exhibit similarities with the functions of the FST-MSTN-activin A axis. It remains unknown whether there is any interplay among ...
Yamagata Satoshi - - 2013
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activates the pituitary-adrenal axis during stress, and shows anorectic effects via CRF type 1 receptors in the hypothalamus. Both urocortin (Ucn) 2 and Ucn3 also act as anorectic neuropeptides via CRF type 2 receptors. Leptin, a product of the obesity gene secreted mainly from adipose tissue, reduces ...
Yokoyama Sanae - - 2013
The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives signals originating from oral proprioceptors and projects its fibers to the hypothalamus, regulates mastication and modulates satiation. Because the Me5 neurons display circadian rhythms in circadian mPer1 gene expression and bilateral Me5 lesions change feeding and exploratory behavior profiles, we speculated that ...
Murri Mora - - 2013
ContextMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences that regulate negatively gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA-21, miRNA-27b, miRNA-103 and miRNA-155 have been associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, which are also associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the effects of sex, sex hormones ...
Zhao Xiao - - 2013
Tmod4 (Tropomodulin 4) is a member of Tmod family that plays important role in thin filament length regulation and myofibril assembly. We found that the expression levels of Tmod4 were higher in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. However, the function and regulation of the Tmod4 gene in the myogenesis and ...
Lei Liu - - 2013
Heat stress-induced reduction in feed intake is an annoyance of the poultry industry. Feed intake is regulated by complex mechanisms in which brain-gut neuropeptides are involved, but the changes in such neuropeptides in broiler chickens during heat exposure remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute heat ...
Gruber Sabine - - 2013
Obesity increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in part through the activation of obesity-associated proinflammatory signaling. Here, we show that in lean mice, abrogation of IL-6Rα signaling protects against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC development. HCC protection occurs via Mcl-1 destabilization, thus promoting hepatocyte apoptosis. IL-6 regulates Mcl-1 stability via ...
Kong Yinfei - - 2013
Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is essential for seed maturation in plants. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in TAG biosynthesis. In this study, we show that TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings is correlated with environmental stress, and both ABI4 and ABI5 play important roles in regulating DGAT1 expression. Tobacco ...
Kim Sun-Gyun SG Neuroscience Section, Papé Family Pediatric Research Institute, Department of - - 2013
Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid ...
Shrivastav Shashi - - 2013
HIV infection and its therapy are associated with disorders of lipid metabolism and bioenergetics. Previous work has suggested that Vpr may contribute to the development of lipodystrophy and insulin resistance observed in HIV-1-infected patients. In adipocytes, Vpr suppresses mRNA expression of PPARγ responsive genes and inhibits differentiation. We investigated whether ...
Babichuk Nicole A - - 2013
Feeding in vertebrates is controlled by a number of appetite stimulating (orexigenic, e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y, NPY) and appetite suppressing (anorexigenic, e.g. cholecystokinin, CCK and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) hormones. Cunners (Tautogolabrus adspersus) survive the winter in shallow coastal waters by entering a torpor-like state, during which they ...
Noy Noa - - 2013
The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) regulates gene transcription by activating the nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ and their cognate lipid binding proteins CRABP-II, which delivers RA to RAR, and FABP5, which shuttles the hormone to PPARβ/δ. In preadipocytes, RA signals predominantly through CRABP-II and the RAR isotype RARγ ...
Trajkovski Mirko M University College London (UCL), Division of Biosciences, School of Life and Medical Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Darwin building, Gower street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2013
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity; in both humans and mice increased amounts of BAT are associated with a lean phenotype and resistance to development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Here we summarize recent research ...
Lents C A - - 2013
Nesfatin-1, a product of the nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) gene, purportedly plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Experiments were conducted to determine how NUCB2 expression in fat depots may be controlled in the pig and to test the hypothesis that nesfatin-1 regulates appetite and LH secretion in the gilt. Prepubertal ...
Tews D - - 2013
Variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and body fat mass in genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, the mechanism by which FTO predisposes individuals to obesity is not clear so far. First mechanistic evidence was shown in Fto negative mice. These mice ...
Cakir Isin I Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island 02907, - - 2013
It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained ...
Bell-Anderson Kim S KS School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. - - 2013
Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) is a transcriptional regulator that we have shown to be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis in vitro. Here, we report that KLF3-null mice are lean and protected from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. On a chow diet, plasma levels of leptin are decreased, and adiponectin ...
Rosenwald Matthias - - 2013
Brown adipose tissue helps to maintain body temperature in hibernators, rodents and neonatal mammals by converting lipids and glucose into heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. In addition to classical brown adipocytes, adult rodents-like adult humans-harbour brown-like adipocytes in the predominantly white adipose tissue. The formation of these brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes ...
Schleinitz D - - 2013
Objective:We hypothesized that genes within recently identified loci associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) exhibit fat depot-specific mRNA expression, which correlates with obesity-related traits.Methods:Adipose tissue (AT) mRNA expression of 6 genes (TBX15/WARS2, STAB1, PIGC, ZNRF3 and GRB14) within these loci showing coincident cis-expression quantitative trait loci was measured in 222 paired ...
Nahar Asrafun - - 2013
Obese heifers have been found to produce fewer excellent-grade embryos than lean and normal heifers due to unknown mechanisms. Oviducts synthesize granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) to promote embryogenesis, and GMCSF expression may be down-regulated in the oviducts of obese cows. The present study evaluated the relationship between the degree ...
Honigsbaum Mark M Institute and Museum of Medical History, Hirschengraben 82, 8001 Zürich, - - 2013
Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played ...
Ramírez Sara S Basic Sciences Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, - - 2013
Recent data suggest that ghrelin exerts its orexigenic action through regulation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase pathway, leading to a decline in malonyl-CoA levels and desinhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), which increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ultimately enhances the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related protein (AgRP) and ...
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