Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1628
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Xia T T Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of - - 2014
Background:In the central nervous system (CNS), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) plays an important role in regulating energy balance. We previously showed that dietary deprivation of leucine in mice increases energy expenditure through CNS-dependent regulation. However, the involvement of central TRH in this regulation has not been reported.Methods:Male C57J/B6 mice were maintained ...
Hiong Kum C KC Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore, 637616, Republic of - - 2014
This study aimed to clone and sequence Na (+) / K (+)-ATPase (nka) α-subunit isoforms from, and to determine their mRNA expression levels and protein abundance in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation in air. We obtained the full ...
Voss Cristina - - 2014
Many studies of the eukaryotic transcription mechanism and its regulation rely on in vitro assays. Conventional RNA polymerase II transcription assays are based on radioactive labelling of the newly synthesized RNA. Due to the inefficient in vitro transcription, the detection of the RNA involving purification and gel electrophoresis is laborious ...
McEachern Lori A LA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, - - 2014
Antisense transcription is prevalent in mammalian genomes, yet the function of many antisense transcripts remains elusive. We have previously shown that the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) gene is regulated endogenously by an overlapping antisense gene called Nudix-type motif 6 (NUDT6). However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the balance of ...
Nteeba Jackson - - 2014
Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extra-ovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stage follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, ...
Kim Youn Jung YJ Kyung Hee University College of Nursing Science, Seoul, - - 2014
To assess innate and humoral immune responses in middle ear effusion of obese pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). We evaluated 219 children with OME, of whom 21 were obese and 198 were non-obese. We compared the expression in middle ear effusion of mRNAs encoding toll-like receptors (TLR) ...
Perkins S D SD Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL - - 2014
Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, two divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in forty-eight Angus-sired ...
Wang Weimin W College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agriculture University, Lanzhou, 730070, - - 2014
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, plays an important role in stimulating hormone secretion, development of gastrointestinal tract, food intake and regulating energy balance of animals. In this study we isolated the cDNA sequence of ovine Ghrelin from the abomasums of 7-day-aged lambs. Real-time PCR was used ...
Viesti A Collares Renata R Department of Surgery and Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, - - 2014
Obesity is a multifactorial disease, with epigenetic alterations. Have been described modifications in the expression of some microRNAs, and some proteins related to obesity. The objective was to determine and correlate, in obese patients, the gene expression of LEP, LEPR, IGF1, IL10 and of miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-143 and miR-145. RNA ...
Li F F a Institute of Animal Nutrition , Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin , - - 2013
Abstract 1. Broiler breeders are unable to self-regulate feed intake to a level that permits reproductive function and restricted feeding is normal for broiler parent stock. The aim of this study was to determine whether myostatin (MSTN) and myogenin (MYOG) mRNA expression could be altered in relation to differences in ...
Liu Guan-Ying - - 2013
Arterial calcification is a complex and active regulated process, which results from a process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Leptin, the product of the ob gene, mainly regulates food intake and energy expenditure and recently has been considered correlated with the arterial calcification. However, the mechanisms ...
Hsieh Yih-Shou - - 2013
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated whether cerebral catecholamine (CA) might regulate NPY and POMC expression and whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) participated in activator protein-1 ...
Iwasa Takeshi T Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Institute of Health Biosciences, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan. - - 2013
Estrogen plays an important role in feeding and energy balance, and the critical role of estrogen in the control of appetite and energy balance is mediated by hypothalamic estrogen receptor (ER) alpha. In undernourished rodents, hypothalamic ER alpha mRNA expression are decreased. Responses of some hypothalamic factors to negative energy ...
Vamvini Maria T MT Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2013
Skeletal muscle is considered to be an endocrine organ that secretes a number of myokines including follistatin (FST), myostatin (MSTN), activin A, and the newly identified irisin. Irisin's biology and function exhibit similarities with the functions of the FST-MSTN-activin A axis. It remains unknown whether there is any interplay among ...
Yamagata Satoshi - - 2013
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activates the pituitary-adrenal axis during stress, and shows anorectic effects via CRF type 1 receptors in the hypothalamus. Both urocortin (Ucn) 2 and Ucn3 also act as anorectic neuropeptides via CRF type 2 receptors. Leptin, a product of the obesity gene secreted mainly from adipose tissue, reduces ...
Yokoyama Sanae - - 2013
The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives signals originating from oral proprioceptors and projects its fibers to the hypothalamus, regulates mastication and modulates satiation. Because the Me5 neurons display circadian rhythms in circadian mPer1 gene expression and bilateral Me5 lesions change feeding and exploratory behavior profiles, we speculated that ...
Murri Mora - - 2013
ContextMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences that regulate negatively gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA-21, miRNA-27b, miRNA-103 and miRNA-155 have been associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, which are also associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the effects of sex, sex hormones ...
Zhao Xiao - - 2013
Tmod4 (Tropomodulin 4) is a member of Tmod family that plays important role in thin filament length regulation and myofibril assembly. We found that the expression levels of Tmod4 were higher in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. However, the function and regulation of the Tmod4 gene in the myogenesis and ...
Lei Liu - - 2013
Heat stress-induced reduction in feed intake is an annoyance of the poultry industry. Feed intake is regulated by complex mechanisms in which brain-gut neuropeptides are involved, but the changes in such neuropeptides in broiler chickens during heat exposure remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute heat ...
Gruber Sabine - - 2013
Obesity increases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in part through the activation of obesity-associated proinflammatory signaling. Here, we show that in lean mice, abrogation of IL-6Rα signaling protects against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC development. HCC protection occurs via Mcl-1 destabilization, thus promoting hepatocyte apoptosis. IL-6 regulates Mcl-1 stability via ...
Kong Yinfei - - 2013
Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is essential for seed maturation in plants. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in TAG biosynthesis. In this study, we show that TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings is correlated with environmental stress, and both ABI4 and ABI5 play important roles in regulating DGAT1 expression. Tobacco ...
Kim Sun-Gyun SG Neuroscience Section, Papé Family Pediatric Research Institute, Department of - - 2013
Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid ...
Shrivastav Shashi - - 2013
HIV infection and its therapy are associated with disorders of lipid metabolism and bioenergetics. Previous work has suggested that Vpr may contribute to the development of lipodystrophy and insulin resistance observed in HIV-1-infected patients. In adipocytes, Vpr suppresses mRNA expression of PPARγ responsive genes and inhibits differentiation. We investigated whether ...
Babichuk Nicole A - - 2013
Feeding in vertebrates is controlled by a number of appetite stimulating (orexigenic, e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y, NPY) and appetite suppressing (anorexigenic, e.g. cholecystokinin, CCK and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) hormones. Cunners (Tautogolabrus adspersus) survive the winter in shallow coastal waters by entering a torpor-like state, during which they ...
Noy Noa - - 2013
The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) regulates gene transcription by activating the nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ and their cognate lipid binding proteins CRABP-II, which delivers RA to RAR, and FABP5, which shuttles the hormone to PPARβ/δ. In preadipocytes, RA signals predominantly through CRABP-II and the RAR isotype RARγ ...
Trajkovski Mirko M University College London (UCL), Division of Biosciences, School of Life and Medical Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Darwin building, Gower street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2013
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity; in both humans and mice increased amounts of BAT are associated with a lean phenotype and resistance to development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Here we summarize recent research ...
Lents C A - - 2013
Nesfatin-1, a product of the nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) gene, purportedly plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Experiments were conducted to determine how NUCB2 expression in fat depots may be controlled in the pig and to test the hypothesis that nesfatin-1 regulates appetite and LH secretion in the gilt. Prepubertal ...
Tews D - - 2013
Variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and body fat mass in genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, the mechanism by which FTO predisposes individuals to obesity is not clear so far. First mechanistic evidence was shown in Fto negative mice. These mice ...
Cakir Isin - - 2013
It was previously shown that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting (PC) enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is reduced yet the mRNA of its precursor protein POMC ...
Bell-Anderson Kim S - - 2013
Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) is a transcriptional regulator that we have shown to be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis in vitro. Here we report that KLF3 null mice are lean and protected from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. On a chow diet, plasma levels of leptin are decreased, and ...
Rosenwald Matthias - - 2013
Brown adipose tissue helps to maintain body temperature in hibernators, rodents and neonatal mammals by converting lipids and glucose into heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. In addition to classical brown adipocytes, adult rodents-like adult humans-harbour brown-like adipocytes in the predominantly white adipose tissue. The formation of these brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes ...
Schleinitz D - - 2013
Objective:We hypothesized that genes within recently identified loci associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) exhibit fat depot-specific mRNA expression, which correlates with obesity-related traits.Methods:Adipose tissue (AT) mRNA expression of 6 genes (TBX15/WARS2, STAB1, PIGC, ZNRF3 and GRB14) within these loci showing coincident cis-expression quantitative trait loci was measured in 222 paired ...
Nahar Asrafun - - 2013
Obese heifers have been found to produce fewer excellent-grade embryos than lean and normal heifers due to unknown mechanisms. Oviducts synthesize granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) to promote embryogenesis, and GMCSF expression may be down-regulated in the oviducts of obese cows. The present study evaluated the relationship between the degree ...
Honigsbaum Mark M Institute and Museum of Medical History, Hirschengraben 82, 8001 Zürich, - - 2013
Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played ...
Ramírez Sara - - 2013
Recent data suggest that ghrelin exerts its orexigenic action through regulation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, leading to a decline in malonyl-CoA levels and desinhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), which increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ultimately enhances the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related protein (AgRP) ...
Bouchard-Mercier Annie - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. ...
Shi X - - 2013
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: While chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity, acute inflammation reduces food intake and leads to negative energy balance. Although both types of inflammation activate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signalling, it remains unclear how NF-κB activation results in opposite physiological responses in the two types of inflammation. The goal ...
Sakamoto Tomoya T Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, - - 2013
Recently, it has been demonstrated that uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-expressing white adipocytes (brown-like adipocytes) are important for energy expenditure in white adipose tissue (WAT), in which energy expenditure decreases under obese conditions. However, the relationship between the induction of brown-like adipocytes and the decrease in energy expenditure in obese WAT remains ...
Takahashi Nobuhiko - - 2013
Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 ...
Chanclón Belén - - 2013
Ghrelin-system components [native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT) and receptors (GHS-Rs)] are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the pancreas, where they exert different biological actions including regulation of neuroendocrine secretions, food intake and pancreatic function. The expression of ghrelin system is regulated by metabolic conditions (fasting/obesity) and ...
Kim Younghwa - - 2013
Recent reports have proposed possible anti-obesity mechanisms for antioxidants involving increased energy expenditure, pre-adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis, and fat oxidation. The aim of this study was to examine and to confirm the anti-obesity effect of the oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin fractions from defatted grape seeds. ...
Wedellova Zuzana - - 2013
Contribution of individual adiponectin isoforms to lipolysis regulation remains unknown. We investigated the impact of full-length, trimeric and globular adiponectin isoforms on spontaneous lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of obese and non-obese subjects. Furthermore, we explored the role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in adiponectin-dependent ...
Kwon Jeong Jin J Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA ; Department of Ob/Gyn & Reproductive Sciences, New Haven, CT, 06520, - - 2013
Hypothalamic Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) levels and thus affecting melanocortin signaling. Alpha-MSH production is highly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Here we show that fasting induces a hypothalamic-specific up-regulation of Prcp mRNA and ...
Mrosek Nadja N Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, Competence Centre for Systems Physiology (CC-SPMD), Institute of Food Nutrition and Health, Schorenstrasse 16, 8603 Schwerzenbach, - - 2013
Altered adipose tissue formation is a well-known effectors of obesity and T2D. Here, we describe the role of Lrh1 and its co-repressor Shp in the control of adipocyte formation. Expression of Lrh1 in the pre-adipocyte containing SVF is induced in obese mice models and humans while Shp expression is reduced. ...
Du Hongyin H State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Biochemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, - - 2013
The inducible coactivator PGC-1 α plays master regulator in mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues (BATs). BAT is a natural antiobesity organ which dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat through specialized mitochondrial protein UCP-1. Eletroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used as an alternative treatment for obesity ...
Dutta Deep - - 2012
Leptin, a product of Ob gene from adipocytes regulates appetite, energy expenditure and body mass composition by decreasing orexigenic and increasing anorexigenic neuropeptide release from hypothalamus. Research over the past few years have suggested leptin/leptin receptor dysregulation to have a role in the development of a large variety of malignancies ...
Judith Radin M - - 2012
Aquaporin-2 (AQP2), the vasopressin-regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct, is dysregulated in numerous disorders of water balance in people and animals, including those associated with polyuria (urinary tract obstruction, hypokalemia, inflammation, and lithium toxicity) and with dilutional hyponatremia (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis). Normal regulation ...
Dixen Karen - - 2012
Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are important regulators of energy metabolism. Here we investigated the effect of ERRγ on differentiation and function of brown adipocytes. ERRγ was preferentially expressed in brown compared to white fat depots, and ERRγ was induced during cold-induced browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. Overexpression ...
Ma J - - 2012
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can inhibit and modify the growth of ice crystals. Two antifreeze protein genes, Apafp752 and Apafp914, were cloned from the desert beetle Anatolica polita (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae), and they shared 61.3 percent similarity at the amino acid level. Apafp752 also contained one variation in the most conserved TCT ...
Teran-Cabanillas Eli - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, and proinflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from obese subjects and their association with suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 expression. METHODS: The IFN responses were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >