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Song Mingyu M Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, - - 2014
Although glucocorticoids provide benefits for inflammation or autoimmune disorders, high-dose and long-term use could cause osteonecrosis or osteoporosis as adverse effect for patients. Electromagnetic field (EMF) treatments have been clinically used for many years to promote fracture healing, but whether EMF can attenuate the deleterious effects of glucocorticoids is not ...
Modica Salvatore S negrisud, - - 2014
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a bile acid-activated transcription factor that belongs to the nuclear receptor super-family. It is highly expressed in the entero-hepatic system, where it senses bile acid levels to consequently reduce their synthesis while inducing their detoxification. Bile acids are intestinal tumor promoters and their concentrations ...
Edens Lisa J LJ Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY - - 2014
Dramatic changes in cell and nuclear size occur during development and differentiation, and aberrant nuclear size is associated with many disease states. However, the mechanisms that regulate nuclear size are largely unknown. A robust system for investigating nuclear size is early Xenopus laevis development, during which reductions in nuclear size ...
Okkelman Irina A IA Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow, 117997, - - 2014
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase involved in protein cross-linking of the extracellular matrix. Less well characterized is the role that LOX plays among nuclear proteins, and molecular mechanisms of its transport to the nucleus are currently unknown. Here, we have employed yeast two-hybrid library screening and found that ...
He Qianyu Q Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, - - 2014
Juvenile hormone (JH) receptors, Met and Gce, transduce JH signals to induce Kr-h1 expression in Drosophila. Dual luciferase assay identified a 120-bp JH response region (JHRR) in the Kr-h1α promoter. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that Met and Gce transduce JH signals to induce Kr-h1 expression through ...
Iida Atsumi A Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, 2 Division of Clinical Genome Research, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 108-8639 - - 2014
The vertebrate lens undergoes organelle and nuclear degradation during lens development, allowing the lens to become transparent. DNase2b is an enzyme responsible for nuclear degradation in the mouse lens; however, dnase2b expression in zebrafish showed a distribution pattern that differed from that in mice. No zebrafish dnase2b was detected by ...
Erlejman Alejandra G AG Universidad de Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Hsp90-binding immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52 modulate steroid receptor trafficking and hormone-dependent biological responses. With the purpose to expand this model to other nuclear factors that are also subject to nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, we analyzed whether these immunophilins modulate NF-κB signalling. It is demonstrated that FKBP51 impairs both the nuclear translocation rate ...
Zhao Yulan Y Zhejiang University, - - 2014
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates a wide range of cellular responses in metazoans. A key step in the canonical BMP signaling is the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8 (collectively Smad1/5/8) by the type I BMP receptors. We previously identified PPM1A as a ...
Chatterjee Anwesha A Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA. - - 2014
The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or ...
Vieira Marta M Molecular Neurobiology Unit, IBMC - Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180, Porto, - - 2014
Transthyretin (TTR) is the carrier protein of thyroxine (T4) and binds to retinol-binding protein (RBP)-retinol complex. It is mainly synthesized by both liver and choroid plexuses of the brain. Besides these properties, it has a neuroprotective role in several contexts such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia. Activation of ...
Sun Hongxia H Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China. Electronic address: - - 2014
A new G-quadruplex structure located in the Bcl-2 P1 promoter and its physiological function related to Bcl-2 transcription have been studied to find a potential anticancer therapeutic target. Absorption, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been employed to determine G-quadruplex structure and the interaction ...
Bardou Florian F Institut des Sciences du Végétal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Saclay Plant Sciences, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, - - 2014
Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA represents a major mechanism underlying increased transcriptome and proteome complexity. Here, we show that the nuclear speckle RNA-binding protein (NSR) and the AS competitor long noncoding RNA (or ASCO-lncRNA) constitute an AS regulatory module. AtNSR-GFP translational fusions are expressed in primary and lateral root (LR) meristems. ...
Sudhakar Janaki N JN Graduate Institute of Biomedical - - 2014
During the initiation of cell death, mitochondrial protein, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), is transported to the nucleus. The mechanism of AIF nuclear translocation, however, is not clear. After protein synthesis, the AIF is originally targeted to the mitochondria, and the nuclear targeting is a secondary event. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ...
Jiang Peng P Department of Hepatobiliary Oncology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510095, Guangdong, - - 2014
Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) functions as an adaptor that transports several proteins to the nucleus. Emerging evidence suggests that KPNA2 plays a crucial role in oncogenesis and early recurrence. In the present study, we evaluated the expression pattern of KPNA2 in 221 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens and matching adjacent, non-tumorous tissues ...
Olsthoorn René C L RC Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, 2333CC Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Cellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays a crucial role in the initial conversion of cellular prion protein PrP(C) to infectious PrP(Sc) or scrapie. The nature of this RNA remains elusive. Previously, RNA aptamers against PrP(C) have been isolated and found to form G-quadruplexes (G4s). PrP(C) binding to G4 RNAs destabilizes its ...
Togashi Naoyuki - - 2014
Meiotic cells undergo two rounds of nuclear division and generate gametes. Previous studies have indicated that a number of transcription factors modulate the transcriptome in successive waves during meiosis and spore formation in fission yeast. However, the mechanisms underlying the post-transcriptional regulation in meiosis are not fully understood. The fission ...
Domingues Sara C SC Centre for Cell Biology, Health Sciences Department and Biology Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, - - 2014
Proteolytic processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) occurs via alternative pathways, culminating with the production of the AβPP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription, but its activity is modulated by interactions with other proteins. In the nucleus, AICD, FE65, and Tip60 associate into ...
Baertschi Stefan S Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, - - 2014
Adult bone mass is controlled by the bone formation repressor sclerostin (SOST). Previously, we have shown that intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) bone anabolic therapy involves SOST expression reduction by inhibiting myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which activates a distant bone enhancer. Here, we extended our SOST gene regulation studies by ...
Zhang Ping P Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, - - 2014
In mammalian cells, tumor suppressor p53 plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, but whether and how p53 also regulates gluconeogenesis is less clear. Here, we report that p53 efficiently down-regulates the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), which encode rate-limiting ...
Berkholz Janine - - 2014
Skeletal and heart muscle-specific variant of the alpha subunit of nascent polypeptide associated complex (skNAC) is exclusively found in striated muscle cells. Its function, however, is largely unknown. Previous reports could demonstrate that skNAC binds to Smyd1/m-Bop, a multi-functional protein regulating myogenesis both via the control of transcription and the ...
Das Satarupa S Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, - - 2014
Messenger RNAs retained in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are subjected to a degradation system designated DRN (Degradation of mRNA in the Nucleus) that is dependent on the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein, Cbc1p, as well as nuclear exosome component Rrp6p, a 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. DRN has been shown to ...
Dro┼║dzik Agnieszka A Department of General Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, - - 2014
Nuclear receptors and transcription factors regulate the functions of many genes involved in cellular physiology and pathology (e.g. tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases). The present study was performed to define the expression and the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and nuclear factor ...
Sutendra Gopinath G Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
DNA transcription, replication, and repair are regulated by histone acetylation, a process that requires the generation of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Here, we show that all the subunits of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) are also present and functional in the nucleus of mammalian cells. We found that knockdown of ...
Zhang Jingyi J Department of ENT, Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200437, - - 2014
The clinical significance of γ-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been established. This study was performed to assess the expression of nuclear γ-H2AX in benign and malignant laryngeal lesions and to assess its clinicopathological significance. A total of 70 LSCC tumor-normal tissue paired samples were evaluated ...
Rodríguez Mario M Universidad de Valladolid, - - 2014
Current views on the control of IL-23 production focus on the regulation of il23a, the gene encoding IL-23 p19, by NF-κB in combination with other transcription factors. CHOP, XBP1, AP1, SMAD, C/EBPβ, and CREB have been involved in response to LPS, but no data are available as to the mechanism ...
Kralovicova Jana J University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, - - 2014
Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) have been widely used to inhibit exon usage but antisense strategies that promote removal of entire introns to increase splicing-mediated gene expression have not been developed. Here we show reduction of INS intron 1 retention by SSOs that bind transcripts derived from a human haplotype expressing low ...
Lorenzo Alessandra Di AD The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, P.O. Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, - - 2014
Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a nuclear enzyme that modifies histone tails. To help elucidate the biological function of PRMT6 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that ubiquitously express PRMT6 fused to the hormone-binding portion of the estrogen receptor (ER*). The ER*-PRMT6 fusion is unstable and cytoplasmic, but upon ...
Izeddin Ignacio I Functional Imaging of Transcription , Institut de Biologie de l'École normale supérieure (IBENS) CNRS UMR 8197 , Paris , - - 2014
Gene regulation relies on transcription factors (TFs) exploring the nucleus searching their targets. So far, most studies have focused on how fast TFs diffuse, underestimating the role of nuclear architecture. We implemented a single-molecule tracking assay to determine TFs dynamics. We found that c-Myc is a global explorer of the ...
Jin Lim Min M Division of Radiation Cancer - - 2014
Fibrosis is one of the most serious side effects in cancer patients undergoing radio-/ chemo-therapy, especially of the lung, pancreas or kidney. Based on our previous finding that galectin-1 (Gal-1) was significantly increased during radiation-induced lung fibrosis in areas of pulmonary fibrosis, we herein clarified the roles and action mechanisms ...
Staus Dean P DP University of North - - 2014
We have previously shown that RhoA-mediated actin polymerization stimulates smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific transcription by regulating the nuclear localization of the Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors (MRTFs). Based upon the recent demonstration that nuclear G-actin regulates MRTF nuclear export and observations from our lab and others that the RhoA effector, mDia2, shuttles ...
Tseng Ruo-Chia RC Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, College of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, - - 2014
β-catenin nuclear accumulation is frequently identified in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a known repressor of β-catenin transactivation. However, the role of HBP1 in relation to β-catenin nuclear accumulation has not been addressed in human cancer patients. In addition, the mechanism of ...
Ormanns Steffen S Institute of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, Munich, - - 2014
We determined whether active PI3K signaling together with nuclear accumulation of β-Catenin is necessary to fully activate canonical WNT signaling and examined the association of both signaling pathways with colon cancer progression. Using reporter gene assays we examined the activation of β-Catenin mediated transcription upon PI3K inhibition with or without ...
Krivega Ivan I Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2014
Many questions remain about how close association of genes and distant enhancers occurs and how this is linked to transcription activation. In erythroid cells, lim domain binding 1 (LDB1) protein is recruited to the β-globin locus via LMO2 and is required for looping of the β-globin locus control region (LCR) ...
Sadhukhan Sanjoy S Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2014
Defects in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) underlie development of WAS, an X-linked immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disorder of childhood. Nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) of the WASp family generate F-actin in the cytosol via the VCA (verprolin-homology, cofilin-homology, and acidic) domain and support RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in the nucleus. Whether nuclear-WASp requires ...
Newo Alain N S AN Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA, - - 2014
UAP56/SUB2 is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase that is critically involved in pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA nuclear export. This helicase is broadly conserved and essential in many eukaryotic lineages, including protozoan and metazoan parasites. Previous research suggests that helicases from parasites could be promising drug targets for treating parasitic diseases. Accordingly, ...
Sarikaya-Bayram Ozlem O Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University, Grisebachstrasse 8, Göttingen 37077, - - 2014
Epigenetic and transcriptional control of gene expression must be coordinated in response to external signals to promote alternative multicellular developmental programs. The membrane-associated trimeric complex VapA-VipC-VapB controls a signal transduction pathway for fungal differentiation. The VipC-VapB methyltransferases are tethered to the membrane by the FYVE-like zinc finger protein VapA, allowing ...
Laishram Rakesh S RS Cancer Research Program, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs acquire a poly(A) tail at the 3'-end by a concerted RNA processing event: cleavage and polyadenylation. The canonical PAP, PAPα, was considered the only nuclear PAP involved in general polyadenylation of mRNAs. A phosphoinositide-modulated nuclear PAP, Star-PAP, was then reported to regulate a select set of ...
Lee Eun Jin EJ Department of Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-731, - - 2014
The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and ...
Schmid Manfred M Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, - - 2014
RNA polymerase II generates a diverse set of RNA transcripts, including mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, and sn(o)RNA. These transcripts are modified and processed in the nucleus by a particular set of enzymes, as illustrated in this SnapShot.
Liu Dandan - - 2014
Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is a nuclear protein that catalyzes the binding of biotin to distinct lysine residues in chromatin proteins. HLCS-dependent epigenetic marks are overrepresented in repressed genomic loci, particularly in repeats. Evidence is mounting that HLCS is a member of a multi-protein gene repression complex, which determines its localization ...
Young Stephen G SG Departments of Medicine Human Genetics and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA sgyoung@mednet.ucla.edu - - 2014
Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g, striated muscle, bone, ...
Hsieh Feng-Shu FS Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, - - 2014
Aberrant expression levels of transcriptional regulators result in alterations in transcriptional control. STAF65γ is a structural subunit of the GCN5 transcriptional co-activator complex. Reports showed that STAF65γ is highly expressed in several human cancer cells, but the consequences of this aberrant expression pattern remain elusive. Here, we show that the ...
Singh Ranjana R University of Kentucky, United - - 2014
Calpain 5 (CAPN5) is a non-classical member of the calpain family. It lacks the EF hand motif characteristic of classical calpains but retains catalytic and Ca2+ binding domains, and contains a unique C-terminus domain. Tra-3, an ortholog of CAPN5, has been shown to be involved in necrotic cell death in ...
White Eleanor E Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
Dicer is a central enzymatic player in RNA-interference pathways that acts to regulate gene expression in nearly all eukaryotes. Although the cytoplasmic function of Dicer is well documented in mammals, its nuclear function remains obscure. Here we show that Dicer is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and its ...
Jamieson Cara C Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute at Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, - - 2014
The nuclear localization of specific proteins is critical for cellular processes such as cell division, and in recent years perturbation of the nuclear transport cycle of key proteins has been linked to cancer. In particular, specific gene mutations can alter nuclear transport of tumor suppressing and oncogenic proteins, leading to ...
Meng S S Division of Oral Biology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2014
BET proteins are a group of epigenetic regulators controlling transcription through reading acetylated histone tails and recruiting transcription complexes. They are considered as potential therapeutic targets in many distinct diseases. A novel synthetic bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor, JQ1, was proved to suppress oncogene transcription and inflammatory responses. The ...
Pettersson Olof J OJ Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, Building 1240, DK-8000 Aarhus C, - - 2014
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by CUG triplet expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). The etiology of this multi-systemic disease involves pre-mRNA splicing defects elicited by the ability of the CUG-expanded mRNA to 'sponge' splicing factors of the muscleblind ...
Klenov Mikhail S MS Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 123182, - - 2014
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-interacting Piwi protein is involved in transcriptional silencing of transposable elements in ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterized the genome-wide effect of nuclear Piwi elimination on the presence of the heterochromatic H3K9me3 mark and HP1a, as well as on the transcription-associated mark H3K4me2. Our results demonstrate ...
Minashima Takeshi T Musculoskeletal Research Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the role of ANK/Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1a) and sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) interactions in catabolic events of articular chondrocytes. ANK/MYBBP1a and SPHK1 interactions were identified using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation. To determine the role of these interactions in catabolic events of articular chondrocytes, ank/ank and wild type ...
Shen Tao T 1] Michael E DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA [3] Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2014
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins that regulate a wide array of cellular functions. The key step in BMP signal transduction is the BMP receptor-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors Smad1, 5, and 8 (collectively Smad1/5/8), which leads to the subsequent activation of ...
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