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Bardou Florian F Institut des Sciences du Végétal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Saclay Plant Sciences, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, - - 2014
Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA represents a major mechanism underlying increased transcriptome and proteome complexity. Here, we show that the nuclear speckle RNA-binding protein (NSR) and the AS competitor long noncoding RNA (or ASCO-lncRNA) constitute an AS regulatory module. AtNSR-GFP translational fusions are expressed in primary and lateral root (LR) meristems. ...
Sudhakar Janaki N JN Graduate Institute of Biomedical - - 2014
During the initiation of cell death, mitochondrial protein, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), is transported to the nucleus. The mechanism of AIF nuclear translocation, however, is not clear. After protein synthesis, the AIF is originally targeted to the mitochondria, and the nuclear targeting is a secondary event. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ...
Jiang Peng P Department of Hepatobiliary Oncology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510095, Guangdong, - - 2014
Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) functions as an adaptor that transports several proteins to the nucleus. Emerging evidence suggests that KPNA2 plays a crucial role in oncogenesis and early recurrence. In the present study, we evaluated the expression pattern of KPNA2 in 221 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens and matching adjacent, non-tumorous tissues ...
Olsthoorn René C L RC Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, 2333CC Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Cellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays a crucial role in the initial conversion of cellular prion protein PrP(C) to infectious PrP(Sc) or scrapie. The nature of this RNA remains elusive. Previously, RNA aptamers against PrP(C) have been isolated and found to form G-quadruplexes (G4s). PrP(C) binding to G4 RNAs destabilizes its ...
Togashi Naoyuki - - 2014
Meiotic cells undergo two rounds of nuclear division and generate gametes. Previous studies have indicated that a number of transcription factors modulate the transcriptome in successive waves during meiosis and spore formation in fission yeast. However, the mechanisms underlying the post-transcriptional regulation in meiosis are not fully understood. The fission ...
Domingues Sara C SC Centre for Cell Biology, Health Sciences Department and Biology Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, - - 2014
Proteolytic processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) occurs via alternative pathways, culminating with the production of the AβPP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription, but its activity is modulated by interactions with other proteins. In the nucleus, AICD, FE65, and Tip60 associate into ...
Baertschi Stefan S Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, - - 2014
Adult bone mass is controlled by the bone formation repressor sclerostin (SOST). Previously, we have shown that intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) bone anabolic therapy involves SOST expression reduction by inhibiting myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which activates a distant bone enhancer. Here, we extended our SOST gene regulation studies by ...
Zhang Ping P Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, - - 2014
In mammalian cells, tumor suppressor p53 plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, but whether and how p53 also regulates gluconeogenesis is less clear. Here, we report that p53 efficiently down-regulates the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), which encode rate-limiting ...
Berkholz Janine - - 2014
Skeletal and heart muscle-specific variant of the alpha subunit of nascent polypeptide associated complex (skNAC) is exclusively found in striated muscle cells. Its function, however, is largely unknown. Previous reports could demonstrate that skNAC binds to Smyd1/m-Bop, a multi-functional protein regulating myogenesis both via the control of transcription and the ...
Das Satarupa S Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, - - 2014
Messenger RNAs retained in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are subjected to a degradation system designated DRN (Degradation of mRNA in the Nucleus) that is dependent on the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein, Cbc1p, as well as nuclear exosome component Rrp6p, a 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. DRN has been shown to ...
Dro┼║dzik Agnieszka A Department of General Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, - - 2014
Nuclear receptors and transcription factors regulate the functions of many genes involved in cellular physiology and pathology (e.g. tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases). The present study was performed to define the expression and the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and nuclear factor ...
Sutendra Gopinath G Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
DNA transcription, replication, and repair are regulated by histone acetylation, a process that requires the generation of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Here, we show that all the subunits of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) are also present and functional in the nucleus of mammalian cells. We found that knockdown of ...
Zhang Jingyi J Department of ENT, Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200437, - - 2014
The clinical significance of γ-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been established. This study was performed to assess the expression of nuclear γ-H2AX in benign and malignant laryngeal lesions and to assess its clinicopathological significance. A total of 70 LSCC tumor-normal tissue paired samples were evaluated ...
Rodríguez Mario M Universidad de Valladolid, - - 2014
Current views on the control of IL-23 production focus on the regulation of il23a, the gene encoding IL-23 p19, by NF-κB in combination with other transcription factors. CHOP, XBP1, AP1, SMAD, C/EBPβ, and CREB have been involved in response to LPS, but no data are available as to the mechanism ...
Lorenzo Alessandra Di AD The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, P.O. Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, - - 2014
Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a nuclear enzyme that modifies histone tails. To help elucidate the biological function of PRMT6 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that ubiquitously express PRMT6 fused to the hormone-binding portion of the estrogen receptor (ER*). The ER*-PRMT6 fusion is unstable and cytoplasmic, but upon ...
Kralovicova Jana J University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, - - 2014
Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) have been widely used to inhibit exon usage but antisense strategies that promote removal of entire introns to increase splicing-mediated gene expression have not been developed. Here we show reduction of INS intron 1 retention by SSOs that bind transcripts derived from a human haplotype expressing low ...
Izeddin Ignacio I Functional Imaging of Transcription , Institut de Biologie de l'École normale supérieure (IBENS) CNRS UMR 8197 , Paris , - - 2014
Gene regulation relies on transcription factors (TFs) exploring the nucleus searching their targets. So far, most studies have focused on how fast TFs diffuse, underestimating the role of nuclear architecture. We implemented a single-molecule tracking assay to determine TFs dynamics. We found that c-Myc is a global explorer of the ...
Jin Lim Min M Division of Radiation Cancer - - 2014
Fibrosis is one of the most serious side effects in cancer patients undergoing radio-/ chemo-therapy, especially of the lung, pancreas or kidney. Based on our previous finding that galectin-1 (Gal-1) was significantly increased during radiation-induced lung fibrosis in areas of pulmonary fibrosis, we herein clarified the roles and action mechanisms ...
Staus Dean P DP University of North - - 2014
We have previously shown that RhoA-mediated actin polymerization stimulates smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific transcription by regulating the nuclear localization of the Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors (MRTFs). Based upon the recent demonstration that nuclear G-actin regulates MRTF nuclear export and observations from our lab and others that the RhoA effector, mDia2, shuttles ...
Tseng Ruo-Chia RC Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, College of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, - - 2014
β-catenin nuclear accumulation is frequently identified in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a known repressor of β-catenin transactivation. However, the role of HBP1 in relation to β-catenin nuclear accumulation has not been addressed in human cancer patients. In addition, the mechanism of ...
Ormanns Steffen S Institute of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, Munich, - - 2014
We determined whether active PI3K signaling together with nuclear accumulation of β-Catenin is necessary to fully activate canonical WNT signaling and examined the association of both signaling pathways with colon cancer progression. Using reporter gene assays we examined the activation of β-Catenin mediated transcription upon PI3K inhibition with or without ...
Krivega Ivan I Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2014
Many questions remain about how close association of genes and distant enhancers occurs and how this is linked to transcription activation. In erythroid cells, lim domain binding 1 (LDB1) protein is recruited to the β-globin locus via LMO2 and is required for looping of the β-globin locus control region (LCR) ...
Sadhukhan Sanjoy S Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2014
Defects in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) underlie development of WAS, an X-linked immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disorder of childhood. Nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) of the WASp family generate F-actin in the cytosol via the VCA (verprolin-homology, cofilin-homology, and acidic) domain and support RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in the nucleus. Whether nuclear-WASp requires ...
Newo Alain N S AN Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA, - - 2014
UAP56/SUB2 is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase that is critically involved in pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA nuclear export. This helicase is broadly conserved and essential in many eukaryotic lineages, including protozoan and metazoan parasites. Previous research suggests that helicases from parasites could be promising drug targets for treating parasitic diseases. Accordingly, ...
Sarikaya-Bayram Ozlem O Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University, Grisebachstrasse 8, Göttingen 37077, - - 2014
Epigenetic and transcriptional control of gene expression must be coordinated in response to external signals to promote alternative multicellular developmental programs. The membrane-associated trimeric complex VapA-VipC-VapB controls a signal transduction pathway for fungal differentiation. The VipC-VapB methyltransferases are tethered to the membrane by the FYVE-like zinc finger protein VapA, allowing ...
Laishram Rakesh S RS Cancer Research Program, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs acquire a poly(A) tail at the 3'-end by a concerted RNA processing event: cleavage and polyadenylation. The canonical PAP, PAPα, was considered the only nuclear PAP involved in general polyadenylation of mRNAs. A phosphoinositide-modulated nuclear PAP, Star-PAP, was then reported to regulate a select set of ...
Lee Eun Jin EJ Department of Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-731, - - 2014
The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and ...
Schmid Manfred M Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, - - 2014
RNA polymerase II generates a diverse set of RNA transcripts, including mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, and sn(o)RNA. These transcripts are modified and processed in the nucleus by a particular set of enzymes, as illustrated in this SnapShot.
Liu Dandan - - 2014
Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is a nuclear protein that catalyzes the binding of biotin to distinct lysine residues in chromatin proteins. HLCS-dependent epigenetic marks are overrepresented in repressed genomic loci, particularly in repeats. Evidence is mounting that HLCS is a member of a multi-protein gene repression complex, which determines its localization ...
Young Stephen G SG Departments of Medicine Human Genetics and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA sgyoung@mednet.ucla.edu - - 2014
Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g, striated muscle, bone, ...
Hsieh Feng-Shu FS Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, - - 2014
Aberrant expression levels of transcriptional regulators result in alterations in transcriptional control. STAF65γ is a structural subunit of the GCN5 transcriptional co-activator complex. Reports showed that STAF65γ is highly expressed in several human cancer cells, but the consequences of this aberrant expression pattern remain elusive. Here, we show that the ...
Singh Ranjana R University of Kentucky, United - - 2014
Calpain 5 (CAPN5) is a non-classical member of the calpain family. It lacks the EF hand motif characteristic of classical calpains but retains catalytic and Ca2+ binding domains, and contains a unique C-terminus domain. Tra-3, an ortholog of CAPN5, has been shown to be involved in necrotic cell death in ...
White Eleanor E Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
Dicer is a central enzymatic player in RNA-interference pathways that acts to regulate gene expression in nearly all eukaryotes. Although the cytoplasmic function of Dicer is well documented in mammals, its nuclear function remains obscure. Here we show that Dicer is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and its ...
Jamieson Cara C Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute at Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, - - 2014
The nuclear localization of specific proteins is critical for cellular processes such as cell division, and in recent years perturbation of the nuclear transport cycle of key proteins has been linked to cancer. In particular, specific gene mutations can alter nuclear transport of tumor suppressing and oncogenic proteins, leading to ...
Meng S S Division of Oral Biology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2014
BET proteins are a group of epigenetic regulators controlling transcription through reading acetylated histone tails and recruiting transcription complexes. They are considered as potential therapeutic targets in many distinct diseases. A novel synthetic bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor, JQ1, was proved to suppress oncogene transcription and inflammatory responses. The ...
Pettersson Olof J OJ Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, Building 1240, DK-8000 Aarhus C, - - 2014
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by CUG triplet expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). The etiology of this multi-systemic disease involves pre-mRNA splicing defects elicited by the ability of the CUG-expanded mRNA to 'sponge' splicing factors of the muscleblind ...
Klenov Mikhail S MS Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 123182, - - 2014
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-interacting Piwi protein is involved in transcriptional silencing of transposable elements in ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we characterized the genome-wide effect of nuclear Piwi elimination on the presence of the heterochromatic H3K9me3 mark and HP1a, as well as on the transcription-associated mark H3K4me2. Our results demonstrate ...
Minashima Takeshi T Musculoskeletal Research Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the role of ANK/Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1a) and sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) interactions in catabolic events of articular chondrocytes. ANK/MYBBP1a and SPHK1 interactions were identified using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation. To determine the role of these interactions in catabolic events of articular chondrocytes, ank/ank and wild type ...
Shen Tao T 1] Michael E DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA [3] Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2014
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins that regulate a wide array of cellular functions. The key step in BMP signal transduction is the BMP receptor-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors Smad1, 5, and 8 (collectively Smad1/5/8), which leads to the subsequent activation of ...
Ozawa Tsuyoshi T Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, - - 2014
The importance of Notch signaling in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis has been recently recognized. However, the significance of Notch3 expression and its association with Notch1 expression in CRC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated Notch1 and Notch3 expression in Stage II and III CRC to assess their association ...
Qu Guosheng G Department of Biological Sciences, RNA Institute, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY - - 2014
Group II introns are commonly believed to be the progenitors of spliceosomal introns, but they are notably absent from nuclear genomes. Barriers to group II intron function in nuclear genomes therefore beg examination. A previous study showed that nuclear expression of a group II intron in yeast results in nonsense-mediated ...
Astapova Inna - - 2014
Transcriptional coregulators are important components of nuclear receptor (NR) signaling machinery and provide additional mechanisms for modulation of NR activity. Expression of a mutated nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR1) that lacks 2 NR interacting domains (NCoRΔID) in the liver leads to elevated expression of genes regulated by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) ...
Jani Divyang D MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, - - 2014
The conserved Sac3:Thp1:Sem1:Sus1:Cdc31 (TREX2) complex binds to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and, in addition to integrating mRNA nuclear export with preceding steps in the gene expression pathway, facilitates re-positioning of highly regulated actively transcribing genes (such as GAL1) to NPCs. Although TREX2 is thought to bind NPC protein Nup1, defining ...
Zhang Xin-Wen XW Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, - - 2014
Syzygium tetragonum Wall is a Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, joint swelling and pain. By High Content Screening (HCS), 8 compounds (1-8) from Syzygium tetragonum Wall were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on the nuclear translocation of NFATc1 in EGFP-NFATc1 U2OS cells. Among them, 6-[10'(Z)-heptadecenyl] salicylic acid ...
Endsley Mark A MA Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically ...
Zhai Dongxu - - 2014
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is conventionally considered a critical enzyme that involves in glycolysis for energy production. Recent previous studies have suggested that GAPDH is important in glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity, while accumulated evidence also demonstrated that GAPDH nuclear translocation plays a critical role in cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms ...
Maiti Aparna - - 2014
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the predominant cause of bone infection. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important segments of host response to infection and are expressed by a variety of cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The active form of Vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has potent immunoregulatory ...
Yan Ming M Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Endodontic Department, School of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, - - 2014
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been widely used in clinical apexification and apexogenesis. However, the effects of MTA on the stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and the precise mechanism of apexogenesis have not been elucidated in detail. Multiple colony-derived stem cells were isolated from the apical papillae, and the ...
Suthar Sharad Kumar - - 2014
The activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is critical in cancer; they act synergistically in promoting tumor growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, combined targeting of NF-κB and COX-2 present an opportunity for synergistic anticancer efficacy. The ester prodrugs of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene ...
Cai Huaqing H Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
Biological oscillations are observed at many levels of cellular organization. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, starvation-triggered multicellular development is organized by periodic cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) waves, which provide both chemoattractant gradients and developmental signals. We report that GtaC, a GATA transcription factor, exhibits rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in response ...
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