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Chillappagari Shashi S Philipps University - - 2014
Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible heat shock protein, is upregulated in response to multiple cellular insults via oxidative stress, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and hypoxia. In this study, we investigated in vitro the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and iron on HO-1 expression in cystic fibrosis (CF). Immunohistochemical analysis ...
Nio-Kobayashi Junko J Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health (J.N.-K., L.B., W.C.D.), The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Cres, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom; Creative Research Institution (M.A.), Hokkaido University, Kita 21-Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, JAPAN; Laboratory of Histology and Cytology (J. N.-K., T.I.), Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15-Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, - - 2014
Context: Luteal progesterone is fundamental for reproduction but the molecular regulation of the corpus luteum (CL) in women remains unclear. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 bind to the sugar chains on cells to control key biological processes including cell function and fate. Methods: The expression and localization of LGALS1 and LGALS3 was ...
Hong Seok Jong SJ Laboratory for Wound Repair and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery/Plastic Surgery Division, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adipocytes are metabolically active cells and have endocrine functions, such as cytokine secretion. Notably, adipocytes are found underneath skin and are thought to be involved in the body's response to ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). I-R injury is an important factor in the pathogenesis of chronic skin wounds. In this study, we investigated ...
Zhang Jun J Department of Maxillofacial Tissue Regeneration, and Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Regeneration (MRC), School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bioactive calcium phosphate cements (CPC, α-tricalcium phosphate-based) incorporating zinc-bioglass (ZnBG) on the odontogenic differentiation and angiogenesis of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGs with varying concentrations of Zn (0, 2.5 and 5%) were produced via a sol-gel process. The ...
Li Ming M College of Life Science, Daqing Normal College, Daqing 163712, PR China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR - - 2014
The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of ...
Zhou B B Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Third Military Medical University Affiliated Southwest Hospital, Gaotanyan Str. 30, Chongqing 400038, People's Republic of - - 2014
Pluripotent tendon cells (PTCs) play important roles in maintaining metabolic balance and the development of tendinopathy. Recently, substance P (SP) was identified as an important factor in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. A better understanding of SP's effects on PTCs is essential to gain more insight into tendinopathy. This study aims ...
Wang Guancong G a The Technology Research and Development Centre , Shandong Energy Group Co., Ltd , No. 10777, Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014 , P.R. - - 2014
The surface characteristics of biomaterials, especially regarding the sustained delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), can possibly provide a novel and effective drug delivery system that can enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the BMP-2 adsorption and release ability of the surface biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanostructure on a new ...
Siddiqi Muhammad Hanif MH Ginseng Genetic Resource Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology and College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Giheunggu Yonginsi, Gyeonggido, South - - 2014
This study aimed to investigate the stimulative and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 (hereinafter referred to as: Rh1) on differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast and its possible mechanism of action on the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/Runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) signalling pathways using mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line ...
Yu Guozheng G Department of General Surgery, Research Center of Digestive Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, P.R. - - 2014
The tumor suppressor gene CD82, also known as KAI1, may act as a general suppressor of metastasis in numerous types of cancer. It is hypothesized that downregulation of CD82 gene expression may be an important factor in the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however the mechanism for this requires further study. ...
Jiang Weichao - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a serious threat to human health, with China being one of the highly affected contries. However, the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still unclear. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) which represents the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein is normally secreted by hepatocytes. When ...
Sahoo Dipak Kumar DK KTRDC, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA, - - 2014
We have designed two near- constitutive and stress-inducible promoters (CmYLCV9.11 and CmYLCV4); those are highly efficient in both dicot and monocot plants and have prospective to substitute the CaMV 35S promoter. We performed structural and functional studies of the full-length transcript promoter from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) employing ...
Bazot Quentin Q CIRI, International Center for Infectiology Research, Oncogenic Herpesviruses team, Université de Lyon, Lyon 69364, France Université Lyon 1, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Lyon 69364, France CIRI, International Center for Infectiology Research, Cell Biology of Viral Infections team, Université de Lyon, Lyon 69364, France INSERM, U1111, Lyon 69364, France CNRS, UMR5308, Lyon 69364, - - 2014
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles ...
Yan Hui - - 2014
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus isa major vector of dengue in mainland China. Dengue epidemics have spread from the southern coastal regions to the relatively northern and western regions since 1990s. Dengue has become an emerging public health problem in the southern coastal regions. microRNAs(miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs ...
Lun Yong-Zhi YZ Liaoning Provincial University Key Laboratory of Biophysics, College of Medicine, Dalian University, Dalian, Liaoning 116622, P.R. - - 2014
C-terminally truncated hepatitis B virus (HBV) middle size surface proteins (MHBs(t)) has been shown to be a transcriptional activator and may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis by transactivating gene expression. In the present study, a pcDNA3.1(-)-MHBs(t167) vector coding for MHBs(t) truncated at amino acid 167 (MHBs(t167)) was constructed and transfected into ...
Zhu Xinyu X State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, - - 2014
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a member of the DEXDc helicase family, was recently identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in mouse myeloid dendritic cells. In this study, porcine DDX41 (poDDX41) was cloned and its role in the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway was investigated in porcine kidney ...
Li Chi Han CH School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong - - 2014
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major risk factor of HCC. The virus encodes HBV X (HBx) protein that plays a critical role in the development of HCC. Studies have revealed numerous HBx-altered genes and signalling ...
Abdoon Ahmed S AS Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt; Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected ...
Mansouri Sheila S Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S - - 2014
The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays multiple roles in EBV latent infection including altering cellular pathways relevant for cancer. Here we have used microRNA cloning coupled with high throughput sequencing to identify the effects of EBNA1 on cellular miRNAs in two nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. EBNA1 affected a ...
Ramly Rimatulhana B RB Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 8146 Dep 0033 Oslo, - - 2014
The nuclear replication and gene splicing of orthomyxoviruses are unique among RNA viruses. Segment 7 of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is the only segment that undergoes splicing. Two proteins are encoded by this segment, the non-structural antagonist (ISAV-NS) of the innate immune response that is translated from the unspliced ...
Yang Yi Y Department of Aquatic Animal Medicine, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, - - 2014
Nuclear factor E2 - related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial transcription factor that regulates the basal and inducible expression of many antioxidant response element (ARE)- dependent genes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). The Nrf2/ARE pathway has been regarded as a critical switch in the initiation ...
Mohr Caroline F - - 2014
The actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN1) is a tumor marker that is highly expressed in numerous types of cancer including lymphomas and is important for migration and metastasis of tumor cells. Fascin has also been detected in B lymphocytes that are freshly-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), however, both the inducers and ...
Wu Dai-Tze DT Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, 675 Hoes Lane Rm 636, Piscataway, NJ, - - 2014
We have developed nanoparticles based on Murine Leukemia Virus virus-like-particles (VLPs) that efficiently deliver therapeutic bioactive proteins in their native state into target cells. Nuclear transcription factors and toxic proteins were incorporated into the VLPs from stable producer cells without transducing viral-encoded genetic material. Delivery of nuclear transcription factors required ...
Bidet Katell K Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, - - 2014
Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of ...
Kempisty B B Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań , - - 2014
The process of granulosa cell luteinization is part of the main process determining growth, differentiation and proliferation of these cells. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in mammalian granulosa cells is well understood, still little ...
Takamune Nobutoki N Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Faculty of Life Sciences 5-1 Oe-Honmachi, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan. - - 2014
Nef is one of the accessory proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Nef is translated from multiple-spliced mRNAs transcribed from the viral genome, whose mRNAs have a relatively long 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Here, we identified a cis element in the 5'UTR of Nef mRNA essential for ...
Cong Peiqing P State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant viral diseases in swine, which causes large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is considerable strain variation in PRRSV and two examples of this are the highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV) and the classical North American ...
Guo Longjun L State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, - - 2014
As a consequence of their effects on ectodomain shedding, members of the A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family have been implicated in the control of various cellular processes. Although ADAM family members are also involved in cancer, inflammation, and other pathologies, it's unclear whether they affect porcine reproductive and respiratory ...
López Claudia S CS Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. ...
Fan Wenhui W 1 College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Guangxi University , Nanning, People's Republic of China - - 2014
In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and ...
Lee Sun-Min SM Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, - - 2014
Epigenetic alterations caused by viral oncoproteins are strong initiation factors for cancer development, but their mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify the epigenetic effects of viral hepatitis B virus X (HBx) that lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we profiled the DNA methylomes of normal and HBx transgenic mouse liver. Intriguingly, ...
Machinaga Akihito A Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236, Tangi-machi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo, 192-8577, - - 2014
Since splicing was previously found to be important for increasing Friend murine leukemia virus env-mRNA stability and translation, we investigated whether splicing of env-mRNA affected the poly(A) tail length using env expression vectors that yielded unspliced or spliced env-mRNA. Incomplete polyadenylation was detected in a fraction of the unspliced env-mRNA ...
Ilinykh Philipp A PA University of Texas Medical Branch, United - - 2014
The filovirus Ebola (EBOV) causes the most severe hemorrhagic fever known. The EBOV RNA-dependent polymerase complex includes a filovirus-specific VP30, which is critical for the transcriptional, but not replication activity of EBOV polymerase; to support transcription, VP30 must be in a dephosphorylated form. Here we show that EBOV VP30 is ...
Dauber Bianca B Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G - - 2014
We recently demonstrated that the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein, an mRNA specific endonuclease, is required for efficient HSV-1 replication and translation of viral true late mRNAs, but not other viral and cellular mRNAs, in many cell types. Here, we evaluated whether the structure of true late mRNAs or the ...
Wang Yu-Qun YQ Institute of Genomic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, P.R.China Department of Infection and Liver Diseases, Liver Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is downregulated during hepatocarcinogenesis. miRNAs are frequently deregulated in HCC tissues. However, whether the deregulation of certain miRNAs in HCC has an impact on HBsAg expression remains unclear. We found here that miR-581, which ...
Li Y Y Department of Anatomy, Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, - - 2014
Friend leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia-1 (Fli-1), an E26 transformation specific (ETS) transcription factor, was isolated a quarter century ago through a retrovirus mutagenesis screen. Fli-1 has since been recognized to play critical roles in normal development and homeostasis. For example, it transcriptionally regulates genes that drive normal hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. Indeed, ...
Payne Tamika L TL Departments of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, - - 2014
The ability of CD8(+) T cells to effectively limit HIV-1 replication and block HIV-1 acquisition is determined by the capacity to rapidly respond to HIV-1 antigens. Understanding both the functional properties and regulation of an effective CD8(+) response would enable better evaluation of T cell directed vaccine strategies and may ...
Fournier Guillaume G Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Virus à ARN, Département de Virologie, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 3569, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Virus à ARN, Paris, - - 2014
Influenza A viruses are major pathogens in humans and in animals, whose genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative polarity. Viral mRNAs are synthesized by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the nucleus of infected cells, in close association with the cellular transcriptional machinery. Two proteins essential for ...
Izzard Leonard L Deakin - - 2014
Difficulties associated with efficient delivery and targeting of miRNAs to cells is hampering the real world application of miRNA technology. This study utilised an influenza A based delivery system to express miR-155 in order to knockdown SOCS1 mRNA. Using qPCR and dual luciferase technology we show that miR-155 delivery resulted ...
Larocque Emilie E Département des Sciences Biologiques et Centre de recherche BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2080 Saint-Urbain, Montréal, Québec, Canada H2X 3X8 Département de microbiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal, case postale 6128, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C - - 2014
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 3 and 4 (HTLV-3 and HTLV-4) are recently isolated retroviruses. We have previously characterized HTLV-3 and HTLV-4-encoded antisense genes, termed APH-3 and APH-4 respectively, which, in contrast to HBZ, the HTLV-1 homologue, do not contain a typical bZIP domain. As HBZ differentially modulates the transactivation ...
Duan Ming - - 2014
Microglia are critical for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia not only by acting as conduits of viral entry but also as reservoirs for productive and latent virus infection, and as producers of neurotoxins. Interaction between CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and FKN receptor (CX3CR1) is highly functional in the brain, and is known ...
Chen Xin X Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, - - 2014
This study investigated the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) on the invasion capacity of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro. Three siRNAs targeting CXCR4 were chemically synthesized and individually transfected into SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of CXCR4 mRNA and protein was significantly suppressed ...
Karran Rajita R Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada ; - - 2014
RNA silencing regulates plant gene expression and antiviral defenses and functions by cleaving target RNAs or repressing translation. As a counter defense, many plant viruses encode suppressor proteins that sequester small RNAs and/or inactivate Argonaute (AGO) proteins. All known plant virus silencing suppressor activities eventually inhibit the degradation of target ...
Wei Jingguang J Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, PR - - 2014
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is one of the key adaptor molecules in Toll-like receptor signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. In the present study, a TRAF6 (named as Et-TRAF6) was identified from the marine fish grouper, Epinephelus tauvina by RACE PCR. The full-length ...
Wan Qiaofeng Q Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Basic Medical Science College, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, P.R. - - 2014
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of baicalin on imprinting control region mice infected with influenza A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) virus. Oral administration of baicalin into mice infected with H1N1 prevented death, increased the mean time to death and inhibited lung index and lung consolidation. Subsequently, ...
Li Ming M MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety / State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P. R. China; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genetic Breeding and Healthy Aquaculture, Guangxi Institute of Fisheries, Nanning, P. R. - - 2014
C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has ...
Chi Binkai B Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, - - 2014
Viral RNA elements that facilitate mRNA export are useful tools for identifying cellular RNA export factors. Here we show that hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional element (PRE) is one such element, and using PRE several new cellular mRNA export factors were identified. We found that PRE drastically enhances the cytoplasmic accumulation ...
Li Zhi-Jie ZJ State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Emerging evidence suggests that differential miRNA expression is associated with viral infection and tumorigenesis. Recently discovered microRNAs in the Marek's disease virus (MDV) genome have been suggested to have regulatory roles during MDV oncogenesis. To gain more insight into the ...
Matsushita Kazuyuki K Kazuyuki Matsushita, Fumio Nomura, Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, - - 2014
To investigate a novel therapeutic strategy to target and suppress c-myc in human cancers using far up stream element (FUSE)-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR). Endogenous c-Myc suppression and apoptosis induction by a transient FIR-expressing vector was examined in vivo via a HA-tagged FIR (HA-FIR) expression vector. A fusion gene-deficient, non-transmissible, Sendai ...
Lawrence Susan D SD USDA-ARS, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Lab, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Ave. Bldg 011A, Rm 214, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
While C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors (TF) are often regulated by abiotic stress, their role during insect infestation has been overlooked. This study demonstrates that the transcripts of the zinc finger transcription factors StZFP1 and StZFP2 are induced in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) upon infestation by either the generalist tobacco ...
Taniguchi Ichiro I Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, - - 2014
Nuclear RNA export pathways in eukaryotes are often linked to the fate of a given RNA. Therefore, the choice of export pathway should be well-controlled to avoid an unfavorable effect on gene expression. Although some RNAs could be exported by more than one pathway, little is known about how the ...
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