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Schweikhard Volker V Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Structural Biology, and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA - - 2014
Recent evidence suggests that transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is regulated by mechanical cues affecting the entry into, and exit from, transcriptionally inactive states, including pausing and arrest. We present a single-molecule optical-trapping study of the interactions of RNAPII with transcription elongation factors TFIIS and TFIIF, which affect ...
Wang Feng F Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, - - 2014
As a well-known transcription factor, TBX5 is involved in embryonic cardiac development. Although TBX5 functions in a dose-dependent manner, the posttranscriptional regulation of human TBX5 is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify microRNAs that modulate TBX5 expression. Luciferase assays were used to screen miRNAs predicted to modulate TBX5 ...
Matsumoto David D Department of Psychology, San Francisco State - - 2014
Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a ...
Sidaway-Lee Kate - - 2014
Sensing and responding to ambient temperature is important for controlling growth and development of many organisms, in part by regulating mRNA levels. mRNA abundance can change with temperature, but it is unclear whether this results from changes in transcription or decay rates, and whether passive or active temperature regulation is ...
Paulus Andrea A a Department of Psychology , Saarland University , Saarbrüken , - - 2014
It has been suggested that the impact of emotional expressions on the startle reflex is influenced by the intention communicated by the expression (e.g., the intention to attack). However, we propose that the meaning of an emotional expression is not only based on the intention, but is also influenced by ...
Gorgoni Barbara B *Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, - - 2014
Gene expression can be regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms. One example concerns the growing body of evidence that the protein-production rate can be regulated at the level of translation elongation by controlling ribosome flux across the mRNA. Variations in the abundance of tRNA molecules cause different rates of ...
Zhi Xiaofei X Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, - - 2014
Intestinal ischemic injury is a significant clinical problem arising from diseases or as a complication of abdominal surgery. Our previous study showed aquaporin 3 is involved in intestinal barrier impairment. Here, we revealed that intestinal ischemia induced a time-dependent increase of miR-874 expression and a time-dependent decrease of AQP3 expression, ...
Wongpalee Somsakul Pop SP Department of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
In eukaryotic organisms, nascent transcripts of protein-coding genes contain intronic sequences that are not present in mature mRNAs. Pre-mRNA splicing removes introns and joins exons to form mature mRNAs. It is catalyzed by a large RNP complex called the spliceosome. Sequences within the pre-mRNA determine intron recognition and excision. This ...
Gray Jesse M JM Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
mRNA synthesis, processing, and destruction involve a complex series of molecular steps that are incompletely understood. Because the RNA intermediates in each of these steps have finite lifetimes, extensive mechanistic and dynamical information is encoded in total cellular RNA. Here we report the development of SnapShot-Seq, a set of computational ...
Gebauer Niklas N Institut für Pathologie, Universität zu Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Lübeck, Deutschland. - - 2014
The mechanisms promoting malignant transformation from chronic Helicobacter pylori-gastritis to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are insufficiently characterized. This follow-up study aimed to validate candidate microRNAs (miRs) in the process of neoplastic transformation. MicroRNA expression signatures (n=20) were generated for a total of 60 cases of gastric lesions ...
Liu Xun X Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of - - 2014
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients infected with HIV-1. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by astrocytes/microglia exposed to viral proteins is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. In the present study we examined the effects of Nef on CCL5 ...
Sawada Reiko R Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, - - 2014
Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. We ...
Zhu Jun J University of California, San Francisco, United - - 2013
The late steps of cholesterol biosynthesis are oxygen demanding requiring eleven oxygen molecules per synthesized cholesterol molecule. A key enzymatic reaction, which occurs at the top of the Bloch and Kandutsch-Russell pathways, is the demethylation of lanosterol and dihydrolanosterol. This reaction is catalyzed by lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and requires ...
Liu Min Ting MT Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10031, - - 2013
The 3' end formation of mammalian pre-mRNA contributes to gene expression regulation by setting the downstream boundary of the 3' untranslated region, which in many genes carries regulatory sequences. A large number of protein cleavage factors participate in this pre-mRNA processing step, but chemical tools to manipulate this process are ...
Reinholt Sarah J SJ Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY 14853, United - - 2013
The major modules for realizing molecular biological assays in a micro-total analysis system (μTAS) were developed for the detection of pathogenic organisms. The specific focus was the isolation and amplification of eukaryotic mRNA within a simple, single-channel device for very low RNA concentrations that could then be integrated with detection ...
Gruber Andreas R - - 2013
Expression of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) requires appropriate transcription initiation and termination, as well as pre-mRNA processing by capping, splicing, cleavage, and polyadenylation. A core 3'-end processing complex carries out the cleavage and polyadenylation reactions, but many proteins have been implicated in the selection of polyadenylation sites among the multiple ...
Paulus Andrea - - 2013
It has been repeatedly stated that approach and avoidance reactions to emotional faces are triggered by the intention signalled by the emotion. This line of thought suggests that each emotion signals a specific intention triggering a specific behavioural reaction. However, empirical results examining this assumption are inconsistent, suggesting that it ...
Chaitanya V S - - 2013
Cortisol levels in the circulation and at the sites of peripheral inflammation regulate Type 1 (Reversal) reactions in leprosy akin to delayed type hypersensitivity reactions (DTH). In this study we determine the extent to which the differential mRNA expression of genes encoding Cortisone-Cortisol shuttle enzymes (11 β Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase I ...
Pavlidou Anastasia - - 2013
Survivin is a novel antiapoptotic gene, which is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Recently, 3 splice variants of this gene were cloned and characterized. This study aimed to validate a sensitive and specific method for the detection of survivin variants in breast cancer. Real-time quantitative ...
Cheung Lily S - - 2013
Although it is widely appreciated that a typical developmental control gene is regulated by multiple enhancers, coordination of enhancer activities remains poorly understood. We propose a mechanism for such coordination in Drosophila oogenesis, when the expression of the transcription factor Broad (BR) evolves from a uniform to a two-domain pattern ...
Colwell Ginny - - 2013
Increasing the probability of getting promoted usually starts long before the job advertisement appears.
Kamoun Malek M Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are both important for multiple steps in the splicing pathway. Members of the PP1 and PP2A subfamilies of phospho-serine/threonine phosphatases play essential but redundant roles in the second step of the splicing reaction. PP6, a member of the PP2A subfamily, is the mammalian homolog of yeast ...
Stuparevic Igor - - 2013
The co-transcriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent mRNPs are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes ...
Pérez-Ortín José E - - 2013
mRNA synthesis in all organisms is performed by RNA polymerases, which work as nanomachines on DNA templates. The rate at which their product is made is an important parameter in gene expression. Transcription rate encompasses two related, yet different, concepts: the nascent transcription rate, which measures the in situ mRNA ...
van Nies Pauline - - 2013
The compartmentalization of a cell-free gene expression system inside a self-assembled lipid vesicle is envisioned as the simplest chassis for the construction of a minimal cell. Although crucial for its realization, quantitative understanding of the dynamics of gene expression in bulk and liposome-confined reactions is scarce. Here, we used two ...
Xue Xu - - 2013
The inflammatory response is a rapid and complex physiological reaction to infection, which must be carefully modulated to remove pathogens and prevent the consequences of unregulated expression including cancer. MiRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-coding genes via post-transcriptional repression. Emerging evidence suggests that the role of miRNAs in ...
Søe Martin Jensen - - 2013
RT-isoPCR provides multiplex amplification of mRNA targets using a first-stage multiplex RT-PCR reaction with subsequent isothermal amplification for individual target loci detection. We demonstrate detection of 24 mRNA targets with high specificity and sensitivity without compromising sample variation or introducing biases between targets.
Elamin Elhaseen - - 2013
Acetaldehyde (AcH) is mutagenic and can reach high concentrations in colonic lumen after ethanol consumption and is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction and an increased risk of progressive cancers, including colorectal carcinoma. Snail, the transcription factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is known to down-regulate expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens ...
Gao Li-Na - - 2013
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), leading to dire consequences, is a serious and fatal disease in clinic. Danhong injection (DHI), one of the most popular medications for coronary heart disease and cerebral ischemia, plays pharmacological actions through inhibiting local inflammation. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory effect of DHI has not been reported ...
Yang Dongguang - - 2013
Background/Aim: Dysregulated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in several human malignancies. Hh signaling inhibitors are predicted to have a minimal effect when the Smoothened receptor is mutated. Implications that Gli proteins are molecular targets of arsenic trioxide (ATO) action prompted us to investigate the expression of Hh signaling in ...
Marbach-Bar Nadav - - 2013
MicroRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II but the transcriptional features influencing their synthesis are poorly defined. Here we report that a TATA box in microRNA and protein-coding genes is associated with increased sensitivity to slow RNA polymerase II. Promoters driven by TATA box or NF-κB elicit high re-initiation rates, ...
Kovács Krisztina J - - 2013
Two major and mutually interconnected brain systems are recruited during stress reaction. One is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) and the second is the extended amygdala. PVH governs the neuroendocrine stress response while CeA regulates most of the autonomic and behavioral stress reactions. The common neurohormonal mediator of these responses ...
Endoh Tamaki - - 2013
mRNA forms various secondary and tertiary structures that affect gene expression. Although structures formed in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs that inhibit translation have been characterized, stable mRNA structures in open reading frames (ORFs) may also cause translational halt or slow translation elongation. We previously established a method, termed ...
Dhamija Sonam - - 2013
Changes in gene expression during inflammation are in part caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A transcriptome-wide screen for changes in ribosome occupancy indicated that the inflammatory cytokine IL-17 activates translation of a group of mRNAs which overlaps partially with those affected similarly by IL-1. Included are mRNAs of IκBζ and of ...
Chen Yi-Ching - - 2013
Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) are two crucial trans-regulatory factors that coordinately control gene expression. Understanding the impacts of these two factors on the rate of protein sequence evolution is of great importance in evolutionary biology. While many biological factors associated with evolutionary rate variations have been studied, evolutionary ...
Tian Bin - - 2013
Cleavage and polyadenylation (C/P) of nascent transcripts is essential for maturation of the 3' ends of most eukaryotic mRNAs. Over the past three decades, biochemical studies have elucidated the machinery responsible for the seemingly simple C/P reaction. Recent genomic analyses have indicated that most eukaryotic genes have multiple cleavage and ...
Pandya-Jones Amy - - 2013
The expression of eukaryotic mRNAs is achieved though an intricate series of molecular processes that provide many steps for regulating the production of a final gene product. However, the relationships between individual steps in mRNA biosynthesis and the rates at which they occur are poorly understood. By applying RNA-seq to ...
Muraoka Sei - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of leptin on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSFs). METHODS: Synovial tissue was obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leptin receptor mRNAs were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Productions of mRNA and ...
Oikawa Daisuke - - 2013
IRE1 α is an ER-located transmembrane RNase whose activation leads to the production of the transcriptional factor, XBP1. Recently, many studies report that IRE1 α-XBP1 pathway has novel and significant roles in placenta. However, its molecular details have been still unknown. To address this point, we have focused on the ...
Pandith Hataichanok - - 2013
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson) is a medicinal herb used for wound healing and inflammation-related diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanism by which Siam weed extract (SWE) and its bioactive components, scutellarein tetramethyl ether (scu), stigmasterol, and isosakuranetin ...
Zhang Zhan - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Beta-catenin is a key nuclear effector of Wnt signaling which could be antagonized by dickkopf-1(DKK1). Beta-catenin and DKK1 are involved in a variety of biological processes; however, their expression in the placenta with severe preeclampsia (PE) has not been elucidated. This study was aimed to detect the localization and ...
He Mei M Endocrine Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2013
The theory that short telomere length and genetic defects in maintaining telomere length are associated with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether telomere length and genes involved in maintaining telomere length are altered in FNMTC. Blood samples were collected ...
Rogers K - - 2013
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The biogenesis and turnover of miRNAs determine their spatiotemporal accumulation within tissues. miRNA biogenesis is a multistep process that entails transcription, processing, nuclear export, and formation of the miRNA-ARGONAUTE complex. Factors that perform each of these steps have been ...
Campos Kelma - - 2013
Interferon-γ plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, and the methylation of IFNG has been associated with transcriptional inactivation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate IFNG promoter methylation in association with gene transcription and protein levels in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. Methylation-specific polymerase ...
van Leeuwen Ingeborg - - 2013
Acetylation of C-terminal lysine residues in the p53 tumour suppressor is associated with increased stability and transcription factor activity. The function, protein level and acetylation of p53 are downregulated by mdm2, which in its turn is inhibited by the p14ARF tumour suppressor. Here we show that p14ARF increases the level ...
Zhang Jing-qiao - - 2013
Germination of Bacillus subtilis spores can be triggered by the binding of specific nutrients, called germinants, to germinant receptors (GRs) in the spore's inner membrane. This interaction eventually initiates, with variable time delays, the release of dipicolinic acid and cations from the spore core--a key step in spore germination. The ...
Wahle Elmar - - 2013
Shortening and removal of the 3' poly(A) tail of mature mRNA by poly(A)-specific 3' exonucleases (deadenylases) is the initial and often rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. The majority of cytoplasmic deadenylase activity is associated with the Ccr4-Not and Pan2-Pan3 complexes. Two distinct catalytic subunits, Caf1/Pop2 and Ccr4, are associated with ...
Tian Jing - - 2013
Resveratrol (trans-3,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a natural phytoalexin, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory properties and has the potential for treating inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokines production of IL-1β and MMP3 in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and further to explore ...
Love Ian M - - 2013
p53 levels and activity are controlled in large part through regulated ubiquitination and subsequent destruction by the 26S proteasome. Monoubiquitination of p53 is mediated primarily by the RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and impacts p53 activity through modulation of p53 localization and transcription activities. Recently, several E4 ubiquitin ligases (E4s) ...
Tamamiya Yoshiyuki - - 2013
Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs) are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 ...
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