Search Results
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Patel, Daywin
Evidence has been presented (Nagy et al., 1997a) that in addition to connexin43, astrocytes express a second connexin, suggested to be connexin30 (Cx30), a recently discovered member of the family of gap junction proteins. A Cx30 specific antibody was developed and used to confirm this observation using Western blots and ...
Hoser Melanie - - 2007
Sox proteins of group C are strongly expressed in the developing nervous system and have been associated with maturation of neurons and glia. Here, we overexpressed the group C protein Sox4 in transgenic mice under the control of the human GFAP promoter. Transgene expression was detected in radial glia and ...
Sandsmark Danielle K - - 2007
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome in which affected individuals develop astrocytic brain tumors (gliomas). To determine how the NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) regulates astrocyte growth and motility relevant to glioma formation, we have used Nf1-deficient primary murine astrocytes. Nf1(-/-) astrocytes exhibit increased protein ...
Su Weiping - - 2007
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes patients to peripheral nerve tumors and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities including low-grade astrocytomas and cognitive disabilities. Using mice with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-targeted Nf1 loss (Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice), we found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes proliferate faster and are more invasive ...
Beschorner R - - 2007
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is known to cause secondary brain damage following stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, clinical trials using NMDA antagonists failed. Thus, glial excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) might be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. We examined expression of EAAT1 (GLAST) and EAAT2 (Glt-1) in 36 TBI ...
Chen Jinwu - - 2007
We have examined, by immunocytochemical methods and nociceptive behavior assessment in rats, whether astrocytes in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are involved in the regulation of traumatic occlusion. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in PBN of ipsilateral and contralateral sides was up-regulated 4 h after occlusal changes in ...
Peria Fernanda M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine with several properties related with tumor development, including differentiation, angiogenesis, invasion, apoptosis and metastasis. There is evidence that PTN has also a relevant role in primary brain neoplasms and its inactivation could be important to treatment response. Astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors are the ...
Colin C - - 2007
In order to define specific markers for histogenesis of three well-characterized subgroups of human gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendrogliomas), we studied the expression of relevant markers that characterize gliomagenesis, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. They include the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and ...
Amantini C - - 2007
We provide evidence on the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by glioma cells, and its involvement in capsaicin (CPS)-induced apoptosis. TRPV1 mRNA was identified by quantitative RT-PCR in U373, U87, FC1 and FLS glioma cells, with U373 cells showing higher, and U87, FC1 and FLS cells ...
Tóth Júlia - - 2007
Gene PRSS3 on chromosome 9 of the human genome encodes, due to alternative splicing, both mesotrypsinogen and trypsinogen 4. Mesotrypsinogen has long been known as a minor component of trypsinogens expressed in human pancreas, while the mRNA for trypsinogen 4 has recently been identified in brain and other human tissues. ...
Samadani Uzma - - 2007
PURPOSE: Gangliogliomas (GGs) are neuronal-glial tumors highly associated with epilepsy. We hypothesized that the expression of select gene families including neurotransmitter receptor subunits and growth factors would be distinct in neurons and astrocytes within GG compared with adjacent cortex and that these changes would yield insights into seizure onset and ...
Dhandapani Krishnan M - - 2007
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) play an important role in proliferation, differentiation, and survival of malignant gliomas and in normal glial cell biology. Because of these critical roles, potential interactions between these key growth factors were investigated. We previously demonstrated that bFGF potently stimulates TGF-beta1 ...
Blechingberg Jenny - - 2007
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the principal component of the intermediary filaments in mature astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). The protein consists of three domains: the head, the coiled-coil, and the tail. Here, we describe the isolation of an evolutionary conserved novel GFAP isoform, GFAPkappa, produced by ...
Shimamura Munehisa - - 2007
Since hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a pivotal role in the development of the central nervous system and pathological conditions, we examined the long-term changes in the mRNA and protein expression of HGF and its receptor c-Met after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. HGF mRNA was significantly increased from ...
Choi Jeong-Sun - - 2007
Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesive glycoprotein linked to a variety of pathophysiological processes, with neuroprotective properties in ischemic injury. We examined the postischemic expression and localization of OPN in the rat brain after transient forebrain ischemia. The semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that OPN expression in the ...
Takahashi Hisaaki - - 2007
Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans, an important component of the extracellular matrix to generate heparan sulfate fragments, leading to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane particularly during cancer metastasis. A growing body of evidence suggests that heparanase serves multiple functions in normal ...
Zhang Xiong - - 2007
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an endogenous potent phospholipid mediator in stroke and related to the post-ischemic brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation and mechanisms of PAF receptor gene expression in the perifocal regions of cerebral infarction after middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion. Sixty mature Wistar ...
Mudo Giuseppa - - 2007
In order to understand the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the brain, it is important to know how the mGluRs are differentially expressed among the different cell types. At present, the cellular expression of mGluR3 and mGluR5 has been mostly studied in terms of proteins with observations suggesting ...
Teijido Oscar - - 2007
Mutations in MLC1 cause megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), a disorder characterized clinically by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions, epilepsy and mental decline. Recent studies have detected MLC1 mRNA and protein in astroglial processes. In addition, our group previously reported MLC1 expression in some neurons in the adult mouse ...
Figiel Maciej - - 2007
The uptake of glutamate into astroglia is the predominant mechanism to terminate glutamatergic neurotransmission and to prevent neurotoxic extracellular glutamate concentrations. Here, we show that uncoupling cultured cortical astrocytes with the gap junction blocker, propofol, or the Cx43 mimetic peptide, Gap27, inhibits the expression of GLT-1, the major glutamate transporter ...
Manzano Jimena - - 2007
Thyroid hormone influences brain maturation through interaction with nuclear receptors and regulation of gene expression. Their role on astrocyte maturation remains unclear. We have analyzed the role of thyroid hormone in rat cerebellar astrocyte maturation by comparing the sequential patterns of intermediate filament expression in normal and hypothyroid animals. During ...
Chi-Wei Lo - - 2007
Neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic hormone that is involved in numerous physiologic functions. The present study examines the presence and the functional significance of PACAP and its receptor in the brain and astrocytes of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). This is the first demonstration of the full-length nucleotide ...
Liu Jian Xin - - 2007
The present study showed CCR7, CCR8, CCR9 and CCR10 in the normal Swiss mouse hippocampus at both protein and mRNA levels. CCR7, CCR9 and CCR10 were mainly localized in hippocampal principal cells and some interneurons. CCR9 was also found in the mossy fibres and/or terminals, suggesting an axonal or presynaptic ...
Savidge Tor C - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrier functions across epithelia and endothelia are essential for homeostatic tissue regulation. Astroglia interact with cerebral endothelia to maintain the blood-brain barrier. Whether similar interactions between astrocyte-like enteric glia and epithelia regulate intestinal barrier function is not known. METHODS: Fluorescent permeability markers were used to measure intestinal ...
Nishimoto Mika - - 2007
The Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ligand/type 1 receptor (PAC1) system regulates neurogenesis and gliogenesis. It has been well established that the PACAP/PAC1 system induces differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) through the Gs-mediated cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. However, it is unknown whether this ligand/receptor system has a function in proliferation ...
Tsuchiya Atsushi - - 2007
It is very important to investigate the mechanism of axonal growth in the ischemic brain in order to consider a novel mean of therapy for stroke. Netrins are chemotropic factors for axon with chemoattractant or chemorepellant guidance activities, and deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and neogenin are receptors for netrins. ...
Steinhart Rivka - - 2007
In this study, we examined the role of PKC in the differentiation of multipotential neural precursor cells (NPCs). We found that the NPCs expressed PKCalpha,beta2,delta,epsilon,zeta and low levels of PKCgamma. The PKC activator, PMA, selectively increased the number of astrocytes, whereas it decreased the generation of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Similarly, ...
Gu Yan-ting - - 2007
This study investigated whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment could regulate the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The results demonstrated that DEX significantly reduced AQP4 mRNA level in the perihematomal area compared with control group, but it increased the level in the brain area surrounding the third ...
Tian, Guilian
The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is the main mediator of glutamate clearance. Reduced EAAT2 function could lead to accumulation of extracellular glutamate resulting in a form of cell death known as excitotoxicity. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimerfs disease (AD), EAAT2 protein levels are significantly decreased in affected areas. ...
Fuller, Molly Lynn
The response of glial cells to injury of the adult central nervous system (CNS) leads to formation of a glial scar, a dense network of astrocytes and extracellular matrix molecules. While the scar plays a protective role by creating a barrier between the CNS parenchyma and external environment, it is ...
Tang Yuping - - 2007
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a key molecule for maintaining water balance in the central nervous system, and its dysfunction might cause brain edema. However, little is known about the regulation of AQP4 expression. Because thrombin has been implicated in brain edema formation, the purpose of this study is to determine ...
Martinez Torres F J - - 2007
Structural damage of the central nervous system (CNS) often leads to severely disabling residual symptoms despite effective antiviral therapy during Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE). Edematous space-occupying lesions are pathological and neuroradiological well-known phenomena for this disease. The molecular mechanisms of brain edema development in HSVE are poorly understood, the ...
Esen Nilufer N Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, - - 2007
Gap junctions establish direct intercellular conduits between adjacent cells and are formed by the hexameric organization of protein subunits called connexins (Cx). It is unknown whether the proinflammatory milieu that ensues during CNS infection with S. aureus, one of the main etiologic agents of brain abscess in humans, is capable ...
Yousif Salah - - 2007
Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting studies on transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of isolated brain microvessels have produced conflicting data on their cellular distribution. A major problem is identifying cells expressing the genes of interest, since isolated brain microvessels are composed of several cell types and may be ...
Dasgupta Asmita - - 2007
To elucidate how thyroid hormone (TH) modulates glutathione (GSH) biogenesis in developing brain, the effect of the hormone on the activity of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), previously known as gamma-glutamyl synthetase (gamma-GCS), has been investigated. Hypothyroidism in developing rat brain declined the activity of GCL. Conversely, administration of TH to ...
Yu Alice L - - 2007
Reactive astrocytes in glaucomatous optic nerve changes are characterized by an increased expression of alphaB-crystallin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage, ischemia/reperfusion injury may play an important role. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of hypoxia/reoxygenation and TGF-beta ...
Malone P E - - 2007
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and remodeling of the optic nerve head (ONH). Previous findings in glaucomatous astrocytes suggested increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in ...
Lambertsen K L - - 2007
The proinflammatory and potential neurotoxic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is produced by activated CNS resident microglia and infiltrating blood-borne macrophages in infarct and peri-infarct areas following induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the expression of the TNF receptors, TNF-p55R and TNF-p75R, from 1 to 10 days following ...
Sinclair Colin - - 2007
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) where it has been identified as the first defined autoantigen pertinent to an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the human CNS. Furthermore, a recent case report has shown a lack of AQP4 expression in the spinal cord lesions ...
Comincini Sergio - - 2006
Doppel (Dpl) is a paralogue of the mammalian Prion (PrP) protein. It is abundant in testis and, unlike PrP, it is expressed at low levels in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Besides, Dpl overexpression correlates with some prion-disease pathological features, such as ataxia and death of cerebellar neurons. Recently, ...
Ahn Meejung - - 2006
We studied the expression of caveolin-1 in the spinal cords of rats using 60Co gamma-ray irradiation (single dose of 8 Gray (Gy)) in order to determine the possible involvement of caveolin-1 in the tissues of the central nervous system after irradiation. Spinal cords sampled at days 1, 4, and 9 ...
Alonso Elba - - 2007
The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine is known to oppose to several pharmacological effects of opioid drugs, but the consequences and the mechanisms involved remain to be clearly established. In the present study we have checked the effects of yohimbine on morphine-induced alterations of the expression of key proteins (glial fibrillary acidic ...
Haupt C - - 2007
Following focal ischemic injury, several mechanisms lead to secondary expansion of the affected area and therefore increase the initial damage. We thoroughly investigated the expression of astrocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) after photothrombosis in rat brain. The temporal profile of Cx43 mRNA as well as protein expression was studied in remote, ...
Ma Jianmei - - 2007
While proteolytic enzymes are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the involvement of cathepsins has not been characterized in detail. To better understand the role of cathepsins, cDNA microarray analysis was used to study the brains of proteolipid protein transgenic (plp ( tg ) /-) mice, an animal ...
Zhang Xiaopeng - - 2006
The expression and proteolysis of caspase family proteins are involved in the initiation and execution of apoptosis, which has been reported to occur in human and experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Caspase-3, -6, and -7 belong to the group of executioner caspases, which are cleaved and activated at the late, ...
Lacroix-Fralish Michael L ML Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, - - 2006
Glial-neuronal interactions are crucial processes in neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity. The neuregulin 1 family of growth and differentiation factors have been implicated as bidirectional signaling molecules that are involved in mediating some of these interactions. We have shown previously that neuregulin 1 expression is regulated by the gonadal hormones progesterone ...
Jhas Sumit - - 2006
The mechanisms regulating the generation of cell diversity in the mammalian cerebral cortex are beginning to be elucidated. In that regard, Hairy/Enhancer of split (Hes) 1 and 5 are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors that inhibit the differentiation of pluripotent cortical progenitors into neurons. In contrast, a related Hes family member ...
Cantarella Giuseppina - - 2007
The proapoptotic cytokine TRAIL has been shown to enhance amyloid-beta-dependent neurotoxicity. Here are reported interactions between TRAIL and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured rat astrocytes in vitro. Rat astrocytes expressed all TRAIL receptor mRNAs and proteins. However, TRAIL failed in inducing apoptosis of astrocytes, whereas these cells released substantial amounts ...
Lehmann Michael H - - 2006
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) correlates with infiltration of monocytes into the brain. The accessory HIV-1 negative factor (Nef) protein, which modulates several signaling pathways, is constitutively present in persistently infected astroctyes. We demonstrated that monocytes responded with chemotaxis when subjected to cell culture supernatants of nef-expressing astrocytic U251MG cells. Using a ...
Miklossy Judith - - 2006
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) have been recently identified in families with autosomal-dominant late-onset Parkinson disease. We report that by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA of LRRK2 is expressed in soluble extracts of human brain, liver, and heart and in cultured human astrocytes, microglia, and ...
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