Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1297
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Wang Yan-Jian - - 2009
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) has recently been identified as a potent antiviral protein. Here, we examined the expression and regulation of APOBEC3G in human brain tissues and the cells of central nervous system (CNS). Similar to the immune cells, human brain tissue and the CNS cells ...
Khorooshi Reza - - 2008
Tissue response to injury includes expression of genes encoding cytokines and chemokines. These regulate entry of immune cells to the injured tissue. The synthesis of many cytokines and chemokines involves NF-kappaB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). Injury to the CNS induces glial response. Astrocytes are the major ...
Li Kairong - - 2009
Being supportive cells for neurons in the central nervous system, astrocytes have recently found to be associated with neurogenesis. Ventral mesencephalon (VM) astrocytes were also detected being instructive for VM dopaminergic (DA) neurogenesis, but the underling mechanisms are still unclear. This research is to figure out whether VM astrocytes are ...
Algeciras Mabel E - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether the mechanical stretching renders modulation of the peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) expression in cultured astrocytes. METHODS: Isolated rat brain astrocytes were subjected to mechanical stretching using a glass bead set-up and polyethylene set-up with or without immobilization. Activity assays and ELISA were performed to detect ...
Yu Alice L - - 2009
PURPOSE: Histologic studies have previously demonstrated increased expression of small heat shock proteins (Hsps) in reactive optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes of patients with glaucoma. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are known to induce ONH astrocyte reactivation. The goal of the present study was to determine whether ...
Liao C-W - - 2008
Infection by Toxocara canis in humans may cause cerebral toxocariasis (CT). Appreciable numbers of T. canis larvae cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to invade the brain thus causing CT. In the present studies, we evaluated the BBB permeability and BBB injury as assessed by the cerebral Evans blue (EB) concentration ...
Choi Myung-Min - - 2008
In the nervous system, GDH (glutamate dehydrogenase) is enriched in astrocytes and is important for recycling glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter. The function of hGDH (human GDH) may be important in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. To test the effect of decreased hGDH expression, several vector-based plasmidlinked hGDH siRNAs ...
Liu Wei-Lin - - 2008
Reactive gliosis caused by post-traumatic injury often results in marked expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), which inhibits neurite outgrowth and regeneration. Methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been shown to have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the effect of MP ...
Wang Ying - - 2008
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Fs constitute a subgroup of the cytochrome P450 superfamily and are involved in cellular protection and metabolism of numerous molecules, including drugs, toxins, and eicosanoids. CYP4Fs are widely distributed in rat brain with each isoform having a unique distribution pattern throughout different brain regions. The present study ...
Kwon Il-Sun - - 2009
Disabled 1 (Dab1), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein expressed predominantly in the CNS, transduces a Reelin-initiated signaling that controls neuronal migration and positioning during brain development. To determine the role of Dab1 in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, we established a culture of neurospheres derived from the embryonic forebrain of the ...
Decourt Boris - - 2009
The small protein otospiralin has initially been identified as an inner ear specific molecule. However, compelling evidence from high throughput sequencing projects suggested that otospiralin is likely expressed in the central nervous system. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a combination of molecular biology, immunological, and histological techniques, and found ...
Jeon Gye Sun - - 2009
The nonessential amino acid L-serine functions as a glia-derived trophic factor and strongly promotes the survival and differentiation of cultured neurons. The L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and the small neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 are preferentially expressed in specific glial cells in the brain. However, their roles in ...
Singh Jaspreet - - 2009
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disorder arising from a mutation/deletion in the ABCD1 gene, leading to a defect in the peroxisomal adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which inhibits the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Thus, these VLCFAs accumulate. In a cerebral form of ALD (cALD), VLCFA accumulation induces neuroinflammation ...
Baker Brandi J - - 2008
Under neuropathological conditions, reactive astrocytes release cytokines and chemokines, which act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion to modulate production of immunoregulatory factors from cells including microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. In this way, astrocytes play an important role in orchestrating immune responses within the central nervous system (CNS). Suppressor of ...
Crocker Stephen J - - 2008
Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) proteolytic activity contributes to the pathogenesis of many neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions in the CNS. To fully understand this process, it is important to define the MMP expression profile of specific cell types, including the CNS-resident cells astrocytes and microglia. While previous studies have characterized astrocyte ...
Carloni Silvia - - 2008
Autophagy, an intracellular bulk degradation process of cellular constituents, plays a key role in cell homeostasis and can be induced by stresses, such as nutrient depletion, closed head injury or focal cerebral ischemia. This study focuses on the role of autophagy in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Enhanced beclin 1 expression, a ...
Israelsson Charlotte - - 2008
Cerebral gene expressions change in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and future trauma treatment may improve with increased knowledge about these regulations. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to injury by controlled cortical impact (CCI). At various time points post-injury, mRNA from neocortex and hippocampus was isolated, and transcriptional alterations studied ...
Li Qin - - 2008
It has been demonstrated that neuregulin-1beta (NRG-1beta) plays a neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemic injury, however, its defined mechanisms and the perfect treatment window are still elusive. Therefore, we established the animal model of MCAO/R to evaluate cerebral damage. As a result, neurological deficit scores were increased, and a small ...
Hultman K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Emerging data demonstrate important roles for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast to endothelial cells, little is known about the regulation of t-PA gene expression and secretion in astrocytes. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether t-PA gene expression ...
Bahia Parmvir K - - 2008
Flavonoids are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with neuroprotective properties. Recent work suggests that, in addition to acting as hydrogen donors, they activate protective signalling pathways. The anti-oxidant response element (ARE) promotes the expression of protective proteins including those required for glutathione synthesis (xCT cystine antiporter, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthase). The ...
Zwart Isabel - - 2008
We investigated the neurogenic potential of full-term human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to neural induction media or coculture with rat neural cells. Phenotypic and functional changes were assessed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Naive MSCs expressed both mesodermal and ectodermal markers ...
Tan G - - 2008
This study investigated the expression of the water channel protein aquaporin-9 (AQP9) in 100 cases of human astrocytic tumour compared with normal brain tissue. AQP9 mRNA and protein were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The expression of both AQP9 mRNA and protein in astrocytic tumours ...
Falo M Cristina - - 2008
Interaction between extracellular matrix proteins and regulatory proteinases can mediate synaptic integrity. Previously, we documented that matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) expression and activity increase following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We now report protein and mRNA analysis of agrin, a MMP-3 substrate, over the time course of trauma-induced synaptogenesis. Agrin expression ...
Weimer Jill M JM UNC Neuroscience Center, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2008
Extracellular matrix associated Sparc-like 1 (SC1/SPARCL1) can influence the function of astroglial cells in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). To examine SC1's significance in the CNS, we generated a BAC transgenic mouse model in which Sc1 is expressed in radial glia and their astrocyte derivatives using the ...
Simpson J E JE Academic Unit of Pathology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, - - 2010
Astrocyte pathology occurs in association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in brain ageing, but is poorly characterised. We sought to define the detailed cellular pathology of astrocytes, the extent of population variation and the relationship to Alzheimer-type changes in a population-based cohort. Three staining patterns were associated with GFAP and ...
Fatemi S Hossein - - 2008
Astrocytic markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and connexin 43 (CX43) are known to have altered expression in brains of subjects with psychiatric disorders including autism and major depression. The current study investigated whether GFAP and CX43 expressions are affected by several commonly used psychotropic medications (clozapine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, lithium, ...
Cebolla Beatriz - - 2008
In the developing mouse brain, once the generation of neurons is mostly completed during the prenatal period, precisely coordinated signals act on competent neural precursors to direct their differentiation into astrocytes, which occurs mostly after birth. Among these signals, those provided by neurotrophic cytokines and bone morphogenetic proteins appear to ...
Sun Zhe - - 2009
Edema formation has been linked to thrombin toxicity induced by blood clot at the acute stage of intracerebral hemorrhage. Thrombin induces cell toxicity in neuron, microglia and astrocyte. Aquaporin (AQP) 4 and 9 are proteins expressed on astrocyte in rat brain and involved in the brain water accumulation in brain ...
Choi Jeong-Sun - - 2008
We investigated the spatiotemporal expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in the rat hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia using in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Messenger RNA for SOCS-3 was constitutively expressed in neurons of the pyramidal cell and granule cell layers in control animals; ...
Wang Lei - - 2008
The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the ...
Chiry Oriana - - 2008
The monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 belongs to a large family of membrane proteins involved in the transport of lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies. Although its expression in rodent brain has been well documented, the presence of MCT2 in the human brain has been questioned on the basis of low mRNA abundance. ...
Chen Qiang - - 2008
In this study we established conditional silencing of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) expression in Sprague-Dawley rat brain by microinjection of rAAV-2-carrying, Tet-On-regulated siRNA expression cassette into nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and induction with doxycycline. We demonstrated that inhibition of ILK expression was effectively induced by administration of doxycycline for 2 weeks ...
Steffek Amy E - - 2008
Altered expression of structural and functional molecules expressed by astrocytes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated the hypothesis that the astrocytic enzyme glutamine synthetase, involved in maintaining the glutamate-glutamine cycle, and the cytoskeletal molecule glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are abnormally expressed in schizophrenia. We ...
Yu Alice L - - 2008
PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes of glaucomatous optic nerve heads (ONHs) are characterized by an increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 and heat shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp27. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of oxidative stress on TGF-beta2 and Hsp27 expression in human ONH ...
Beck Heike - - 2008
Ischemic brain injury causes tissue damage and neuronal death. The deficits can often be permanent because adult neurons fail to regenerate. One barrier to neuronal regeneration is the formation of the glial scar, a repair mechanism that is otherwise necessary to seal off necrotic areas. The process of gliosis has ...
Shen Lan - - 2008
NDRG2, a member of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family, is involved in cell differentiation and development. However, the distribution and function of Ndrg2 in the central nervous system remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the expression and distribution of Ndrg2 in the mouse brain and explored the potential physiological functions ...
Nakamura Takehiro - - 2008
The current study examined 3CB2, a marker of radial glia, expression after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and intracerebral thrombin injection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an intracaudate injection of 100 microl autologous whole blood or 5 U thrombin (50 microl). Animals were sacrificed for Western blotting to quantify 3CB2 expression, and ...
Chow Lionel M L - - 2008
Two transgenic mouse lines expressing an inducible form of the Cre recombinase (CreER) under the control of the human GFAP promoter have been generated and characterized. In adult mice, expression of the fusion protein is largely confined to astrocytes in all regions of the central nervous system. Minimal spontaneous Cre ...
Ronaldson Patrick T - - 2008
Brain human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with oxidative stress, which may lead to HIV-1 encephalitis, a chronic neurodegenerative condition. In vitro, oxidative stress can be induced in glial cells by exposure to HIV-1 envelope protein glycoprotein (gp120). Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are known to efflux endogenous substrates ...
Ulrich R - - 2008
AIMS: Limited remyelination is a key feature of demyelinating Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME). It is hypothesized that a dysregulation of differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) represents the main cause of insufficient regeneration in this model of multiple sclerosis. METHODS: TME virus (TMEV)-infected SJL/J mice were evaluated by footprint analysis, ...
Schäfer Ruth - - 2008
Following brain trauma, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are enriched at injury sites and in denervated areas. At injury sites, CSPGs are regarded as inhibitors of axonal regeneration because of their growth inhibitory properties. In areas of denervation their role is less clear, since they are enriched in zones of sprouting, ...
Hochstim Christian - - 2008
Astrocytes constitute the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) and play diverse functional roles, but the ontogenetic origins of this phenotypic diversity are poorly understood. We have investigated whether positional identity, a fundamental organizing principle governing the generation of neuronal subtype diversity, is also relevant to ...
Idowu Michael O - - 2008
Extra-axial ependymomas are very rare but have been reported in the ovary, broad ligament, sacrococcygeal region, lung, and mediastinum. The histogenesis is obscure, and a thorough immunohistochemical analysis is lacking. We reviewed the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of 5 extra-axial ependymomas occurring in adults, 1 arising in an infantile sacrococcygeal ...
Campisi A - - 2008
Type-2 transglutaminase (TG-2) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and survival that recently has been shown to play an emerging role in astrocytes, where it is involved in both proliferation and differentiation processes. Growth factors (GFs) such as EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth ...
Wang Wei - - 2008
Astrocyte activation is involved in the neuropathic pain. As a glutamate scavenger, the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is exclusively expressed on the astrocytes and probably correlates with astrocyte activation. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the temporal changing courses of astrocyte activation and GLT-1 expression, as well as their ...
Sakurai Katsuyasu - - 2008
Astrocytes serve various important functions in the CNS, but the molecular mechanisms of their generation and maturation are still enigmatic. Here, we show that Pax6, a key transcription factor that controls neurogenesis, also regulates proliferation, differentiation, and migration of astrocytes in the CNS. We first reveal that Pax6 is expressed ...
Lim Michelle Chin Chia - - 2008
The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is traditionally used as a marker for astrocytes of the brain, and more recently for the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the liver. Several GFAP splice variants have been previously reported in the astrocytes of the CNS and in the non-myelinating Schwann cells of ...
Lee Youngjin - - 2008
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament protein in astrocytes, one of the most abundant cell types in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Transcriptional regulation of GFAP is of interest because of its astrocyte-specificity and its upregulation during development and CNS injury. A 2.2 kb human ...
Lacroix-Fralish Michael L - - 2008
An increasing amount of evidence indicates that there are significant sex differences in clinical and experimental pain sensitivity in men and women. While it is now clear that the endogenous sex steroids are involved in mediating these sex differences, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie their effects on nociceptive ...
Gadea Ana - - 2008
Reactive gliosis is characterized by enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, cellular hypertrophy, and astrocyte proliferation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still largely undefined. We investigated the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in reactive gliosis in corpus callosum after lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination and in cultured ...
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