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Gabryel Bożena - - 2010
The protective potential of nortriptyline has been reported in a few experimental models of brain ischemia, both in vivo and in vitro. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the protective action of the drug are still unresolved. The aim of the present study was to determine whether treatment with low ...
Le Dréau G - - 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that CCN matricellular proteins play important roles in inflammation. One of the major cell types that handle inflammation in the brain is the astrocyte, which, upon activation, dramatically increases its production of cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that NOV/CCN3, added to primary cultured rat brain astrocytes, ...
Hamby Mary E ME Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, 06030, - - 2010
We previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), while having no effect alone, enhances nitric oxide (NO) production in primary, purified mouse astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), by recruiting a latent population of astrocytes to respond, thereby enhancing the total number of cells that express Nos2. In ...
Gao Dehong - - 2010
The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an astrocyte-specific member of the class III intermediate filament proteins. It is generally used as a specific marker of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated a GFAP cDNA from the brain and spinal cord cDNA library of Gekko japonicus, and ...
Hao Chunshu - - 2010
The role of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the regulation of astrocytes function has been widely investigated. However, there is little information about its contribution to the drug metabolism enzymes such as Cytochrome P4502E1. In the present study, we investigated whether AQP4 is involved in the process of the cell damage caused ...
Zhang Juan - - 2010
Thrombopoietin (Tpo) and its receptor (c-Mpl; TpoR), which primary regulate megakaryopoiesis and platelet production, are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Increased Tpo concentrations are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some patients with bacterial or viral meningitis. Since previous data implicated a proapoptotic role of Tpo ...
Misiak Magdalena - - 2010
Brain region specificity is a feature characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). We have studied the brain region-specific vulnerability of striatal compared with cortical and mesencephalic astrocytes treated with 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), an in vitro model of HD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative processes. We have ...
Nishimura Hirotake - - 2010
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent lipid mediator, transduces intracellular signals through the activation of S1P receptors (S1PRs). Although S1PRs have been shown to play an important role in the central nervous system (CNS), accurate localization and the function of S1PR1 in the human CNS are still unclear. In this study, we ...
Smiljanic Kosara - - 2010
Maintaining the cholesterol homeostasis is essential for normal CNS functioning. The enzyme responsible for elimination of cholesterol excess from the brain is cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (Cyp46). Since cholesterol homeostasis is disrupted following brain injury, in this study we examined the effect of right sensorimotor cortex suction ablation on cellular and temporal ...
Ghosh Shantanu - - 2010
Neurons and astrocytes differentially express isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The metabolic consequences for the variations in mRNA expression of LDH isoenzyme subtypes in neurons and astrocytes control cerebral vasoregulation. Moreover, cellular signalling consequences for functional neurovascular control may also be dependent on LDH isoenzyme subtype profiles. Initial computer simulations ...
Faideau Mathilde - - 2010
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder previously thought to be of primary neuronal origin, despite ubiquitous expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). We tested the hypothesis that mHtt expressed in astrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. To better understand the contribution of astrocytes in HD in vivo, we ...
Lee Hye Shin - - 2010
Meteorin is an orphan ligand which has been previously reported to control neuritogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as gliogenesis. However, the precise function of this factor in CNS development and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that meteorin is involved in GFAP-positive glial differentiation through activation ...
Xue Zhanxia - - 2010
In mouse astrocyte cultures identical to those used in the present study ammonia increases the production of ouabain-like compounds and Na, K-ATPase activity (Kala et al., 2000). Increased activity of Na, K-ATPase could be the result of enhanced production of ouabain-like compounds, since cultured rat astrocytes react to prolonged exposure ...
Zimmermann Mathias - - 2010
OBJECT: The present study was aimed at analyzing the accumulation of the fluorescently tagged dipeptide derivative, beta-Ala-Lys-N(epsilon)-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin-3-acetic acid (AMCA), in primary cultures of human neoplastic glial cells. This molecule is a highly specific reporter used to investigate the dipeptide transport system hPepT2. METHODS: In this study the authors used ...
Yonezawa Tomoko - - 2010
Following brain injury, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is involved in angiogenesis and synaptic recovery. In this study, we used a cold injury-model and found that TSP-1 mRNA was markedly upregulated after brain injury. Immunohistochemistry showed that TSP-1 was upregulated in both the core of the lesion and in the perilesional area of ...
Boer K - - 2010
GFAP Delta164/Deltaexon 6 are two out-of frame splice variants of GFAP. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of GFAP Delta164/Deltaexon 6 expressing cells, in focal lesions associated with chronic intractable epilepsy, in light of the increasing interest in the role of specific astrocyte subtypes in epilepsy. ...
Ritter Stefanie L SL Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2011
The astrocytic glutamate transporter GLAST (also known as EAAT1) is a key regulator of extracellular glutamate levels in many regions of vertebrate brains. To identify novel interacting partners that might regulate the localization and function of GLAST in astrocytes, we screened the transporter's C-terminus (GLAST-CT) against a proteomic array of ...
Miao Haixi - - 2010
The authors investigated the role of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor pathways in optic nerve head (ONH) astrocyte migration. They further investigated how the expression of these genes is altered by elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP). PCR was used to determine the isoforms of ...
Wu Jinhua J Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, - - 2010
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) and excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) are predominantly expressed in astrocytes where they are thought to regulate synaptic adenosine and glutamate levels. Because mice lacking ENT1 display increased glutamate levels in the ventral striatum, we investigated whether ENT1 regulates the expression and function of ...
Ejarque-Ortiz Aroa - - 2010
The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBP delta) regulates transcription of genes that play important roles in glial activation. Previous studies have shown the astroglial expression of C/EBP delta but the microglial expression of C/EBP delta remains virtually unexplored, with the exception of two microarray studies. In this report, ...
Lo Vasco Vincenza Rita - - 2010
Signal transduction pathways, involved in cell cycle and activities, depend on various components including lipid signalling molecules, such as phosphoinositides and related enzymes. Many evidences support the hypothesis that inositol lipid cycle is involved in astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration. Previous studies investigated the pattern of expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C ...
Olsen Michelle L - - 2010
During neuronal activity astrocytes function to remove extracellular increases in potassium, which are largely mediated by the inwardly-rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1, and to take up excess glutamate via glutamate transporter 1, a glial-specific glutamate transporter. Here we demonstrate that expression of both of these proteins is reduced by nearly 80% ...
Kohyama Jun - - 2010
Once they have differentiated, cells retain their individual character and repress genes that are specifically expressed in other cell lineages, but how alternative fate choice is restricted during and/or after differentiation remains unclear. In the mammalian central nervous system, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes are generated throughout life from common tripotent ...
Montori Sheyla - - 2010
This study describes the effect of global brain ischemia followed by 48 h reperfusion, when delayed neuronal death can be already observed. We quantified the mRNA levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits and those of the astroglia (glial fibrilar acidic protein, GFAP) and microglia (CD11b) markers using real time ...
Pogue A I - - 2010
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression that regulate the stability and translation of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Here we report that the levels of a human brain-enriched miRNA-125b are up-regulated in interleukin-6 (IL-6)-stressed normal human astrocytes (NHA), a treatment known to induce astrogliosis. In vitro, anti-miRNA-125b ...
Goracci Gianfrancesco - - 2010
Several "low molecular weight" or "secretory" phospholipases A(2) isoforms may be expressed in mammalian neural cells. Indeed, mRNAs for GIB, GIIA, GIIE, GIII, GV, GX, and GXII were detected in brain tissues despite different levels. However, only the presence of GIB, GIIA, and GV proteins has been clearly demonstrated in ...
Sagisaka Takafumi - - 2010
Hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), originally purified from young rat hippocampus, has been known to promote the differentiation of septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons. Recently, the precursor protein of HCNP (HCNP-pp) has also received attention as a multifunctional protein with roles, in addition to serving as the HCNP precursor, such as acting ...
Chastre Anne - - 2010
There is evidence to suggest that, in acute liver failure (ALF), brain ammonia and proinflammatory cytokines may act synergistically to cause brain edema and its complications (intracranial hypertension, brain herniation). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain to be established. In order to address this issue, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to ...
Olk Stephan - - 2010
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein of the brain, where it is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Recent studies imply a role of Cx43 in the regulation of important cellular processes, including migration, proliferation, and shape formation. These processes are assumed to be reflected by the proteome of ...
Wei Rongtai - - 2010
By producing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), astrocytes play a role in disease resistance. This study was undertaken to investigate whether primary astrocytes derived from LEW/N and F344/N rats differentially express BDNF. LEW/N astrocytes expressed more BDNF mRNA and protein than F344/N astrocytes in basal and valproic acid (VPA)-stimulated conditions. VPA ...
Baertling Fabian - - 2010
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 12 represents a member of a large family of similarly structured multi-domain proteins. In the central nervous system (CNS), ADAM12 has been suggested to play a role in brain development, glioblastoma cell proliferation, and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Furthermore, ADAM12 was reported to be almost ...
Khan Mushfiquddin M Department of Pediatrics, Darby Children Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. - - 2010
Childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a metabolic disorder in which very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulate due to ALD protein gene defects, ultimately leading to lipotoxicity-induced neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease. Therefore, we examined VLCFA-mediated alterations in the metabolism of lipoxidative enzymes and inflammatory mediators in the cALD brain. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-derived leukotrienes were ...
Black Joel A - - 2010
Astrocytes are prominent participants in the response of the central nervous system to injury, including neuroinflammatory insults. Rodent astrocytes in vitro have been shown to express voltage-gated sodium channels in a dynamic manner, with a switch in expression of tetrodotoxin-sensitive to tetrodotoxin-resistant channels in reactive astrocytes. However, the expression of ...
Sciumè Giuseppe - - 2010
The chemokine CX3CL1 is constitutively expressed in the central nervous system by neurons and astrocytes controlling neuronal survival and neurotransmission. In this work, we analyzed the expression and function of the chemokine CX3CL1 and its receptor, CX3CR1, by human glioma cells. We show that both molecules are expressed on the ...
Liu Yonghua - - 2010
S-phase-associated kinase protein-2 (Skp2) is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of p27(kip1), which plays an important role in mammalian cell-cycle regulation and neurogenesis in the developing central nervous system. To investigate their expression and function in central nervous system injury and repair, we used a brain-penetrating injury model in ...
Yang Yongjie Y Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, - - 2010
Astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2/GLT1 prevents glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. Expression of EAAT2/GLT1 is dynamically regulated by neurons. The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves astroglial dysfunction, including dramatic loss of EAAT2/GLT1. DNA methylation of gene promoters represents one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms in regulating ...
Fu Eugene S ES Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2010
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a key regulator of inflammatory processes in reactive glial cells. We utilized a transgenic mouse model (GFAP-IkappaBalpha-dn) where the classical NF-kappaB pathway is inactivated by overexpression of a dominant negative (dn) form of the inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaBalpha) in glial ...
Xia Yulei - - 2010
Astrocytes have important immune functions in CNS, and astrocytes stimulated by interferon-gamma were showed to have direct antimicrobial function. However whether astrocytes without the stimulation of cytokines have antibacterial function, and how this function is regulated are still largely unknown. In this study, we found that primary cultured astrocytes inhibited ...
Liu Yu-Peng - - 2010
Astrocytes are responsible for clearance of extracellular glutamate, primarily through glial-specific glutamate transporter-1 and the Na(+)-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). After traumatic injury to the CNS, such as spinal cord injury, persistent release of ATP from damaged neurons and activated glial cells occurs, inducing detrimental and/or beneficial effects via activation of ...
Haile Woldeab B - - 2010
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) are expressed in endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes. Here, we show that TWEAK induces a dose-dependent increase in the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in astrocytes, and that this effect is ...
Puschmann Till B - - 2010
Reactive astrogliosis constitutes a major obstacle to neuronal regeneration and is characterized by rearrangement and upregulation of expression of cytoskeletal proteins, increased proliferation and hypertrophy. Many approaches have been attempted to mimic astrogliosis by inducing reactive astrocytes in vitro. Such research is usually performed using astrocytes derived from Mus musculus ...
Hoenicka Janet - - 2010
BACKGROUND: TaqIA, the most widely analyzed genetic polymorphism in addictions, has traditionally been considered a gene marker for association with D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2). TaqIA is located in the coding region of the ANKK1 gene that overlaps DRD2 and encodes a predicted kinase ANKK1. The ANKK1 protein nonetheless had ...
Bramanti Vincenzo - - 2010
The two major intermediate filament (IF) proteins of astrocytes are vimentin and GFAP. Early during development, radial glia and immature astrocytes express mainly vimentin. Towards the end of gestation, a switch occurs whereby vimentin is progressively replaced by GFAP in differentiated astroglial cells. The expression of vimentin and GFAP increased ...
Lee Ji-Yeon - - 2010
We have examined the temporal changes and cellular localization of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures subjected to ischemia-like oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The sequential induction pattern response consisted of neuronal and microglial OPN upregulation, followed by a later extended phase of expression in reactive astrocytes. OPN ...
Middeldorp Jinte - - 2010
A subpopulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells located along the length of the lateral ventricles in the subventricular zone (SVZ) have been identified as the multipotent neural stem cells of the adult mammalian brain. We have previously found that, in the adult human brain, a splice variant of ...
Bonneh-Barkay Dafna - - 2010
CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates with lentiviral encephalitis and using immunohistochemistry showed that CHI3L1 was associated with astrocytes. In the current study CHI3L1 transcription and expression ...
Bernhart Eva E Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, - - 2010
Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are rapidly activated in response to injury and microglia migration towards and homing at damaged tissue plays a key role in CNS regeneration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in signaling events evoking microglia responses through cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Here we show that ...
Luchetti Sabina - - 2011
Expression of the genes for enzymes involved in neurosteroid biosynthesis was studied in human prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=49). Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that mRNA levels of diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), which is involved in the first step of steroidogenesis and in GABAergic transmission, ...
Pupure Jolanta - - 2010
Mildronate, a representative of the aza-butyrobetaine class of drugs with proven cardioprotective efficacy, was recently found to prevent dysfunction of complex I in rat liver mitochondria. The present study demonstrates that mildronate also acts as a neuroprotective agent. In a mouse model of azidothymidine (anti-HIV drug) neurotoxicity, mildronate reduced the ...
Endale Mehari - - 2010
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members, such as RGS2, interact with Galpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, accelerating the rate of GTP hydrolysis and attenuating the intracellular signaling triggered by the G protein-coupled receptor-ligand interaction. They are also reported to regulate G protein-effector interactions and form multiprotein signaling ...
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