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Ramot Yuval - - 2012
Gingival lesions of squamous hyperplasia, cystic keratinizing hyperplasia (CKH), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be induced in rats treated by chronic gavage with 10-100 mg/kg 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene. We evaluated gingival squamous hyperplasia (GSH), CKH, and SCC for the immunohistochemical pattern of expression of carcinogenesis-associated markers. The 3 types of lesions ...
Palanisamy V - - 2012
Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host defenses. Regulation of cytokines can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA export, and post- transcriptional and translational levels. Among these modes of regulation, post-transcriptional regulation has been shown to play a vital role in controlling the expression of ...
Fisher Ffolliott M FM Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2012
Certain white adipose tissue (WAT) depots are readily able to convert to a "brown-like" state with prolonged cold exposure or exposure to β-adrenergic compounds. This process is characterized by the appearance of pockets of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive, multilocular adipocytes and serves to increase the thermogenic capacity of the organism. ...
Nakagawa Eizo - - 2012
The root apex of the tooth elongates until the completion of root development. Although the signaling molecules inducing root elongation have been studied, the characteristic of the cells having the ability to maintain the root elongation remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the cells involved in ...
Andreeva Viktoria - - 2012
Rb1 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression through interactions with E2F transcription factors. In recent years, new roles for Rb1 in regulating cellular differentiation have also emerged. For example, it has been shown that Rb1 regulates osteoblast differentiation in a cell cycle independent manner, by binding ...
Fernández-Trijueque Juan - - 2012
Plastid thioredoxins (TRXs) f and m have long been considered to regulate almost exclusively photosynthesis-related processes. Nonetheless, some years ago, we found that type-f and m TRXs were also present in non-photosynthetic organs such as roots and flowers of adult pea plants. In the present work, using pea seedlings 2-5 ...
Meluzzi Dario - - 2012
Group I introns have been engineered into trans-splicing ribozymes capable of replacing the 3'-terminal portion of an external mRNA with their own 3'-exon. Although this design makes trans-splicing ribozymes potentially useful for therapeutic application, their trans-splicing efficiency is usually too low for medical use. One factor that strongly influences trans-splicing ...
Grunewald Wim - - 2012
Gradients of the plant hormone auxin, which depend on its active intercellular transport, are crucial for the maintenance of root meristematic activity. This directional transport is largely orchestrated by a complex interaction of specific influx and efflux carriers that mediate the auxin flow into and out of cells, respectively. Besides ...
Verdier Jerome - - 2012
MtPAR (Medicago truncatula proanthocyanidin regulator) is an MYB family transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtPAR expression is confined to the seed coat, the site of PA accumulation. Loss-of-function par mutants contained substantially less PA in the seed ...
Broihier Heather - - 2012
Whole-mount RNA in situ hybridizations with digoxigenin-conjugated probes and alkaline phosphatase biochemistry have been used widely for many years to map expression pattern domains in the Drosophila embryo. To capitalize on the number of molecular markers in the central nervous system (CNS) and to enable expression analysis at the single-cell ...
Saadia Mubshara - - 2012
Expression analysis of crop plants has improved our knowledge about the veiled underlying mechanisms for salt tolerance. In order to observe the time course effects of salinity stress on gene expression for enzymes regulating proline metabolism, we comparatively analyzed the expression of specific genes for proline metabolism in root and ...
Zhang Fan - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) and correlate it with OPN expression and function in squamous carcinoma of tongue.Paraffin were sections of 80 samples with squamous carcinoma of tongue and 40 samples with normal tissue of tongue for ...
Farias Lucyana Conceição - - 2012
An ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm with aggressive behaviour and high recurrence rates. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been reported in ameloblastomas. In the present study, we hypothesised that epigenetic alterations may regulate MMP expression in ameloblastomas. We investigated the methylation status of the genes ...
Bräuer Lars - - 2012
Abstract Background: The oral cavity along with the teeth and the surrounding gingival epithelium is open to the oral environment and is thus exposed to multiple microbiological and pathogenic influences. To prevent permanent inflammatory processes such as gingivitis or parodontitis, an efficient defense system is necessary to sustain the physiological ...
Ouhara Kazuhisa - - 2012
IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression ...
Nickel Thomas - - 2012
Dendritic cells (DCs) and oxLDL play an important role in the atherosclerotic process with DCs accumulating in the plaques during plaque progression. Our aim was to investigate the role of oxLDL in the modulation of the DC homing-receptor CCR7 and endothelial-ligand CCL21. The expression of the DC homing-receptor CCR7 and ...
Kawada-Matsuo Miki - - 2012
Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan) from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB) are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis ...
Nanbara Hiromi - - 2012
Wingless proteins, termed Wnt, are involved in embryonic development, blood cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. In mammalian hematopoiesis, Wnt signaling is essential for stem-cell homeostasis and lymphocyte differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that these molecules are associated with cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Furthermore, Wnt5a signaling is essential for the ...
Liang Shan - - 2012
Differential responses to the environmental stresses at the level of transcription play a critical role in adaptation. Mangrove species compose a dominant community in intertidal zones and form dense forests at the sea-land interface, and although the anatomical and physiological features associated with their salt-tolerant lifestyles have been well characterized, ...
Martínez-Silva Ana Valeria - - 2012
One of the most regulated steps of translation initiation is the recruitment of mRNA by the translation machinery. In eukaryotes, this step is mediated by the 5'end cap-binding factor eIF4E bound to the bridge protein eIF4G and forming the eIF4F complex. In plants, different isoforms of eIF4E and eIF4G form ...
Kiflemariam Sara - - 2012
Tissue localization of gene expression is increasingly important for accurate interpretation of large scale datasets from expression and mutational analyses. To this end, we have (1) developed a robust and scalable procedure for generation of mRNA hybridization probes, providing >95% first-pass success rate in probe generation to any human target ...
Xiang Yang - - 2012
Adhesion molecules play important roles in airway hyperresponsiveness or airway inflammation. Our previous study indicated catenin alpha-like 1 (CTNNAL1), an alpha-catenin-related protein, was downregulated in asthma patients and animal model. In this study, we observed that the expression of CTNNAL1 was increased in lung tissue of the ozone-stressed Balb/c mice ...
Kocemba Kinga A - - 2012
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various human cancers. In multiple myeloma (MM), aberrant auto-and/or paracrine activation of canonical Wnt signaling promotes proliferation and dissemination, while overexpression of the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf1 (DKK1) by MM cells contributes to osteolytic bone disease by inhibiting osteoblast differentiation. ...
Foster Brian L - - 2012
Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i) are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i) and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP), and those that increase local PP(i) and restrict mineralization ...
Khanjani Shirin - - 2012
The uterine expression of the chemokine IL8 increases dramatically with the onset of labour both at term and preterm. The IL8 promoter contains binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP). In this study we investigated the roles of these transcription ...
Liu Kaining - - 2012
We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), the precursor of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), is abundant around periodontal soft tissues. Here we investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) is converted to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in periodontal soft tissue cells and explore the possibility of an autocrine/paracrine function of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in periodontal soft tissue cells. We ...
Haugen Trine - - 2012
In differentiated gonochoristic species, a bipotential gonad develops into an ovary or testis during sex differentiation. Knowledge about this process is necessary to improve methods for masculinizing genetically female Atlantic cod for the subsequent purpose of producing all-female populations. Gonads were examined histologically in juveniles from 14 to 39 mm ...
Yao H - - 2011
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells. Although new molecular targeting agents against MM have been developed based on the better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis, MM still remains an incurable disease. We previously demonstrated that β-catenin, a downstream effector in the Wnt pathway, is a potential ...
Morrison Kimberly Rios - - 2011
Four studies tested whether uncertainty about the self-concept can motivate people, particularly individualists who define themselves in terms of their personal traits and characteristics, to perceive their material possessions as extensions of themselves (i.e., as self-expressive). In Study 1, European American participants rated their favorite pair of blue jeans as ...
Wei Na - - 2011
Recently, a novel protein, follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP), has been identified in human periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and a biomolecular study suggested that the expression of FDC-SP might be associated with the expression of the PDL phenotype. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ...
Barcelona Pablo F - - 2011
Although it is known that Müller cells express the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in response to acute retinal damage, the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. α(2)-Macroglobulin (α(2)M) and its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), have also been found in injured retinas. Herein, the authors examined the ...
Boneva Nadezhda B - - 2011
Intracellular fatty acid (FA) chaperones known as FA-binding proteins (FABPs) are a group of molecules known to participate in cellular metabolic processes such as lipid storage, membrane synthesis, and β-oxidation or to coordinate transcriptional programs. However, their role in adult neurogenesis still remains obscure. The FABPs expressed in the central ...
Sun Chun-Xiao - - 2011
Objective: To elucidate the aetiology of periodontitis, this study focused on the adenosine receptor (AR) expression profiles (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR) in periodontal diseased tissues. Methods: Adenosine receptor gene expression levels in human gingiva from 15 patients with healthy gingival tissues (control group) and 15 patients who exhibited severe ...
Hughes T R - - 2011
This chapter briefly summarizes the topics in this volume.
Chen Jen-Kun - - 2011
Astrocytes, the major glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), can secrete thrombospondin (TSP)-1 that plays the role in synaptogenesis and axonal sprouting during CNS development and tissue repair. However, little is known about the regulation of TSP-1 expression in astrocytes under oxidative stress condition. Here, a hypoxic mimetic ...
Harris Janna L JL Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298, - - 2011
This study documents the spatial and temporal expression of three structurally related chondroitin sulfated proteoglycans (CSPGs) during synaptic regeneration induced by brain injury. Using the unilateral entorhinal cortex (EC) lesion model of adaptive synaptogenesis, we documented mRNA and protein profiles of phosphacan and its two splice variants, full length receptor ...
Moon Younghye - - 2010
Connexins (Cx) are transmembrane proteins forming vertebrate gap junction channels for direct cell-cell communication. We found that the expressions of two Cx family members, Cx29 and Cx32, were progressively increased in the sharp border of injury penumbra regions after cryotraumatic brain injury. Although these two Cxs are expressed exclusively in ...
Jackman Nicole A - - 2010
We recently demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases system x(c)(-) (cystine/glutamate antiporter) activity in mixed cortical cell cultures, resulting in an increase in hypoxic neuronal injury when glutamate clearance is impaired. Herein, we demonstrate that neurons, astrocytes, and microglia all express system x(c)(-) subunits (xCT, 4F2hc, RBAT) and are capable of ...
Chen Jian - - 2011
TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors family was identified as a molecule that binds to the cytoplasmic domain of CD40. TRAF6 functions as an adaptor, positively regulating the NF-κB, JNK pathway. Additionally, some studies have reported that TRAF6 is required for apoptosis within ...
An Jun-Ling - - 2011
Human brain samples were collected from 70 autopsy cases including 22 freshwater drowning (FWD), 26 saltwater drowning (SWD), and 22 non-drowning cases as controls. Then, immunohistochemical study combined with morphometry was carried out in order to examine the differential expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in the brain samples. Immunohistochemically, star-shaped ...
Hao Shuanglin S Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. - - 2011
Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory ...
L'Episcopo F F OASI Institute for Research and Care on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging, Neuropharmacology Section, Via Conte Ruggero 73, 94018 Troina (EN) - - 2011
Emerging evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury, but whether astrocytes and microglia activation may exacerbate dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron demise and/or contribute to DAergic repair is presently the subject of much debate. Here, we have ...
Bachetti Tiziana - - 2010
The Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein belonging to the intermediate filament family whose expression is considered as a marker of astrocytes differentiation. GFAP expression, shown to be upregulated as a consequence of brain gliosis, depends on hormones, growth factors, cytokine, and transcription factors and, among ...
Hu Jian-Guo - - 2010
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can differentiate into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, depending on cellular microenvironments. OPCs, cultured in medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), give rise to type II astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein and a cell surface ganglioside that is recognized by A2B5 monoclonal antibody. ...
Kopp Marcel A - - 2010
Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) is involved in the formation of the central nervous system during development by operating axon guidance and neuronal migration. We investigated the expression of the TGFβ-inducible Sema7A following spinal cord injury (SCI). After SCI, Sema7A(+) cells accumulated specifically in lesion areas resulting in significantly enhanced Sema7A expression ...
Gutowski N - - 2010
Objectives Peroxiredoxin (PRDX) thiol-based antioxidant enzymes have been identified in several neurological diseases. Astrocytes, multifunctional supporting cells, become activated during pathological processes and develop reactive and/or scarring phenotypes featuring characteristic changes in protein expression. Astrocyte activation can be beneficial although scarring astrocytes inhibit repair. Little is known about astrocytes expression ...
Tóth Zsuzsanna E - - 2011
We studied the effect of permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) on the generation of bone marrow (BM)-derived astrocytes in female mice previously transplanted with enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing BM from male donors. In addition to an untreated PMCAO group, one group of mice also received intracerebral infusion of ...
Zeng Huai-Cai - - 2011
Numerous studies have indicated the neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a persistent and bioaccumulative compound, particularly during developmental stages of higher organisms. To explore the pro-inflammatory effect in the developmental neurotoxicity, effects of prenatal exposure to PFOS on glial activation in hippocampus and cortex were examined in offspring rats. Dams ...
Homkajorn B - - 2010
Marked alterations in astrocyte function are a universal response to disease or injury in the central nervous system. Affected astrocytes develop characteristic morphological changes known as "reactive astrogliosis", characterized by increased expression of the intermediate filament proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. Reactive astrocytes also display alterations in other ...
Füchtbauer L - - 2011
Astrocytes are the major cellular component of the blood-brain barrier glia limitans and act as regulators of leukocyte infiltration via chemokine expression. We have studied angiotensin-II receptor Type 1 (AT1) and related NF-κB signaling in astrocytes. Angiotensin II derives from cleavage of angiotensin I by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin ...
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