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Results 451 - 500 of 1297
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Wink M R - - 2006
Inflammatory and degenerative pathophysiological processes within the CNS are important causes of human disease. Astrocytes appear to modulate these reactions and are a major source of inflammatory mediators, e.g. extracellular adenine nucleotides, in nervous tissues. Actions following extracellular nucleotides binding to type 2 purinergic receptors are regulated by ectonucleotidases, including ...
Moodbidri Madhavi S - - 2006
Genes controlling proliferation and differentiation of astrocytes are likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of astrocytic gliomas and could serve as therapeutic targets. mRNA differential display analysis identified two genes, viz. BAALC and RAMP3, whose expression is altered in primary astrocytes treated with differentiation inducers. BAALC, which ...
Roelofs Reinko F - - 2005
Human glial fibrillary acidic protein-delta (GFAP-delta) is a GFAP protein isoform that is encoded by an alternative splice variant of the GFAP-gene. As a result, GFAP-delta protein differs from the predominant splice form, GFAP-alpha, by its C-terminal protein sequence. In this study, we show that GFAP-delta protein is not expressed ...
Benavides Amparo - - 2005
Ischemia has different consequences on the survival of astrocytes and neurons. Thus, astrocytes show a remarkable resistance to short periods of ischemia that are well known to cause neuronal death. We have used a cell culture model of stroke, oxygen, and glucose deprivation (OGD), to clarify the mechanisms responsible for ...
Shostak K O - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate expression patterns of protein product of putative tumor suppressor gene TSC-22 in human astrocytic tumors by immunohistochemical approach. METHODS: Plasmid pET-23d-TSC22 was constructed for the expression of human TSC-22 protein in bacterial system, and polyclonal rabbit antibodies against recombinant TSC-22 were produced. Immunohistochemical analysis of TSC-22 and ...
Agapova Olga A - - 2006
For several decades, clinical and experimental observations suggested a relationship between steroids and glaucoma; however, the possibility that androgens are also involved in the glaucomatous changes in the optic nerve heads (ONH) has not been explored. Our previous findings that glaucomatous ONH astrocytes synthesize androgen-metabolising enzymes and overproduce a neuroactive ...
Pirttilä Terhi J - - 2006
Stroke is a major cause of epilepsy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying post-stroke epileptogenesis are unknown. The expression of cystatin C, a cysteine protease inhibitor, is increased in the hippocampus during status epilepticus (SE)-induced epileptogenesis, and regulates both cell death and birth. To test the hypothesis that increased cystatin C ...
Muroyama Yuko - - 2005
Astrocytes are the most abundant and functionally diverse glial population in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanisms underlying astrocyte specification are poorly understood. It is well established that cellular diversification of neurons in the embryo is generated by position-dependent extrinsic signals and combinatorial interactions of transcription factors ...
Berger Urs V - - 2005
GLT1, the predominant glutamate transporter of the forebrain, exists in two splice variant isoforms, i.e., GLT1a and GLT1b. Although GLT1 was originally detected only in astrocytes, we have recently demonstrated that GLT1a protein is expressed by neurons in the hippocampus as well. In the present study, the mRNA distribution patterns ...
Scumpia Philip O - - 2005
Astrocyte inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and dysfunction form a common denominator shared by all the major neurodegenerative disorders. Viral infections are emerging as important events in the etiology of CNS damage involving astrocytes, but molecular understanding is incomplete. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a byproduct of viral replication and ...
Watt John A - - 2006
Although ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to promote the survival of magnocellular neurons when applied exogenously to explants of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei (SON) in vitro, little is known regarding its expression or regulation in the adult magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS) following injury in vivo. Therefore, we ...
Hirrlinger Johannes - - 2005
Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are ATP-driven export pumps which mediate the export of organic anions such as glutathione conjugates and glucuronides from eukaryotic cells. Within the central nervous system astrocytes have important functions in metabolism and detoxification. In such processes Mrps play essential roles. To identify the Mrp repertoire of ...
Kaur C - - 2005
The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) type glutamate (GluR2/3) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 1 (NMDAR1) was carried out by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR analysis in the pineal glands of 1-day to 6-wk-old rats in the present study. GluR2/3 immunopositive cells were distributed throughout the pineal gland and showed ...
Yanagisawa Makoto - - 2005
Mammalian cells that have been committed to a certain cell lineage cannot be directed to other lineages. However, some astrocytes in the mammalian brains have been reported to represent plasticity to redirect to other cell lineages. We found that mouse hippocampal astrocytes cultured in aggregate forms of "astrosphere", redirected to ...
Ohno Nobuhiko - - 2005
Although it was reported that protein 4.1 G, a cytoskeletal protein characterized by its general expression in the body, interacts with some signal transduction molecules in the central nervous system (CNS), its distribution and significance in vivo remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we have identified 4.1 G-positive ...
Satoh Kazuki - - 2005
In an effort to identify astrocyte-derived molecules that may be intimately associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lib, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to leucine-rich repeat superfamily, has been identified as a distinctly inducible gene, responsive to beta-amyloid as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. To evaluate the ...
Kamnasaran Deepak - - 2005
The mammalian GATA family of transcription factors comprises of 6 members that are involved in diverse roles. The expression profile of GATA6 has been poorly defined in the central nervous system (CNS). In this report, we identify GATA6 expression in the normal mouse and human CNS, using Northern blot analyses, ...
Enokido Yasushi - - 2005
Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS; EC 4.2.1.22) is a key enzyme in the generation of cysteine from methionine. A deficiency of CBS leads to homocystinuria, an inherited human disease characterized by mental retardation, seizures, psychiatric disturbances, skeletal abnormalities, and vascular disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we show the ...
Uddin Jasim - - 2005
Neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with larval Taenia solium, is a major cause of epilepsy worldwide. Larval degeneration, which is symptomatic, results in inflammatory cell influx. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type and major cytokine-producing cell within the CNS, may be important in orchestrating inflammatory responses after larval degeneration. We investigated ...
StruzyƄska Lidia - - 2005
Astrocytes maintain neuronal homeostasis in brain and controlling of the released glutamate is one of the most important functions. Since it is suggested that glutamatergic component underlies lead-induced neurotoxic effects and simultaneously, astrocytes serve as a cellular lead (Pb) deposition site, it was of interest to investigate the functioning of ...
Reali Camilla - - 2005
Central nervous system degenerative diseases are often characterized by an early, strong reaction of astrocytes and microglia. Both these cell types can play a double role, protecting neurons against degeneration through the synthesis and secretion of trophic factors or inducing degeneration through the secretion of toxic molecules. Therefore, we studied ...
Liu Xin - - 2005
SPARC is a matricellular protein that modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by virtue of its antiproliferative and counteradhesive properties. Here, we report the denervation-induced upregulation of SPARC mRNA and protein in the mouse hippocampus following transections of the entorhinal afferents. Northern blot analysis showed that SPARC mRNA was upregulated in ...
Crespel Arielle - - 2005
An increased neurogenesis is reported in animal models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but the fate of newborn cells is unknown. Here, we attempted to demonstrate neurogenesis in adult epileptic tissue obtained after hippocampectomy. MTLE hippocampi showed increased expression of division markers and of Musashi-1, a marker of neural ...
Liu Mingyue - - 2005
The brain's adaptive response to ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is mediated in part via hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-responsive genes. We previously showed that IPC induces cytochrome P450 2C11 expression in the brain, associated with protection from stroke. Cytochrome P450 2C11 is an arachidonic acid (AA) epoxygenase expressed in astrocytes, which metabolizes ...
Kurushima H - - 2005
Transient forebrain ischemia causes selective induction of DeltaFosB, an AP-1 (activator protein-1) subunit, in cells within the ventricle wall or those in the dentate gyrus in the rat brain prior to neurogenesis, followed by induction of nestin, a marker for neuronal precursor cells, or galectin-1, a beta-galactoside sugar-binding lectin. The ...
Tokay Tursonjan - - 2005
Accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), which is a landmark of Alzheimer's disease, may alter astrocyte functions before any visible symptoms of the disease occur. Here, we examined the effects of Abeta on biosynthesis and release of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), a polypeptide primarily expressed by astroglial cells in the CNS. Quantitative ...
Vincent Adele J - - 2005
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) accompany the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, which regenerate throughout life, from the olfactory mucosa into the olfactory bulb. OECs have shown widely varying efficacy in repairing the injured nervous system. Analysis of the transcriptome of OECs will help in understanding their biology and will provide ...
Nakano Ichiro - - 2005
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) was previously identified in a screen for genes enriched in neural progenitors. Here, we demonstrate expression of MELK by progenitors in developing and adult brain and that MELK serves as a marker for self-renewing multipotent neural progenitors (MNPs) in cultures derived from the developing ...
Sunnemark Dan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is associated with local activation of microglia and astroglia, infiltration of activated macrophages and T cells, active degradation of myelin and damage to axons and neurons. The proposed role for CX3CL1 (fractalkine) in the ...
Penes Mihai C - - 2005
The PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) interacts with several members of the connexin (Cx) family of gap junction-forming proteins and has been localized to gap junctions, including those containing Cx47 in oligodendrocytes. We now provide evidence for ZO-1 expression in astrocytes in vivo and association with astrocytic connexins by ...
Zhang Ji - - 2005
AIM: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes. METHODS: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay. The mRNA levels of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR(glutathione reductase), and glutathione ...
Kang Dong-Chul - - 2005
We presently describe the full-length cloning and functional characterization of an HIV-1-inducible gene, astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1. Additionally, a novel method is outlined for producing tag-free recombinant protein in a baculovirus system and its use in producing AEG-1 protein. AEG-1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously with higher expression in tissues containing ...
Jackson Cheryl A - - 2005
Poliovirus-based vectors (replicons) have been shown to maintain the in vitro tropism of poliovirus for motor neurons of the CNS. To determine if replicons could be effective for delivery of potentially beneficial proteins to the CNS, we have constructed and characterized a replicon encoding IL-10. IL-10 was rapidly produced in ...
Wang Xiaoying - - 2005
We showed that the serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) reduces brain tissue 5-HT, decreases expression of 5-HT transporter (SERT) protein, and increases expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In contrast, doses of (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that decrease brain tissue 5-HT fail to alter expression of SERT or GFAP. Using a ...
Carswell H V O - - 2005
Brain aromatase has been shown to be increased in expression after neurotoxic damage and to exert neuroprotection via generation of local oestrogens. The present study investigates the topography and time course of brain aromatase expression after experimental stroke (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)). Ovariectomised stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats underwent ...
Zhang Qi - - 2005
Nestin is a characteristic intermediate filament protein expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs). Evidence has shown that it is also found in reactive astrocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that the second intron of the human and rat nestin genes harbors the central nervous system (CNS) enhancer and the midbrain enhancer, ...
Lapointe Marjolaine - - 2005
Protein l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) functions as a repair enzyme that acts upon damaged proteins bearing abnormal aspartyl residues. We previously reported that PIMT expression and activity are reduced by half in human epileptic hippocampus. Here we investigated PIMT regulation in astrocytic tumors, which are the most common human brain tumors. ...
Tomás-Camardiel M - - 2005
Strong evidence involves aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the physiopathology of brain edema. Two major points remain unsolved: (1) the capacity of perivascular glial cells to regulate AQP4 in response to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB); and (2) the potential beneficial role of AQP4 in the clearance of brain edema. We ...
Angelastro James M - - 2005
The mechanisms that regulate neural progenitor cell differentiation are primarily unknown. The transcription factor activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is expressed in neural progenitors of developing brain but is absent from mature astrocytes and neurons. Here, we demonstrate that ATF5 regulates the conversion of ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone ...
Bader Verian - - 2005
Recessively inherited mutations in DJ-1 have recently been linked to familial forms of parkinsonism. However, the regional and cellular expression of DJ-1 is largely unknown. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of DJ-1 transcript and protein by non-radioactive in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in adult mouse CNS. For ...
Suárez I - - 2005
The effect of short-term portacaval anastomosis (PCA) on the expression of specific astroglial markers [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS)] in the rat cerebellum was examined to determine the influences of PCA on astroglial cells. The results suggest that PCA directly interferes with astroglial cytoskeleton, as indicated ...
Yeh Tu-Hsueh - - 2005
Astroglial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, play an essential role in removing released glutamate from the extracellular space and are essential for maintaining a low concentration of extracellular glutamate in the brain. It was hypothesized that impaired function of glial glutamate transporters induced by transient global ischemia may lead to ...
Marconi P - - 2005
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to govern the processes involved in central nervous system cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, they represent very attractive candidates for use in the study and therapy of neurological disorders. We constructed recombinant herpesvirus-based-vectors capable of expressing fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ...
Noyan-Ashraf Mohammad Hossein - - 2005
In a study examining for apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we observed the constitutive presence of activated caspase 3 in Bergmann glia. We then examined stroke-prone SHR as well as the normotensive strains Wistar, Wistar Kyoto, and Sprague-Dawley. In all these strains, we found that Bergmann glia expressed activated ...
Fukuda Shinji - - 2005
Development of the nervous system is governed by multistep processes in which neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are produced from common neural stem cells. Differentiation of stem cells into these three types of neural cells is directed, in part, by cell-external cues, such as cytokines. We have examined the effects of ...
Gavrilyuk Vitaliy - - 2005
Brain inflammation is regulated by endogenous substances, including neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline (NA), which can increase anti-inflammatory genes. To identify NA-regulated, anti-inflammatory genes, we used TOGA (total gene expression analysis) to screen rat astrocyte-derived RNA. NA-inducible cDNA clone DST11 encodes an isoform of the complement C5a receptor (C5aR), with 39% ...
Kim H J - - 2005
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzyme family contributes to the regulation of a variety of brain extracellular matrix molecules. In order to assess their role in synaptic plasticity following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we compared expression of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) protein and mRNA in two rodent models of TBI exhibiting different levels ...
Chen Xiao Qian - - 2005
Our recent findings indicate an induced upregulation of 14-3-3gamma mRNA and protein in ischemic cortical astrocytes. Despite being brain-specific, the functional role of 14-3-3gamma in the brain still remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that among all the 14-3-3 isoforms, only the gamma isoform is inducible under ischemia ...
Liu Y - - 2005
We investigated the role of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expressed in the reactive gliosis following hippocampal damage induced by trimethyltin (TMT). IL-1alpha immunoreactivity was expressed earlier in small glial cells on day 4 post-TMT, while IL-1beta expression was obvious in large swollen glial cells on day 14 post-TMT. Both IL-1alpha and ...
Jones Bradley W - - 2005
Neurons and glia are generated from multipotent neural progenitors. In Drosophila, the transcriptional regulation of glial vs. neuronal fates is controlled by the expression of the transcription factor encoded by the glial cells missing gene (gcm) in multiple neural lineages. The cis-regulatory control of gcm transcription serves as a nodal ...
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