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Xu Yong - - 2013
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is associated with numerous deleterious phenotypes, including cognitive impairment, childhood leukemia and immune defects. Five Hsa21‑derived microRNAs (i.e., hsa-miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155 and miR-802) are involved in variable phenotypes of DS. However, the changes involved in the genome-wide ...
Kim Jeong-Mi - - 2013
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces photoaging by upregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human skin cells. Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component in oats. Although anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and antioxidant effects have been reported, the anti-photoaging effects of DHAvD ...
Börner Kathleen - - 2013
As the only mammalian Argonaute protein capable of directly cleaving mRNAs in a small RNA-guided manner, Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is a keyplayer in RNA interference (RNAi) silencing via small interfering (si) or short hairpin (sh) RNAs. It is also a rate-limiting factor whose saturation by si/shRNAs limits RNAi efficiency and causes ...
Gao Ge G Lifespan Cardiovascular Research Center, the Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University and Providence Veterans Administration Medical Center, Providence, - - 2013
Human heart failure (HF) increases alternative mRNA splicing of the type V, voltage-gated cardiac Na+ channel α-subunit (SCN5A), generating variants encoding truncated, nonfunctional channels that are trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this work, we tested whether truncated Na+ channels activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), contributing to SCN5A electric ...
Lim Sung A - - 2013
Background/Aims: Histamine remains the main mediator of allergic conjunctivitis and induces interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production in human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCEC). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether histamine induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression in HCEC, and to describe the relationship between human calcium-activated chloride channel ...
Xu Jiajia - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs and control a wide range of biological functions. Recent studies have indicated that miRNAs can regulate lipid and cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol metabolism. The accumulated cholesteryl esters are mainly synthesized ...
Lipchock Sarah V - - 2013
Alleles of the receptor gene TAS2R38 are responsible in part for the variation in bitter taste perception of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally similar compounds (eg, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables). At low concentrations, people with the PAV ("taster" amino acid sequence) form of TAS2R38 perceive these bitter compounds, whereas most with ...
Park Su J - - 2013
Objective. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules, are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer and arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-127-5p regulates IL-1β-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and other catabolic factors in human chondrocytes. Methods. The expression of miR-127-5p and MMP-13 ...
Ma Fengxia - - 2013
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs), and activation of TLRs plays an important role in proliferation, differentiation and immunoregulatory activity of UC-MSCs. We investigated whether TLRs regulated the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in UC-MSCs and the role of miRNAs. With miRNA microarray analysis, ...
Cui L - - 2013
To investigate the role of the Ca(2+) -Mg(2+) ion channel TRPM7 in the proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Immunohistochemistry was used to localize expression of TRPM7 in human dental pulp tissues and in cultured hDPSCs. Isolated hDPSCs were infected with recombinant lentiviruses expressing ...
McNelis Joanne C JC Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United - - 2013
Glucocorticoids increase adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, a process underpinned by the local reactivation of inactive cortisone to active cortisol within adipocytes catalyzed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). The adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to inhibit 11β-HSD1 in murine adipocytes; however, rodent adrenals do not produce ...
Martinez-Sanchez Aida - - 2013
MicroRNAs are a large and essential class of gene regulators that play key roles in development, homeostasis and disease. They are necessary for normal skeletal development, and their expression is altered in arthritis. However, the specific role of individual microRNAs is only beginning to be unravelled. Using microRNA expression profiling ...
Li Pan P From the Center for Translational Medicine and Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA; and Department of Cardiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, - - 2013
Abnormal phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators for VSMC function, and we recently identified miR-663 as critical for controlling human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation. To investigate whether ...
Du Qiang - - 2013
Nitric oxide signaling plays complex roles in carcinogenesis, in part due to incomplete mechanistic understanding. In this study, we investigated our discovery of an inverse correlation in the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the Wnt/β-catenin regulator Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in human cancer. In human tumors and animal ...
Kim Tae-Hwan - - 2013
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a recently identified cell surface receptor that is expressed mainly on monocytes and neutrophils, and acts as an amplifier of immune responses. In this study, 1,25(OH)2D3 strongly upregulated the expression of TREM-1 in human monocytes and macrophages. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated TREM-1 mRNA expression ...
Li Xiaoze - - 2013
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5'-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5'-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 ...
Zhou Jun - - 2013
Glycoprotein hormone receptors contain large extracellular domains encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Using human ovarian surface epithelium, we cloned two new splice variants of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) gene, hFSH-R2 and hFSH-R3. The hFSH-R2 splice variant differed from the full-length FSH-R mRNA by the ...
Song Xiulong - - 2013
Expression of bile salt export pump (BSEP) is regulated by the bile acid/farnesoid x receptor (FXR) signaling pathway. Two FXR isoforms, FXRα1 and FXRα2, are predominantly expressed in human liver. We previously showed that human BSEP was isoform-dependently regulated by FXR and diminished with altered expression of FXRα1 and FXRα2 ...
Taponen Saija - - 2013
Background:Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for normal lung function and decreased SP-B concentrations have deleterious effect on pulmonary outcome. SP-B levels may correlate with variations in the encoding gene (SFTPB). SFTPB SNP Ile131Thr affects proSP-B N-glycosylation in humans and the glycosylated Thr variant associates with pulmonary diseases.Methods:We analyzed SP-B ...
Wang Lei - - 2013
The MYC oncogene is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has been associated with widespread microRNA (miRNA) repression; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that the c-Myc oncogenic transcription factor physically interacts with EZH2, a core enzymatic unit of Polycomb Repressive Complexes 2 (PRC2). Furthermore, miR-101, ...
Chen Yen-Shan YS Departments of Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, and Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH - - 2013
Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding ...
Huang J - - 2013
The RAS protooncogene has a central role in regulation of cell proliferation, and point mutations leading to oncogenic activation of Ras occur in a large number of human cancers. Silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is essential for oncogenic cellular transformation by Ras, and Dnmt1 is overexpressed ...
Morrison Nigel A - - 2013
Human osteoclasts were differentiated using receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) from colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) precursors of the myeloid lineage grown from umbilical cord blood. Gene expression profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) showed more than 1000-fold induction of chemokine MCP-1 ...
Huang Yujing - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs, 19-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate a variety of cellular processes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes only one intronic miRNA: human cytomegalovirus microRNA UL36 (hcmv-miR-UL36). In this study, we found that over-expression of hcmv-miR-UL36 resulted in a more than threefold increase in HCMV DNA synthesis at ...
Adachi Yasuko - - 2013
Previous studies have demonstrated that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) not only has positive effects on permeability barrier homoeostasis but also has anti-inflammatory effects by an as yet unknown mechanism. Reduced expression of PPARα in lesion of human atopic dermatitis (AD) and in epidermis of murine AD-like dermatitis ...
Rahman Mohammed Tanjimur - - 2013
This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene amplification and its relationship to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), p53, and AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) expression in endometrial carcinomas. ESR1 amplification and expression were ...
Magdy Tarek - - 2013
Aim: Because 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), an anabolic active metabolite of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is a substrate of MRP8 (encoded by ABCC11), we investigated whether ABCC11 polymorphisms play a role in severe toxicity of 5-FU. Patients & methods: Genomic DNA from 672 cancer patients treated with 5-FU monotherapy and with documented toxicity ...
Wu Yang - - 2013
Abstract In this report, a series of well-defined glucose- and guanidine-based cationic copolymers as gene carriers were developed to inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression. First of all, guandinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymers (guanidinylated GAPMA-s-APMA, abbreviated as GGA) were prepared via aqueous reversible addition - fragmentation chain transfer ...
Lötsch Daniela - - 2013
Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in ...
Wen Xiaoxia X Department of Anatomy, College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism through which rapamycin treatment affects the expression of the set gene in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of rapamycin treatment on set expression was evaluated by assessing the mRNA and protein expression of set in the SW480 and LoVo ...
Heras Sara R SR 1] Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. [2] Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer, University of Granada, Andalusian Regional Government (GENYO), Granada, Spain. - - 2013
More than half of the human genome is made of transposable elements whose ongoing mobilization is a driving force in genetic diversity; however, little is known about how the host regulates their activity. Here, we show that the Microprocessor (Drosha-DGCR8), which is required for microRNA biogenesis, also recognizes and binds ...
Hudy Magdalena H - - 2013
Human rhinovirus (HRV) triggers exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for the development of COPD and 25% of asthmatics smoke. Smoking asthmatics have worse symptoms and more frequent hospitalizations compared to non-smoking asthmatics. The degree of neutrophil recruitment to the ...
Wang Xiaowen - - 2013
The product of the MDMX (or MDM4) gene is structurally related to the MDM2 oncoprotein and is also capable of interacting with the tumor suppressor protein p53. The MDM4 gene is overexpressed in several human tumors, while its product can be detected as various isoforms. This study was aimed to ...
Dickson John R - - 2013
Tau pathologically aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, and evidence suggests that reducing tau expression may be safe and beneficial for the prevention or treatment of this disease. We sought to examine the role of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of human tau mRNA in regulating tau expression. Tau expresses two 3'-UTR isoforms, ...
Mannic Tiphaine - - 2013
Context:Circadian clock represents the body's molecular time-keeping system. Recent findings revealed strong changes of clock gene expression in various types of human cancers.Objective:Due to emerging evidence on the connection between circadian oscillator, cell cycle and oncogenic transformation, we aimed to characterize the circadian clockwork in human benign and malignant thyroid ...
Liu Jia - - 2013
Abstract Human adrenomedullin (ADM), a 52-amino acid peptide, belongs to the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)/amylin peptide family. ADM acts as a multifunctional regulatory peptide and is up-regulated in response to hypoxia. Previous microarray studies have found increased ADM gene (ADM) expression in peripheral blood cells of patients with stroke, however, ...
Gumireddy Kiranmai - - 2013
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory genes that play critical roles in various processes ranging from normal development to human diseases such as cancer progression. Recent studies have shown that lncRNAs regulate the gene expression by chromatin remodelling, transcription, splicing and RNA decay control, enhancer function, ...
Li Hui - - 2013
Human interferon alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) is a pleiotropic cytokine used to treat various viral diseases and cancers. Conventionally, recombinant human IFNα-2b used in clinics was produced by prokaryotic expression system, which always lack of enough biological activity due to limitations on proper folding and post-translational modifications, so the eukaryotic expression ...
Jin Guorong - - 2013
Sterile alpha motif domain-containing 11 (SAMD11) is evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish to human. Mouse Samd11 is predominantly expressed in developing retinal photoreceptors and the adult pineal gland, and its transcription is directly regulated by the cone-rod homeodomain protein Crx. However, there has been little research on human SAMD11. To investigate ...
Vrzal Radim - - 2013
Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepine-phrine reuptake inhibitor that was used for weight-loss management in obese patients. Even though it was officially withdrawn from the market in 2010, it is still present in some tainted weight-loss pills (as reported by US Food and Drug Administration). Thus, it is still reasonable to study ...
Chen Wenna - - 2013
Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been shown to sensitize glioblastoma cells to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment via down-modulation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. To date, whether the efficacy of TMZ therapy is correlated with MGMT expression and whether HIF-1α suppression exerts similar effects in human pituitary adenoma cells have ...
Ratajczak-Wrona W - - 2013
Abstract Purpose: The role of MAP kinases in the activation of AP-1 (c-Jun, c-Fos) and NF-κB p65 engaged in the regulation of iNOS expression in human neutrophils (PMNs) exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was analyzed in the study. Material and Methods: The study included a group of 20 healthy individuals. Isolated ...
Xu Xin - - 2013
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling enzyme, which is involved in the development and progression of many types of tumors. LOX dysfunction is observed in colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer. However, the precise effects and molecular mechanisms of LOX action in osteosarcoma progression are still unknown. We ...
Guan Haiyan - - 2013
The placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2; encoded by the HSD11B2 gene) plays a key role in fetal development, but its regulation is incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that p38 MAPK was a positive regulator of placental 11β-HSD2. However, it remains unknown if the other two MAPKs, ERK1/2 and JNK, ...
Metze Stefanie - - 2013
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanism that eliminates mRNAs with the termination codon (TC) located in an unfavorable environment for efficient translation termination. The best-studied NMD-targeted mRNAs contain premature termination codons (PTCs); however, NMD regulates even many physiological mRNAs. An exon-junction complex (EJC) located downstream ...
Fei Wang - - 2013
Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, can cause various types of cancers, including bladder cancer. Angiogenesis is a key event for tumor initiation. In this study, several important angiogenesis related factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), were up-regulated and PI3K/AKT and MAPK signal pathways ...
Hiroi Ryoko - - 2013
In the dorsal raphe nucleus, 17β-estradiol (E2) increases the expression of the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2). Although ERβ has been localized to Tph2 neurons, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the Tph2 gene by estrogen. Since the estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) ...
Ochs Meike J - - 2013
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyses the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. An increased level of leukotrienes is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma or atherosclerosis. In this MiniReview, we focus on recent findings regarding alternative splice variants ...
Kim D S - - 2013
To examine the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signalling during odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Human dental pulp cells were treated with differentiation medium, recombinant human SDF-1, neutralizing antibody for SDF-1 or CXCR4, pertussis toxin (PTX) and AMD3100. The expression of SDF-1 and its receptor ...
Wen Jiadi - - 2013
The human endometrium undergoes cyclic change during each menstrual cycle in response to gonadal steroids. Proteolysis of endometrial extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary to prepare this dynamic tissue for pregnancy. Proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and closely related a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) have been ...
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