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Results 301 - 350 of 3096
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Ouhara Kazuhisa - - 2013
Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The differential miRNA expression in innate and acquired immunity has been shown to regulate immune cell development and function. miRNA expression has been demonstrated to affect pathophysiology of inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis ...
Oda Shingo - - 2013
Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A10 is not expressed in the liver; however, UGT1A10 is exclusively expressed in the intestine, contributing to presystemic first-pass metabolism. Earlier studies revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1α and Sp1, as well as an intestine-specific transcription factor, caudal type homeobox (Cdx) 2, are involved in the ...
Benko Ann L - - 2013
We examined whether glucocorticoids could modulate the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA), the principal regulator of the processes of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes. Treatment of human B cells with IL-4 and anti-CD40 antibody for 18-20 hours resulted in induction of expression of ...
Li Shuijie - - 2013
ATAD3 (ATPase family AAA-Domain containing protein 3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase with unknown but vital functions. Initial researches have focused essentially on the major p66-ATAD3 isoform, but other proteins and mRNAs are described in the data banks. Using a set of anti-peptide antibodies and by the use of ...
Folkmann Andrew W - - 2013
A critical step during gene expression is the directional export of nuclear messenger (m)RNA through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to the cytoplasm. During export, Gle1 in conjunction with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially regulates the activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5 at the NPC cytoplasmic face. GLE1 mutations are causally linked ...
Capp Edison - - 2013
The human endometrium undergoes repetitive, cyclical changes under the influence of endocrine signals (estrogen and progesterone). In particular, the extensive tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration that occur during decidualization of the endometrium give rise to an environment that is permissive to blastocyst attachment. However, it is now well established ...
Zhang Yan - - 2013
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homoeostasis. Mutations of its pathway components including Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) and Gli/Ci predispose to cancers and congenital anomalies. The Sufu-Gli protein complex occupies a central position in the vertebrate Hh signalling pathway, especially in mammals. Here structures of full-length human ...
Robinett Kathryn S - - 2013
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have recently been found to be expressed on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) and their activation results in marked relaxation. These agents have been proposed as a new class of bronchodilators in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases since they act via a different mechanism than ...
Kage Madoka - - 2013
Hyaluronan plays a role in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. In addition, hyaluronan has been shown to have different biological activities depending on its molecular weight. It has been reported that hyaluronan-mediated CD44 activation regulates keratinocyte differentiation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of hyaluronan ...
Baik Ji-Sue - - 2013
In the present study, we firstly found that cordycepin elevated the gene expression of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the upregulation of hST8Sia I gene expression in cordycepin-treated SK-N-BE(2)-C cells, functional characterization of the promoter region of the hST8Sia ...
Tank Juliane - - 2013
Therapeutic targets of broad relevance are likely located in pathogenic pathways common to disorders of various etiologies. Screening for targets of this type revealed CCN genes to be consistently upregulated in multiple cardiomyopathies. We developed RNA interference (RNAi) to silence CCN2 and found this single-target approach to block multiple proinflammatory ...
Papadogianni Danae - - 2013
p53 is a tumour suppressor gene with an established role in the majority of human neoplasias. Its homologues-p63 and p73-cannot be classified as tumour suppressors, since they encode isoforms with oncogenic properties as well. p63 plays a crucial role in epithelial cell differentiation and p73 is essential for neuronal cell ...
Overhoff Marita G - - 2013
p16 is a key regulator of cellular senescence, yet the drivers of this stable state of proliferative arrest are not well understood. Here, we identify 22 senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs) in normal human mammary epithelial cells. We show that SA-miRNAs-26b, 181a, 210 and 424 function in concert to directly repress expression ...
Wen Wan-Chun - - 2013
Background: Recent studies have shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea extract, exhibited effects of anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation on periodontal inflammation. The present in vitro study examined the effect of EGCG on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-enhanced expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1), as well ...
Yu Alice L - - 2013
Abstract Purpose/Aim: HCA2, a receptor of β-hydroxybutyrate and niacin, has recently been described in mouse retina and immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell lines. As HCA2 might be a pharmacologic target, e.g. in diabetic retinopathy, we studied its expression in human retina and primary human RPE cells. Materials and ...
Velickovic Ksenija - - 2013
Context:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the unique ability of generating heat due to the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). A recent discovery regarding functional BAT in adult humans has increased interest in the molecular pathways of BAT development and functionality. An important role for estrogen in white adipose ...
Song Mi-Kyung - - 2013
Previous environmental microRNA (miRNA) studies have investigated a limited number of candidate miRNAs and have not evaluated functional effects on gene expression. In this study, we aimed to identify octanal (OC)-sensitive miRNAs and to characterize the relationships between miRNAs and expression of candidate genes involved in OC-induced toxicity. Microarray analysis ...
Penchovsky Robert - - 2013
High expression levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNAs in differentiated cells can be used as a common marker for cancer development. In this paper, we describe a novel computational method for selection of allosteric ribozymes that sense a specific sequence of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNAs. The in silico ...
Huang Qiang - - 2013
Syncytin-1 is a human endogenous retroviral envelope gene (HERVW1) product specifically expressed in placental trophoblasts. By mediating the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts through cell-cell fusion, syncytin-1 plays a critical role for the placental barrier, endocrine and exchange functions. During pregnancy, syncytin-1 expression is dynamically regulated by various pathophysiological factors and pathways. ...
Avitabile Daniele - - 2013
In this work, we show for the first time that a second splicing variant of the core clock gene Period 2 (Per2), Per2S, is expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in human keratinocytes and that it localizes in the nucleoli. Moreover, we show that a reversible perturbation of ...
Gotoh Saki - - 2013
Drug activation of the human nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) induced gluconeogenic genes and increased glucose production. Here we have determined that serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) is an essential factor that mediates this PXR-regulated glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) induction and glucose production. Both SGK2 and G6Pase mRNAs were increased ...
Wang W S - - 2013
Increased estrogen production in placenta towards the end of gestation plays a pivotal role in the onset of human labor. Estrogen transforms myometrium from a quiescent to a contractile status. Glucocorticoids have been shown to induce estrogen production through the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1)-mediated induction of aromatase transcription ...
Oka Hiroaki - - 2013
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis continues to be a devastating clinical disorder for which there are few therapeutic options, and the pathogenesis of this disease remains largely unknown. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in cholesterol biosynthesis, and they have been reported to exert pleiotropic effects on the cellular signaling involved ...
Dunn S L - - 2013
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is involved in the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) leading to cartilage degradation. Cannabinoids are anti-inflammatory and reduce joint damage in animal models of arthritis. This study aimed to determine a mechanism whereby the synthetic cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 mesylate (WIN-55) may inhibit cartilage degradation. Effects of WIN-55 were studied ...
Belge Catharina - - 2013
ß1-2-adrenergic receptors (AR) are key regulators of cardiac contractility and remodeling in response to catecholamines. ß3-AR expression is enhanced in diseased human myocardium, but its impact on remodeling is unknown. Mice with cardiac myocyte-specific expression of human ß3-AR (ß3-TG) and wild-type (WT) littermates were used to compare myocardial remodeling in ...
Zhu Y - - 2013
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between human adrenocortical carcinoma and the proteins involved in tumor angiogenesis, and to evaluate the angiogenic status of adrenocortical carcinoma. The expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and insulin-like growth factor 2 as well as microvessel density ...
Kim Kyoung Soo - - 2013
To examine the possible role of taurine chloramine (TauCl) in modulating the expression of adipokines in adipose tissue associated with obesity, we evaluated the effect of TauCl in human differentiated adipocytes in response to IL-1β. To study the physiological effects of TauCl on adipokine expression, differentiated adipocytes were treated with ...
Clementi Caterina - - 2013
Implantation of a blastocyst in the uterus is a multistep process tightly controlled by an intricate regulatory network of interconnected ovarian, uterine, and embryonic factors. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands and receptors are expressed in the uterus of pregnant mice, and BMP2 has been shown to be a key regulator ...
Benner Christopher - - 2013
Genome-wide maps of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) reveal that most human promoters contain perpetually active cis-regulatory elements between -150 bp and +50 bp (-150/+50 bp) relative to the transcription start site (TSS). Transcription factors (TFs) recruit cofactors (chromatin remodelers, histone/protein-modifying enzymes, and scaffold proteins) to these elements in order ...
Olsen Keith C - - 2013
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of normal lung architecture. Due to lack of effective treatment options, new approaches are urgently needed to treat this devastating disease. We previously identified transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a multifunctional protein expressed by human lung fibroblasts (HLFs), as a positive driver ...
Hu Fen F College of Life Sciences, Hebei United University, Tangshan, Hebei 063000, P.R. - - 2014
The zinc finger-homeodomain transcription factor, δ-crystallin enhancer factor 1 (δEF1) has been identified as a regulatory factor involved in the promotion of breast cancer cell proliferation via the downregulation of p21 and the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) and CDK4 expression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of CDK4 ...
He Jin-Hua JH Department of Laboratory, Central Hospital of Panyu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong 511400, P.R. - - 2014
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are untranslated transcripts with longer than 200 nucleotides (nt), which possess many of the structural characteristics of mRNAs, including a poly A tail, 5'-capping, and a promoter structure, but no conserved open reading frame. Moreover, lncRNA expression patterns change during differentiation and exhibit a variety of ...
Halder Sunil K - - 2013
Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma) are the most common benign tumors associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) that increase fibroid tumorigenicity. Herein, we determine the expression levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in human uterine fibroids and compared to adjacent normal myometrium. Using western blot analyses we found that ...
Batista Eraldo L EL - - 2013
Background: Diacylglycerol (DAG) is lipid mediator linked to key biological functions, whose levels are tightly regulated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK). Members of the DGK family undergo alternative splicing generating the protein diversity necessary to control different intracellular diacylglycerol pools. DGKα function is altered in Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) of Localized Aggressive ...
Xia Jing - - 2013
MicroRNA (miRNA) 5'-isoforms, or 5'-isomiRs, are small-RNA species that originate from the same genomic loci as the major miRNAs with their 5' ends shifted from the 5' ends of the miRNAs by a few nucleotides. Although 5'-isomiRs have been reported, their origins, properties and potential functions remain to be examined. ...
Abed Elie - - 2013
Wnt/β-catenin (cWnt) signaling plays a key role in osteogenesis by promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, activities altered in human osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblast (OA Ob). Sclerostin (SOST) has been shown to alter cWnt signaling. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) acts as a novel bone regulator and represses SOST levels in Ob. ...
Kusama Kazuya - - 2013
Decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) accompanied by the production of prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) 1 and rounded-cell morphology is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cAMP signaling is known to be crucial for decidualization. We previously reported that ...
McKenna Declan J - - 2014
A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show ...
Montisci Massimo - - 2013
Markers of skin wound vitality and the research methodology used for their determination are still matters of debate in forensic pathology. Cathepsin-D, a lysosomal enzyme, is the most expressed cathepsin in human skin, and although it seems to have the necessary requirements to be utilized as a vitality marker, past ...
Ramos Carlos G - - 2013
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasodilator peptide produced by endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. It promotes angiogenesis and alveolar growth and has protective effects in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Adrenomedullin's role in human pulmonary vascular and alveolar development is unknown. To test the hypothesis ...
Poitz David M - - 2013
Macrophages are often associated to pathophysiological processes and were found at hypoxic areas. However, cell adaption greatly depends on hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). Activation of these transcription factors is induced by heterodimerization of an α-(HIF-1α, -2α, -3α) and HIF-1β subunit. The main regulatory pathway is represented by α-subunit stability. Beside, little ...
Castro E C EC Department of Pathology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, - - 2013
The mammalian lung possesses the highest level of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) amongst all the organs. ACE is known to generate angiotensin (AT)-II from AT-I and to regulate serum bradykinin level, thereby controlling blood pressure. Recent data, however, indicate a role for ACE derived AT-II in angiogenesis, pulmonary hypertension, and ...
Zhang Jing-Yu - - 2013
Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) is characterized by extremely high fatality and disability rate. Recent studies indicate that co-stimulatory signal of tumor necrosis factor superfamily OX40/OX40L contributes to the atherosclerosis effect in ACI patients. However, it remains unclear the mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerosis process. So this study aims to investigate the ...
Wang Liping - - 2013
Cell-free seminal mRNA (cfs-mRNA) and microRNA (cfs-miRNA) has been found in human ejaculate, and reported as promising noninvasive biomarkers for disorders of male reproductive organs and forensic identification. However, seminal plasma is particularly challenging for RNA extraction due to its complicated composition and high content of protein, DNA, and polysaccharide. ...
Holden Neil S - - 2013
In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) multiple mediators act on Gαq-linked G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to cause bronchoconstriction. However, acting on the airway epithelium, such mediators may also elicit inflammatory responses. In human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) 2 mRNA and protein ...
Madej Janusz A - - 2013
The study aimed at examining hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1alpha expression in adenocarcinomas and adenomas in bitches in regard to tumour malignancy grade, proliferation, apoptosis and vascularisation. Therefore, paraffin sections of 15 adenomas and 64 adenocarcinomas sampled from 79 dogs aged 6 to 16 years were analysed. A significantly higher HIF-1alpha expression ...
James Ellen H - - 2013
The temporal and cell-density dependent regulation of expression of virtually all the Staphylococcus aureus virulon is under the control of the agr (accessory gene regulatory) operon. The expression of the agr operon is subject to transcriptional regulation by the AgrA/C two-component response regulator/sensor kinase pair. During bacteraemia, a frequent syndrome ...
Yu Huiqing H Shanghai Transgenic Research Center, No.88, Cailun Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201210, P.R. China; Shanghai transgenic animal breeding and Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center, No.88, Cailun Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201210, P.R. - - 2013
Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, ...
Hoeffer Charles A - - 2013
Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) controls the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), which has been implicated in human anxiety disorders. Previously, we reported that RCAN1 functioned as an inhibitor of CaN activity in the brain. However, we now find enhanced phosphorylation of a CaN substrate, cAMP response element-binding protein ...
Singaravelu Ragunath - - 2013
Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB's role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible ...
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