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Results 251 - 300 of 3102
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Noyola-Martínez Nancy N Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000, México, D.F., - - 2013
Placenta is an important source of endocrine and immunological factors. During pregnancy, calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, is also metabolized by decidua and placental tissue by means of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 for synthesis and inactivation of calcitriol respectively. Calcitriol production is regulated by several factors in a tissue-specific ...
Son Eui Dong ED AmorePacific Corp/R&D Center, 314-1, Bora-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of - - 2013
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is found on the skin of approximately 90% of patients with atopic dermatitis and approximately 20% of apparently healthy subjects. S. aureus induces keratinocytes and immune cells to secrete immunoregulatory factors that cause epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic skin. This study examined factors that cause epidermal ...
Magistri Paolo P Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, California; Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea, Sapienza-Università di Roma, Rome, - - 2013
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently represents two diseases as it often arises in the setting of cirrhosis caused by the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Previously, we identified that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates HSC viability and fibrinogenesis, as well as HCC tumorigenesis. Although it is increasingly recognized that ...
Morales-Prieto D M DM University Hospital Jena, Department of Obstetrics, Placenta-Lab, Bachstraße. 18, 07743 Jena, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of a large number of genes in plants and animals. Placental miRNAs appeared late in evolution and can be found only in mammals. Nevertheless, these miRNAs are constantly under evolutionary pressure. As a consequence, miRNA sequences and their mRNA targets may differ between species, and ...
Sumita Kazutaka K University of Cincinnati, United - - 2013
Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of ...
Murano Tatsuro T Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, - - 2013
Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch ...
Bhattacharyya Sumit S a Department of Medicine , University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago , Illinois , - - 2013
Exposure to the common food additive carrageenan was previously associated with increased Wnt9A expression and increased cytoplasmic β-catenin in human colonic epithelial cells. In this report, exposure of human colonic epithelial cells in culture and of mouse colonic epithelium in vivo to low concentrations of carrageenan is shown to activate ...
Hosur Raghavendra R Patient Stratification group, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, - - 2013
Transcriptional profiling still remains one of the most popular techniques for identifying relevant biomarkers in patient samples. However, heterogeneity in the population leads to poor statistical evidence for selection of most relevant biomarkers to pursue. In particular, human transcriptional differences can be very subtle, making it very difficult to tease ...
Ying Xiaozhou X Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, 109 Xue yuan xi Road, Wenzhou, 325000, China, - - 2013
Cordycepin, a nucleoside derivative isolated from Cordyceps, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic and renoprotective effects. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. This study aimed to assess the effects of cordycepin on human OA chondrocytes. ...
Rondini Elizabeth A EA Wayne State - - 2013
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze the sulfate conjugation of a myriad of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Among the 13 human SULTs, little is known regarding regulation of the SULT1C subfamily. We evaluated the effects of a panel of transcription factor activators on levels of SULT1C mRNA (1C2 and 1C3) and protein ...
Duniec-Dmuchowski Zofia Z Wayne State - - 2013
The SULT1C3 gene was identified by computational analysis of the human genome and suggested to contain duplications of its last two exons (7a/b and 8a/b). Although the SULT1C3 isoform containing the more downstream exons 7b and 8b (SULT1C3d) has been expressed in E. coli, crystallized, and characterized for activity, there ...
Lilja-Maula L L Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 57, University of Helsinki, 00014, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2013
Activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a key event in the progression of fibrosis in human lung tissue. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) shares histopathological features of human usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), the histopathological counterpart of IPF and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The aim of ...
Guariniello Stefano S Biochemistry, Biophysics and General Pathology Department, Second University of Naples, Naples, - - 2013
In humans we know 25 selenoproteins that play important roles in redox regulation, detoxification, immune-system protection and viral suppression. In particular, selenoprotein M (SelM) may function as thiol disulfide oxidoreductase that participates in the formation of disulfide bonds, and can be implicated in calcium responses. However, it presents a redox ...
Zhou Yan - - 2013
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, such as Coptis chinensis, Berberis aristata, and Coptis japonica. It exhibits a lipid-lowering effect by up-regulating hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression. However, the plasma concentration of BBR is very low after oral administration for the reason ...
Miyata Masaaki - - 2013
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor that positively regulates transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated a possible involvement of SREBP-2 in human intestinal expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, which is an endocrine hormone involved ...
Bjørnstad Sigrid S Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital HF, Ullevål, Oslo, - - 2013
Background: Antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant replacement therapy have dramatically reduced mortality caused by lung disease in premature babies. Knowledge about mechanisms regulating epithelial differentiation of the respiratory membrane is limited, as are effects of pharmacological interventions. The chicken fetus is a valuable model for exploring pharmacological actions on developing organs. ...
Jones H H The Center for Cellular and Molecular Fetal Therapy, Division of Pediatric General, Thoracic and Fetal Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor-11 (hIGF-1) in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect ...
Mohsen-Kanson Tala - - 2013
Identification of molecular mechanisms involved in generation of different types of adipocytes is progressing substantially in mice. However, much less is known regarding characterization of brown and white adipocyte progenitors (APs) in humans, highlighting the need for an in vitro model of human adipocyte development. Here we report a procedure ...
Su Shengzhong - - 2013
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH, EPHX1) is a critical biotransformation enzyme, catalyzing the metabolism of many xenobiotics. Human mEH is transcribed using alternative promoters. The proximal E1 promoter is active in liver while the far upstream E1b promoter drives the expression of mEH in all tissues including liver. Although several liver-specific ...
Huang Hsiao-Ning HN Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, - - 2013
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are functionally unique for their self-renewal ability and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms giving rise to these properties are not fully understood. hESCs can differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) containing ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In the miR-200 family, miR-200c was especially enriched in undifferentiated hESCs ...
Karbiener Michael M RNA Biology Group, Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz University of Technology, - - 2013
Adipose tissue contains thermogenic adipocytes (i.e., brown and brite/beige) that oxidize nutrients at exceptionally high rates via non-shivering thermogenesis. Its recent discovery in adult humans has opened up new avenues to fight obesity and related disorders such as diabetes. Here we identified miR-26a and miR-26b as key regulators of human ...
Lu Zhigang Z Department of Neurology and the Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New - - 2014
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR-1) gene OPRM1 undergoes extensive alternative splicing, generating an array of splice variants. Of these variants, MOR-1A, an intron-retention carboxyl terminal splice variant identical to MOR-1 except for the terminal intracellular tail encoded by exon 3b, is quite abundant and conserved from rodent to humans. Increasing evidence ...
Seo Young Joon - - 2013
Androgens are important hormones that influence sebum production from the sebaceous glands. Human facial skin can be categorized as T- and U-zones, which are areas with high and low levels of sebum secretion, respectively. This study was performed to investigate whether there are topographical differences in androgen receptor (AR) expression ...
Cutolo Maurizio - - 2013
The transcription factor NF-kB is involved in the expression of several genes linked to the immune response, including those of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We investigated cytokine production and NF-kB expression following CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) treatment of cultured human macrophages. Human THP1 cells, differentiated in macrophages, were treated with CTLA4-Ig (100, 500 μg/ml; ...
Wen Kuo-Chang KC Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a cluster of naturally occurring small non-coding RNA molecules of 19-24 nucleotides in length. miRs control gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to a specific site at the 3'-UTR of target mRNA, which results in mRNA cleavage and translation repression. Nearly 1000 miRs in the human genome ...
Yu Huiqing - - 2013
Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, ...
Lim Ratana - - 2013
Inflammation is associated with preterm birth, a worldwide healthcare issue. SLIT3 has a role in inflammation, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SLIT3 on labour mediators in human gestational tissues. SLIT3 protein expression was performed using immunohistochemistry in foetal membranes and myometrium with ...
Zhao Yuhai - - 2013
Inducible microRNAs (miRNAs) perform critical regulatory roles in central nervous system (CNS) development, aging, health, and disease. Using miRNA arrays, RNA sequencing, enhanced Northern dot blot hybridization technologies, Western immunoblot, and bioinformatics analysis, we have studied miRNA abundance and complexity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissues compared to age-matched controls. ...
Carneiro-Lobo Tatiana C - - 2013
The expression levels of tissue factor (TF), the clotting initiator protein, have been correlated with angiogenesis and the histological grade of malignancy in glioma patients. The pro-tumor function of TF is linked to a family of G protein-coupled receptors known as protease-activated receptors (PARs), which may be activated by blood coagulation ...
Li Ziqiang - - 2013
High levels of S100A6 have been associated with poor outcome in some types of human cancers, but the role of S100A6 in the molecular pathogenesis of these cancers is largely unknown. This study was performed to explore the expression and functional roles of S100A6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression ...
Kano Shizuka - - 2013
Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) is a member of the SR protein family and plays wide-ranging roles in gene expression. The human SRSF3 gene generates two alternative splice transcripts, a major mRNA isoform (SRSF3-FL) encoding functional full-length protein and a premature termination codon (PTC)-containing isoform (SRSF3-PTC). The latter is degraded ...
Lenzini Livia - - 2013
Context.The molecular mechanisms of primary aldosteronism, a common cause of human hypertension, are unknown, but alterations of K(+) channels can play a key role.Objective.To investigate: i) the expression of the Twik-related Acid-Sensitive K(+) channels (TASK) in Aldosterone Producing Adenomas (APAs); ii) the role of TASK-2 in aldosterone synthesis; iii) the ...
Takayama Kazuo - - 2013
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their derivatives are expected to be used in drug discovery, regenerative medicine and the study of human embryogenesis. Because hepatocyte differentiation from hESCs has the potential to recapitulate human liver development in vivo, we employed this differentiation method to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying ...
Das Sudipta - - 2013
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disorder resulting from the progressive remodelling of lungs, with no known effective treatment. Although TGF-β has a well-established role in lung fibrosis, clinical experience with neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β has been disappointing to date and strategies to directly suppress TGF-β1 secretion are ...
Guiducci Cristiana - - 2013
Studies on the role of the RNA receptor TLR8 in inflammation have been limited by its different function in human versus rodents. We have generated multiple lines of transgenic mice expressing different levels of human TLR8. The high copy number chimeras were unable to pass germline; developed severe inflammation targeting ...
Wang Bingbing - - 2013
Context:Progesterone contributes to maintenance of human pregnancy, in part by inhibiting activity of the human pro-labor genes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying action of progesterone remain poorly defined. We have shown that in human placenta, constitutively activated non-canonical NF-κB pathway positively regulates CRH and ...
Szukiewicz Dariusz - - 2013
Inflammation and hypoxia activate the fractalkine (CX3CL1) receptor (CX3CR1)-related signaling pathway. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) induces CX3CL1, influencing a mechanism of CX3CL1 autoregulation by CX3CR1 expression. We compared spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CX3CL1 and TNFα production by human placenta under normoxic vs. hypoxic conditions, with respect to CX3CR1 expression ...
Shin Seulmee - - 2013
Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to develop a human adiponectin expression system in transgenic silkworm using a human adiponectin expression vector. The silk gland of the silkworm is a highly specialized organ that has the wonderful ability to ...
Bunnik Evelien M - - 2013
In eukaryotic organisms, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels during the processes of transcription and translation. The absence of a tight regulatory network for transcription in the human malaria parasite suggests that gene expression may largely be controlled at post-transcriptional and translational levels. In this study, we compare steady-state ...
Chan Yi-Wah - - 2013
The transition of the human uterus from a quiescent to contractile state takes place over a number of weeks. On such biological timescales cellular phenotype is modified by changes in the transcriptome, which in turn, is under the control of the underlying endocrine, paracrine and biophysical processes resulting from the ...
Kristensen Stine Gry - - 2013
In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling molecules and TGF- β/BMP antagonists during ...
Jenkin Kayte A - - 2013
Background: The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is reduced in podocytes of animals and humans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), with activation of CB2 ameliorating albuminuria in animals. As albuminuria also is due to proximal tubule dysfunction, the aim of this study is to investigate tubular expression of CB2 ...
Sathish Venkatachalem V Departments of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2014
The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) increases expression of CD38 (a membrane-associated bifunctional enzyme regulating cyclic ADP ribose), and enhances agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). We previously demonstrated that caveolae and their constituent protein caveolin-1 are important for ASM [Ca(2+)]i regulation, which is ...
Wang Shuai - - 2013
Background and Aims: Clofibrate, an established PPARα ligand, has recently been shown to have anticancer activity yet its mechanisms of action remain to be characterized. This study examined the effect of clofibrate on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in A2780 (human ovarian cancer) and DU145 (human prostate cancer) cells. Methods ...
Fei Chen - - 2013
ObjectivesThere is growing evidence to suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have contributed to human evolution, being expressed in development, normal physiology and disease. A key difficulty in the scientific evaluation of this potential viral contribution is the accurate demonstration of virally expressed protein in specific human cells and tissues. ...
Akasaki Yukio - - 2013
Aging is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Forkhead-box class O (FoxO) transcription factors regulate mechanisms of cellular aging, including protein quality control, autophagy and defenses against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to analyze FoxO transcription factors in normal, aging and OA cartilage. Knee joints from ...
Schütze Denise M - - 2013
Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probably/possibly hrHPV types which display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and 18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative lifespan barriers, senescence and ...
Pallante Pierlorenzo - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of powerful gene expression regulators. Acting at the post-transcriptional level, miRNAs modulate the expression of at least one-third of the mRNAs that are encoded by the human genome. The expression of a single gene can be regulated by several miRNAs, and every miRNA ...
Bertozzi Davide - - 2013
DNA Topoisomerase I inhibition by Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives can impair the hypoxia-induced cell transcriptional response. In the present work, we determined molecular aspects of the mechanism of CPT effects on HIF-1alpha activity in human cancer cells. In particular, we provide evidence that low concentrations of CPT, without interfering with HIF-1α ...
Zhong Xiaohuan X Department of Stomatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, PR - - 2014
Both endothelin-1 (ET-1) and interleukin (IL)-18 induce osteoblast proliferation under normal and pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, we explored the interaction between the two proteins by examining the effect of ET-1 on IL-18 expression in cultured human osteoblasts. Human osteoblasts were treated with ET-1 in different concentrations (1, 10, ...
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