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Huang Hsiao-Ning HN Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, - - 2013
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are functionally unique for their self-renewal ability and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms giving rise to these properties are not fully understood. hESCs can differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) containing ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In the miR-200 family, miR-200c was especially enriched in undifferentiated hESCs ...
Karbiener Michael M RNA Biology Group, Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz University of Technology, - - 2013
Adipose tissue contains thermogenic adipocytes (i.e., brown and brite/beige) that oxidize nutrients at exceptionally high rates via non-shivering thermogenesis. Its recent discovery in adult humans has opened up new avenues to fight obesity and related disorders such as diabetes. Here we identified miR-26a and miR-26b as key regulators of human ...
Lu Zhigang Z Department of Neurology and the Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New - - 2014
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR-1) gene OPRM1 undergoes extensive alternative splicing, generating an array of splice variants. Of these variants, MOR-1A, an intron-retention carboxyl terminal splice variant identical to MOR-1 except for the terminal intracellular tail encoded by exon 3b, is quite abundant and conserved from rodent to humans. Increasing evidence ...
Seo Young Joon - - 2013
Androgens are important hormones that influence sebum production from the sebaceous glands. Human facial skin can be categorized as T- and U-zones, which are areas with high and low levels of sebum secretion, respectively. This study was performed to investigate whether there are topographical differences in androgen receptor (AR) expression ...
Cutolo Maurizio - - 2013
The transcription factor NF-kB is involved in the expression of several genes linked to the immune response, including those of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We investigated cytokine production and NF-kB expression following CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) treatment of cultured human macrophages. Human THP1 cells, differentiated in macrophages, were treated with CTLA4-Ig (100, 500 μg/ml; ...
Wen Kuo-Chang KC Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a cluster of naturally occurring small non-coding RNA molecules of 19-24 nucleotides in length. miRs control gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to a specific site at the 3'-UTR of target mRNA, which results in mRNA cleavage and translation repression. Nearly 1000 miRs in the human genome ...
Yu Huiqing - - 2013
Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, ...
Lim Ratana - - 2013
Inflammation is associated with preterm birth, a worldwide healthcare issue. SLIT3 has a role in inflammation, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SLIT3 on labour mediators in human gestational tissues. SLIT3 protein expression was performed using immunohistochemistry in foetal membranes and myometrium with ...
Zhao Yuhai - - 2013
Inducible microRNAs (miRNAs) perform critical regulatory roles in central nervous system (CNS) development, aging, health, and disease. Using miRNA arrays, RNA sequencing, enhanced Northern dot blot hybridization technologies, Western immunoblot, and bioinformatics analysis, we have studied miRNA abundance and complexity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissues compared to age-matched controls. ...
Carneiro-Lobo Tatiana C - - 2013
The expression levels of tissue factor (TF), the clotting initiator protein, have been correlated with angiogenesis and the histological grade of malignancy in glioma patients. The pro-tumor function of TF is linked to a family of G protein-coupled receptors known as protease-activated receptors (PARs), which may be activated by blood coagulation ...
Li Ziqiang - - 2013
High levels of S100A6 have been associated with poor outcome in some types of human cancers, but the role of S100A6 in the molecular pathogenesis of these cancers is largely unknown. This study was performed to explore the expression and functional roles of S100A6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression ...
Kano Shizuka - - 2013
Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) is a member of the SR protein family and plays wide-ranging roles in gene expression. The human SRSF3 gene generates two alternative splice transcripts, a major mRNA isoform (SRSF3-FL) encoding functional full-length protein and a premature termination codon (PTC)-containing isoform (SRSF3-PTC). The latter is degraded ...
Lenzini Livia - - 2013
Context.The molecular mechanisms of primary aldosteronism, a common cause of human hypertension, are unknown, but alterations of K(+) channels can play a key role.Objective.To investigate: i) the expression of the Twik-related Acid-Sensitive K(+) channels (TASK) in Aldosterone Producing Adenomas (APAs); ii) the role of TASK-2 in aldosterone synthesis; iii) the ...
Takayama Kazuo - - 2013
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their derivatives are expected to be used in drug discovery, regenerative medicine and the study of human embryogenesis. Because hepatocyte differentiation from hESCs has the potential to recapitulate human liver development in vivo, we employed this differentiation method to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying ...
Das Sudipta - - 2013
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disorder resulting from the progressive remodelling of lungs, with no known effective treatment. Although TGF-β has a well-established role in lung fibrosis, clinical experience with neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β has been disappointing to date and strategies to directly suppress TGF-β1 secretion are ...
Guiducci Cristiana - - 2013
Studies on the role of the RNA receptor TLR8 in inflammation have been limited by its different function in human versus rodents. We have generated multiple lines of transgenic mice expressing different levels of human TLR8. The high copy number chimeras were unable to pass germline; developed severe inflammation targeting ...
Wang Bingbing - - 2013
Context:Progesterone contributes to maintenance of human pregnancy, in part by inhibiting activity of the human pro-labor genes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying action of progesterone remain poorly defined. We have shown that in human placenta, constitutively activated non-canonical NF-κB pathway positively regulates CRH and ...
Szukiewicz Dariusz - - 2013
Inflammation and hypoxia activate the fractalkine (CX3CL1) receptor (CX3CR1)-related signaling pathway. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) induces CX3CL1, influencing a mechanism of CX3CL1 autoregulation by CX3CR1 expression. We compared spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CX3CL1 and TNFα production by human placenta under normoxic vs. hypoxic conditions, with respect to CX3CR1 expression ...
Shin Seulmee - - 2013
Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to develop a human adiponectin expression system in transgenic silkworm using a human adiponectin expression vector. The silk gland of the silkworm is a highly specialized organ that has the wonderful ability to ...
Bunnik Evelien M - - 2013
In eukaryotic organisms, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels during the processes of transcription and translation. The absence of a tight regulatory network for transcription in the human malaria parasite suggests that gene expression may largely be controlled at post-transcriptional and translational levels. In this study, we compare steady-state ...
Chan Yi-Wah - - 2013
The transition of the human uterus from a quiescent to contractile state takes place over a number of weeks. On such biological timescales cellular phenotype is modified by changes in the transcriptome, which in turn, is under the control of the underlying endocrine, paracrine and biophysical processes resulting from the ...
Kristensen Stine Gry - - 2013
In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling molecules and TGF- β/BMP antagonists during ...
Jenkin Kayte A - - 2013
Background: The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is reduced in podocytes of animals and humans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), with activation of CB2 ameliorating albuminuria in animals. As albuminuria also is due to proximal tubule dysfunction, the aim of this study is to investigate tubular expression of CB2 ...
Sathish Venkatachalem V Departments of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2014
The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) increases expression of CD38 (a membrane-associated bifunctional enzyme regulating cyclic ADP ribose), and enhances agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). We previously demonstrated that caveolae and their constituent protein caveolin-1 are important for ASM [Ca(2+)]i regulation, which is ...
Wang Shuai - - 2013
Background and Aims: Clofibrate, an established PPARα ligand, has recently been shown to have anticancer activity yet its mechanisms of action remain to be characterized. This study examined the effect of clofibrate on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in A2780 (human ovarian cancer) and DU145 (human prostate cancer) cells. Methods ...
Fei Chen - - 2013
ObjectivesThere is growing evidence to suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have contributed to human evolution, being expressed in development, normal physiology and disease. A key difficulty in the scientific evaluation of this potential viral contribution is the accurate demonstration of virally expressed protein in specific human cells and tissues. ...
Akasaki Yukio - - 2013
Aging is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Forkhead-box class O (FoxO) transcription factors regulate mechanisms of cellular aging, including protein quality control, autophagy and defenses against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to analyze FoxO transcription factors in normal, aging and OA cartilage. Knee joints from ...
Schütze Denise M - - 2013
Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probably/possibly hrHPV types which display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and 18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative lifespan barriers, senescence and ...
Pallante Pierlorenzo - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of powerful gene expression regulators. Acting at the post-transcriptional level, miRNAs modulate the expression of at least one-third of the mRNAs that are encoded by the human genome. The expression of a single gene can be regulated by several miRNAs, and every miRNA ...
Bertozzi Davide - - 2013
DNA Topoisomerase I inhibition by Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives can impair the hypoxia-induced cell transcriptional response. In the present work, we determined molecular aspects of the mechanism of CPT effects on HIF-1alpha activity in human cancer cells. In particular, we provide evidence that low concentrations of CPT, without interfering with HIF-1α ...
Zhong Xiaohuan X Department of Stomatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, PR - - 2014
Both endothelin-1 (ET-1) and interleukin (IL)-18 induce osteoblast proliferation under normal and pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, we explored the interaction between the two proteins by examining the effect of ET-1 on IL-18 expression in cultured human osteoblasts. Human osteoblasts were treated with ET-1 in different concentrations (1, 10, ...
Choi Yong Seok - - 2013
Although IL-1beta is believed to be crucial in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), the IL-1beta blockade brings no therapeutic benefit in human OA and results in OA aggravation in several animal models. We explored the role of a cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) suppressor as a regulatory modulator of IL-1beta signaling ...
Felizola Saulo J A - - 2013
Metallothionein-3 (MT-3) is an intracellular, low molecular weight protein mainly distributed in the central nervous system but also in various peripheral organs and several types of human neoplasms. However, details of MT-3 expression have not been examined in human adrenal cortex and its disorders. The mRNA levels of MT-3 were ...
Anderson Sarah Ann R - - 2013
Negative affect is critical for conferring vulnerability to opiate addiction as reflected by the high comorbidity of opiate abuse with major depressive disorder (MDD). Rodent models implicate amygdala prodynorphin (Pdyn) as a mediator of negative affect; however, evidence of PDYN involvement in human negative affect is limited. Here, we found ...
Esteves Cristina L - - 2013
Context:Levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which regenerates active glucocorticoids, are selectively elevated in adipose tissue in human obesity and metabolic syndrome, both conditions associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. 11β-HSD1 expression is induced by proinflammatory cytokines in a variety of cell types, including in human adipocytes differentiated in vitro.Objective:Our ...
Karunatilaka Krishanthi S - - 2013
The spliceosome catalyzes precursor-mRNA splicing in all eukaryotes. It consists of over 100 proteins and five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), including U2 and U6 snRNAs, which are essential for catalysis. Human and yeast snRNAs share structural similarities despite the fact that human snRNAs contain numerous post-transcriptional modifications. Although functions for ...
Kálmán Sára - - 2013
Metabolic and oxidative stresses induce physiological adaptation processes, disrupting a finely tuned, coordinated network of gene expression. To better understand the interplay between the mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes, we examined how two distinct metabolic stressors alter the expression profile of human dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblast cultures were obtained from skin ...
Ouhara Kazuhisa - - 2013
Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The differential miRNA expression in innate and acquired immunity has been shown to regulate immune cell development and function. miRNA expression has been demonstrated to affect pathophysiology of inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis ...
Oda Shingo - - 2013
Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A10 is not expressed in the liver; however, UGT1A10 is exclusively expressed in the intestine, contributing to presystemic first-pass metabolism. Earlier studies revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1α and Sp1, as well as an intestine-specific transcription factor, caudal type homeobox (Cdx) 2, are involved in the ...
Benko Ann L - - 2013
We examined whether glucocorticoids could modulate the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA), the principal regulator of the processes of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes. Treatment of human B cells with IL-4 and anti-CD40 antibody for 18-20 hours resulted in induction of expression of ...
Li Shuijie - - 2013
ATAD3 (ATPase family AAA-Domain containing protein 3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase with unknown but vital functions. Initial researches have focused essentially on the major p66-ATAD3 isoform, but other proteins and mRNAs are described in the data banks. Using a set of anti-peptide antibodies and by the use of ...
Folkmann Andrew W - - 2013
A critical step during gene expression is the directional export of nuclear messenger (m)RNA through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to the cytoplasm. During export, Gle1 in conjunction with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially regulates the activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5 at the NPC cytoplasmic face. GLE1 mutations are causally linked ...
Capp Edison - - 2013
The human endometrium undergoes repetitive, cyclical changes under the influence of endocrine signals (estrogen and progesterone). In particular, the extensive tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration that occur during decidualization of the endometrium give rise to an environment that is permissive to blastocyst attachment. However, it is now well established ...
Zhang Yan - - 2013
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homoeostasis. Mutations of its pathway components including Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) and Gli/Ci predispose to cancers and congenital anomalies. The Sufu-Gli protein complex occupies a central position in the vertebrate Hh signalling pathway, especially in mammals. Here structures of full-length human ...
Robinett Kathryn S - - 2013
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have recently been found to be expressed on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) and their activation results in marked relaxation. These agents have been proposed as a new class of bronchodilators in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases since they act via a different mechanism than ...
Kage Madoka - - 2013
Hyaluronan plays a role in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. In addition, hyaluronan has been shown to have different biological activities depending on its molecular weight. It has been reported that hyaluronan-mediated CD44 activation regulates keratinocyte differentiation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of hyaluronan ...
Baik Ji-Sue - - 2013
In the present study, we firstly found that cordycepin elevated the gene expression of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the upregulation of hST8Sia I gene expression in cordycepin-treated SK-N-BE(2)-C cells, functional characterization of the promoter region of the hST8Sia ...
Tank Juliane - - 2013
Therapeutic targets of broad relevance are likely located in pathogenic pathways common to disorders of various etiologies. Screening for targets of this type revealed CCN genes to be consistently upregulated in multiple cardiomyopathies. We developed RNA interference (RNAi) to silence CCN2 and found this single-target approach to block multiple proinflammatory ...
Papadogianni Danae - - 2013
p53 is a tumour suppressor gene with an established role in the majority of human neoplasias. Its homologues-p63 and p73-cannot be classified as tumour suppressors, since they encode isoforms with oncogenic properties as well. p63 plays a crucial role in epithelial cell differentiation and p73 is essential for neuronal cell ...
Overhoff Marita G - - 2013
p16 is a key regulator of cellular senescence, yet the drivers of this stable state of proliferative arrest are not well understood. Here, we identify 22 senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs) in normal human mammary epithelial cells. We show that SA-miRNAs-26b, 181a, 210 and 424 function in concert to directly repress expression ...
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