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Results 451 - 500 of 3091
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Ratajczak-Wrona W - - 2013
Abstract Purpose: The role of MAP kinases in the activation of AP-1 (c-Jun, c-Fos) and NF-κB p65 engaged in the regulation of iNOS expression in human neutrophils (PMNs) exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was analyzed in the study. Material and Methods: The study included a group of 20 healthy individuals. Isolated ...
Xu Xin - - 2013
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling enzyme, which is involved in the development and progression of many types of tumors. LOX dysfunction is observed in colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer. However, the precise effects and molecular mechanisms of LOX action in osteosarcoma progression are still unknown. We ...
Guan Haiyan - - 2013
The placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2; encoded by the HSD11B2 gene) plays a key role in fetal development, but its regulation is incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that p38 MAPK was a positive regulator of placental 11β-HSD2. However, it remains unknown if the other two MAPKs, ERK1/2 and JNK, ...
Metze Stefanie - - 2013
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanism that eliminates mRNAs with the termination codon (TC) located in an unfavorable environment for efficient translation termination. The best-studied NMD-targeted mRNAs contain premature termination codons (PTCs); however, NMD regulates even many physiological mRNAs. An exon-junction complex (EJC) located downstream ...
Fei Wang - - 2013
Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, can cause various types of cancers, including bladder cancer. Angiogenesis is a key event for tumor initiation. In this study, several important angiogenesis related factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), were up-regulated and PI3K/AKT and MAPK signal pathways ...
Hiroi Ryoko - - 2013
In the dorsal raphe nucleus, 17β-estradiol (E2) increases the expression of the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2). Although ERβ has been localized to Tph2 neurons, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the Tph2 gene by estrogen. Since the estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) ...
Ochs Meike J - - 2013
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyses the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. An increased level of leukotrienes is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma or atherosclerosis. In this MiniReview, we focus on recent findings regarding alternative splice variants ...
Kim D S - - 2013
To examine the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signalling during odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Human dental pulp cells were treated with differentiation medium, recombinant human SDF-1, neutralizing antibody for SDF-1 or CXCR4, pertussis toxin (PTX) and AMD3100. The expression of SDF-1 and its receptor ...
Wen Jiadi - - 2013
The human endometrium undergoes cyclic change during each menstrual cycle in response to gonadal steroids. Proteolysis of endometrial extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary to prepare this dynamic tissue for pregnancy. Proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and closely related a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) have been ...
Sumida Kyohei K School of Pharmacy, Kitasato University, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan (K.S., M.K., E.K., T.I., S.T., T.N., R.F.); and Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California - - 2013
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole enzyme that can metabolize bilirubin. Human infants physiologically develop hyperbilirubinemia as the result of inadequate expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. Although phototherapy using blue light is effective in preventing jaundice, sunlight has also been suggested, but without conclusive evidence, to reduce serum bilirubin ...
Castro-Sánchez Luis - - 2013
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate limiting step in arachidonic acid cascade, plays a key role in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) upon inflammatory stimuli, growth factors, hormones and other cellular stresses. Overproduction of PGE2 stimulates proliferation of various cancer cells, confers resistance to apoptosis and favors metastasis and angiogenesis. The ...
Glasgow Stacey M SM Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2013
Contemporary views of tumorigenesis regard its inception as a convergence of genetic mutation and developmental context. Glioma is the most common and deadly malignancy in the CNS; therefore, understanding how regulators of glial development contribute to its formation remains a key question. Previously we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as ...
Lee Mon-Juan - - 2013
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis, and has been indicated as a potential therapeutic target to promote osteoblast differentiation. However, recent studies suggest that suppression of PPARγ inhibits adipogenesis, but does not promote osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). It was ...
Laver John D - - 2013
Despite studies that have investigated the interactions of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins like Staufen with RNA in vitro, how they achieve target specificity in vivo remains uncertain. We performed RNA co-immunoprecipitations followed by microarray analysis to identify Staufen-associated mRNAs in early Drosophila embryos. Analysis of the localization and functions of these ...
Ramamoorthy Anuradha - - 2013
Rifampin causes drug interactions by altering hepatic drug metabolism. Since miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in drug metabolism, we determined the effect of rifampin on the expression of hepatic miRNAs. Primary human hepatocytes from seven subjects were treated with rifampin and the expression of miRNAs and CYP ...
Döcke Stephanie - - 2013
Adipose tissue derived factors link non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with obesity, which was also reported for circulating chemerin. Otherwise, hepatic chemerin and CMKLR1 mRNA expression have not yet been studied in an extensively characterized patient collective. Cross-sectional and experimental study. Liver was harvested from n = 47 subjects and ...
Zhang Z - - 2013
In addition to protein-coding genes, the human genome makes a large amount of noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Both microRNAs and lncRNAs have been shown to have a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis, as well as cancer ...
Lakota Katja - - 2013
Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been shown to be an active participant in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. SAA-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were reported to release pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, however it remains unclear which putative SAA receptors are present in these cells and how they ...
DeVerse J Sherrod JS Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, - - 2013
Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the specific mechanisms that determine the localization of atherosclerotic plaques in arteries are not well defined. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) isolated from human plasma after a high-fat meal modulate TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) via an ...
Mathias Bollmann F - - 2013
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is tightly regulated at various transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Alternative splicing of hTERT has been shown in many human tissues and cell lines regardless of telomerase status and may play a role in regulation of telomerase activity and other cellular functions. Catalytically inactive splice variants ...
Xu Mei - - 2013
Activation of telomerase by human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 is a critical step for cell immortalization and transformation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs). Multiple transcription factors have been identified as being involved in E6-induced hTERT expression. Here, we adapted an unbiased in vivo screen using a LacO-LacI system in human ...
Udemgba Chinelo - - 2013
The biochemical pathways underlying alcohol abuse and dependence are not well understood, although brain cell loss and neurotoxicity have been reported in subjects with alcohol dependence. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B; an enzyme that catabolizes neurotransmitters such as dopamine) is consistently increased in this psychiatric illness. MAO B has been ...
Kim Ji Eun - - 2013
The anti-skin aging effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been studied extensively in vitro and in vivo models. Accumulating data suggest that EGCG possesses important antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Our previous study demonstrated that heat exposure induces cutaneous angiogenesis and inflammatory cellular infiltration, disrupts the dermal extracellular matrix by inducing matrix ...
Pasquinelli Amy E - - 2013
The let-7 miRNA (microRNA) is an essential regulator of development from nematode worms to humans. Altered expression of let-7 results in larval arrest or lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans. Likewise, under- or over-expression of let-7 in human cells can result in cellular overproliferation or halted cell division respectively. Thus the biogenesis ...
Wang Yunhui - - 2013
The aim of the study was to explore whether lycopene protects against the activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by a proinflammatory stimulus. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lycopene (1 microm or 10 microm), then incubated with 1 microg/ml LPS for 24 h. After an ...
Lázaro Iolanda - - 2013
In macrophages, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) coordinates key events in oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation, such as cholesterol trafficking and inflammatory responses. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the involvement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in FABP4-upregulation in response to aldehydes that ...
Shah Niraj M - - 2013
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of over a hundred cytoprotective and antioxidant genes that provide cellular protection from reactive oxygen species. Chemotherapy resistance in several cancers has been linked to dysregulation of the NRF2 signalling pathway, moreover there is growing ...
Zhu Hong - - 2013
Left-sided colon carcinoma (LSCC) and right-sided colon carcinoma (RSCC) differ in their genetic susceptibilities to neoplastic transformation. The present study identified 11 genes that were differentially expressed in LSCC and RSCC by expression profiling with microarray analysis. Compared with RSCC, the human genes for L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB), cyclin-dependent ...
Liu Ning - - 2013
Human males absent on the first (hMOF), a human ortholog of the Drosophila MOF protein, is responsible for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetylation in human cells. The depletion of hMOF leads to a global reduction in histone H4K16 acetylation in human cells, genomic instability, cell cycle defects, reduced transcription ...
Mouillet Jean-Francois JF Magee-Womens Research Institute, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2013
Placental hypoperfusion causes cellular hypoxia and is associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. In response to hypoxia, the repertoire of genes expressed in placental trophoblasts changes, which influences key cellular processes such as differentiation and fusion. Diverse miRNAs were recently found to modulate the cellular response to hypoxia. Here ...
Saadipour Khalil - - 2013
Sortilin, a Golgi sorting protein and a member of the VPS10P family, is the co-receptor for proneurotrophins, regulates protein trafficking, targets proteins to lysosomes and regulates low density lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of sortilin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significantly ...
Chen Ya-Wen - - 2013
Genetic defects in matriptase are linked to two congenital ichthyosis, autosomal recessive ichthyosis with hypotrichosis (ARIH, OMIM 610765) and, ichthyosis, follicular atrophoderma, hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis (IFAH, OMIM602400). Mouse models with matriptase deficiency indicate an involvement of matriptase in suprabasal keratinocytes in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier. In contrast to ...
Goldman-Wohl Debra - - 2013
The multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is formed by fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast progenitor cells. The large surface area of the syncytiotrophoblast is necessary for transport functions while it also serves as the site of synthesis of hormones and steroids. Studies of syncytiotrophoblast transcription are puzzling, demonstrating that ...
Cabiati M - - 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the transcriptomic profiling of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and of its specific receptor, NPR-B in human leukocytes of heart failure (HF) patients as a function of clinical severity, assessing the possible changes with respect to healthy subjects (C). mRNA expression was evaluated ...
Balkhi M Y MY Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Human Cancer Genetics Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2013
In sarcoma, the activity of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) reduces the abundance of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29. The tumor suppressor A20 [also known as TNFAIP3 (tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 3)] inhibits an upstream activator of NF-κB and is often mutated in lymphomas. In a panel of human sarcoma cell lines, ...
Feoktistova Kateryna K Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2013
Elevated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) levels frequently occur in a variety of human cancers. Overexpression of eIF4E promotes cellular transformation by selectively increasing the translation of proliferative and prosurvival mRNAs. These mRNAs possess highly structured 5'-UTRs that impede ribosome recruitment and scanning, yet the mechanism for how eIF4E abundance ...
Brudecki Laura L Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN, - - 2013
Within hours after its initiation, the severe systemic inflammatory response of sepsis shifts to an adaptive anti-inflammatory state with coincident immunosuppression. This anti-inflammatory phenotype is characterized by diminished proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation with bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin tolerance/adaptation. Our and ...
Germeyer Ariane - - 2013
To assess the expression and regulation of antilipoprotein D (ApoD) and antilipoprotein E (ApoE) in human endometrium. Endometrial biopsies from healthy, regularly cycling women were collected during the late proliferative and mid-secretory phase. mRNA gene expression of ApoD and ApoE was determined using real-time PCR in whole tissue, in isolated ...
Park M - - 2013
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) was recently identified as a member of the TNF superfamily of structurally related cytokines. It regulates TNF-α and numerous cellular responses. We investigated whether TWEAK is upregulated in human middle ear cholesteatoma compared to the skin of the normal external auditory ...
Peng Ying - - 2013
Tropomyosins (Tms) are a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins that play critical roles in a variety of processes, most notably, in the regulation of muscle contraction and relaxation. It is well known that different Tm isoforms have distinct functions and that altered expression of Tm isoforms could lead to ...
Pantano Serafino - - 2013
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) is a peptidase whose inhibition is beneficial in Type II diabetes treatment. Several evidences suggest potential implication of DPP4 in skin disorders such as psoriasis, keloids and fibrotic skin diseases where its inhibition could also be beneficial. DPP4 expression in human skin was described mainly in ...
Wu Hong - - 2013
CYP2A13, a human P450 enzyme preferentially expressed in the respiratory tract, is highly efficient in the metabolic activation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that inflammation suppresses CYP2A13 expression in the lung, thus explaining the large interindividual differences in CYP2A13 levels previously found ...
Ding Deqiang - - 2013
Telomerase plays a pivotal role in the pathology of aging and cancer by controlling telomere length and integrity. However, accumulating evidence indicates that telomerase reverse transcriptase may have fundamental biological functions independent of its enzymatic activity in telomere maintenance. In this study, the ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase ...
Mohammad Mahmoud A - - 2013
Background: Expression of genes for lipid biosynthetic enzymes during initiation of lactation in humans is unknown. Objective: To study mRNA expression of lipid metabolic enzymes in human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) in conjunction with the measurement of milk fatty acid (FA) composition during secretory activation. Subjects: Gene expression from mRNA ...
Patel S R - - 2013
Helicobacter pylori establishes a chronic lifelong infection in the human gastric mucosa, which may lead to peptic ulcer disease or gastric adenocarcinoma. The human beta-defensins (hβDs) are antimicrobial peptides, hβD1 being constitutively expressed in the human stomach. We hypothesised that H. pylori may persist, in part, by downregulating gastric hβD1 ...
Zhuang Xue- Wei - - 2013
Syncytin-1 is a protein coded by a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) gene of the HERV-W family (HERVWE1). Syncytin-1 mediates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts through fusion of cytotrophoblasts, a hallmark of terminal differentiation of placental trophoblast linage. Syncytin-1 also possesses nonfusogenic functions and regulates cell cycle progression. While decreased syncytin-1 expression and ...
Greiner Johannes F-W - - 2013
Natural plant-derived products are commonly applied to treat a broad range of human diseases, including cancer as well as chronic and acute airway inflammation. In this regard, the monoterpene oxide 1,8-cineol, the active ingredient of the clinically approved drug Soledum®, is well-established for the therapy of airway diseases, such as ...
Zheng Weidong - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides that can pair with sites in 3' untranslated regions in mRNAs of protein-coding genes to downregulate their expression. Recently, miR-499 and other miRNAs released in circulating blood have been reported as promising biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present ...
Menon Sarita - - 2013
Net1 is a RhoA subfamily specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is overexpressed in multiple human cancers and is required for proliferation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its role in cell proliferation are unknown. Here we show that overexpression or knockdown of Net1 causes mitotic defects. Net1 is required for chromosome ...
Müller Sabine - - 2013
The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the ...
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