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Takei Kentaro - - 2013
Dry environmental conditions induce a variety of skin pathologies and a recent report indicating that cortisol synthesis in epidermis was increased during wound healing led us to hypothesize that environmental dryness might induce increased cortisol secretion in epidermis. Therefore, we incubated a skin equivalent model under dry (relative humidity: less ...
Ahn Su-Jin - - 2013
Cryopreservation preserves periodontal ligament cells but has a lower success rate with dental pulp cells (DPCs) because it causes inflammation. There are 2 well-known cryopreservation methods that reduce inflammation, slow freezing and rapid freezing, but the effects of the 2 methods on inflammation are not well-established. The purpose of this ...
Imamura Tomohiro - - 2013
Gentians, herbaceous perennials, produce overwintering buds (OWBs) to survive the cold season. Although gentians are known to have strong stress tolerances against drought, cold and freezing, the molecular mechanisms of tolerance are unclear. We explored genes more highly expressed in OWBs than in other tissues and identified two gentian orthologs ...
Chen Keting - - 2013
Recovery from reversible freeze-thaw injury in plants is a critical component of ultimate frost survival. However, little is known about this aspect at the cellular level. To explore possible cellular mechanism(s) for post-thaw recovery, we used Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale leaves to first determine the reversible freeze-thaw injury point. ...
Hu Yanru - - 2013
The INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE)-C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively ...
Di Lorenzo Chiara - - 2013
This study investigates whether infusions of green and black tea inhibit the NF-κB driven transcription in human epithelial gastric AGS cells. Water extracts were prepared from different brands of green and black tea available on the Italian market. Teas with or without caffeine were studied. An industrially prepared freeze-dried water ...
Storey Kenneth B - - 2013
The gastropod mollusk, Littorina littorea L., is a common inhabitant of the intertidal zone along rocky coastlines of the north Atlantic. This species has well-developed anoxia tolerance and freeze tolerance and is extensively used as a model for exploring the biochemical adaptations that support these tolerances as well as for ...
Potkar Rewati - - 2013
Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2-5 showed ...
Lyons P J - - 2013
Freeze tolerance in insects is associated with cryoprotectant synthesis and strong metabolic suppression. Freeze avoidance, an alternative strategy in cold-hardy insects, is also characterized by hypometabolism, but possesses significant cellular and physiological differences when compared with freeze tolerance. We hypothesized that microRNAs, non-coding transcripts that bind to mRNA, could play ...
Akane Hirotoshi - - 2013
For molecular analysis in anatomically-specific brain regions for rodent studies, it is necessary to establish a fast and accurate procedure for tissue sampling to achieve high integrity and expression fidelity of extracted molecules. The present study was performed to examine suitability of whole brain fixation with methacarn and subsequent tissue ...
Guo Kun K School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK. - - 2013
As faces often appear under very different viewing conditions (eg brightness, viewing angle, or viewing distance), invariant facial information recognition is a key to our social interactions. Although we would clearly benefit from differentiating different facial expressions (eg angry vs happy) at a distance, there is surprisingly little research examining ...
Kilani Ruhangiz T - - 2012
The healing of a burn injury is a dynamic biological process, and there must be a set of factors that gradually slow down and/or terminate this healing process upon epithelialization. We have previously demonstrated that some members of the 14-3-3 protein family including stratifin, which is mainly released by differentiated ...
Havelund Birgitte M - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of fixation delay and the perioperative ischemia on hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α gene expression, HIF-1α protein expression, and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, Bcl-2, and Ki-67 in colorectal cancer. The study included 25 surgically removed colorectal tumors. Three ...
Biggar Kyle K - - 2012
Several recent studies of vertebrate adaptation to environmental stress have suggested roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating global suppression of protein synthesis and/or restructuring protein expression patterns. The present study is the first to characterize stress-responsive alterations in the expression of miRNAs during natural freezing or anoxia exposures in an ...
Kim Jeong Nam - - 2012
Salmonella encodes two homologs of RyhB, a small RNA (sRNA) involved in iron homeostasis. In Salmonella Typhimurium, the expression of both RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 is negatively regulated by the Fur repressor, while stationary phase is the primary signal inducing RyhB-2 expression. To identify the target mRNAs of RyhB-1 and RyhB-2, ...
Wang Guohao - - 2012
The rhizosphere microbe Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18 shows strong antifungal activities, mainly due to the biosynthesis of antibiotics like pyoluteorin (Plt) and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The ubiquitous RNA chaperone Hfq regulates bacterial virulence and stress tolerance through global posttranscriptional regulation. Here, we explored the molecular mechanism by which Hfq controls antibiotic ...
Yin Hua - - 2012
In bacteria, arginine biosynthesis is tightly regulated by a universally conserved regulator, ArgR, which regulates the expression of arginine biosynthetic genes, as well as other important genes. Disruption of argR in Streptomyces clavuligerus NP1 resulted in complex phenotypic changes in growth and antibiotic production levels. To understand the metabolic changes ...
Ishii Makoto - - 2012
Living organisms eliminate foreign low-antigenic substances, such as drugs and environmental pollutants, by detoxification mediated by metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP). We have examined the possible regulation of CYP expression by enteric bacteria. Cyp mRNA expression levels, Cyp3a protein expression level, and the activity of Cyp3a in hepatic microsomal fractions were ...
Bleier Benjamin S - - 2011
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene and is constitutively expressed on lower airway epithelium. P-gp has been shown to function as an immunomodulator regulating efflux of T-helper 1/T-helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cytokines from its host cell; however, its association with sinonasal inflammation has ...
Jiang Zijing - - 2011
Recent reports have showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor resulted in multidrug resistance (MDR) to other chemotherapeutic agents. However, the molecular mechanisms of Class I HDACs on MDR regulation are poorly understood. In this study, HDAC1 and HDAC2 acted as enhancers to intensify the chemosensitivities of anti-cancer drugs via reducing ...
Vilas-Boas Vânia - - 2011
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein that mediates the efflux of innumerous structurally unrelated compounds. It was initially found over-expressed in tumor cells, associated to a multidrug resistance phenotype (MDR). Then, P-gp was found constitutively expressed in excretory cells/tissues and in circulating cells, such as lymphocytes. Considering the importance of ...
Ashraf Tamima - - 2011
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump, is known to alter the bioavailability of antiretroviral drugs at several sites, including the brain. We have previously shown that human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) glycoprotein 120 (gp120) induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion and decreases P-gp functional expression in rat astrocytes, a cellular reservoir of HIV-1. ...
Budde Thomas - - 2011
Doxorubicin is a frequently used anticancer drug, but its use is restricted due to the occurrence of severe side effects, namely strong cardiotoxicity. It is known from cancer cells that doxorubicin enhanced the expression of its efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may modulate local drug concentrations. We therefore studied the ...
Wang Wei - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the change of Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) expression of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in response to high glucose, and the effect of targeting ILK with small interference RNA (siRNA) on the high glucose-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ...
Kim Gukhan - - 2011
Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the ...
Park Chanjae - - 2011
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change phenotypes under various pathophysiological conditions. These changes are largely controlled by the serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor that binds to CC (A/T)6 GG (CArG) boxes in SM contractile genes. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate transitions among SMC phenotypes. The SMC miRNA transcriptome (SMC miRNAome) and ...
Sato T - - 2011
1. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the gluconeogenesis inhibitor metformin on 21-d old chickens. The following parameters were measured in the liver and kidney: plasma glucose, plasma mannose, enzyme activities and mRNA expression levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). 2. Chickens were ...
Wlotzka Wiebke - - 2011
A key question in nuclear RNA surveillance is how target RNAs are recognized. To address this, we identified in vivo binding sites for nuclear RNA surveillance factors, Nrd1, Nab3 and the Trf4/5–Air1/2–Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex poly(A) polymerase Trf4, by UV crosslinking. Hit clusters were reproducibly found over known binding sites ...
Vaira Sergio - - 2011
In this study we investigated the effect of glucose on GSK3β and β-catenin expression and the involvement of the N-linked glycosylation and hexosamine pathways in the Wnt canonical pathway in response to in vitro conditions resembling normoglycemia (5 mMol) and hyperglycemia (20 mMol) in the metastatic breast cancer derived cell ...
Bennett Kimberley Ann - - 2011
G6PC3 is a widely expressed isoform of glucose-6-phosphatase, found in many foetal and adult tissues. Mutations in this gene cause developmental abnormalities and severe neutropenia due to abolition of glucose recycling between the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum. Low G6PC3 expression as a result of promoter polymorphisms or dysregulation could produce ...
Gao Xin - - 2011
Aims Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription, possesses protective effects against oxidative stress caused by high glucose in endothelial cells. In this study, the role of TMP in preventing muscle cells from palmitate-induced oxidative damage was investigated and the possible mechanisms of action ...
Frolova Antonina I - - 2011
Recurrent miscarriages affect about 1-2% of couples trying to conceive; however, mechanisms leading to this complication are largely unknown. Most studies focus on the early embryo, but proper development and implantation of the blastocyst are also dependent on optimal endometrial progression into a receptive state. One of the key steps ...
Meur Gargi G Section of Cell Biology, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United - - 2011
The Forkhead box transcription factor FoxO1 regulates metabolic gene expression in mammals. FoxO1 activity is tightly controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, resulting in its phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. We sought here to determine the mechanisms involved in glucose and insulin-stimulated nuclear shuttling of FoxO1 in pancreatic β cells and ...
Baek I-J - - 2011
With 4 figures and 1 table SUMMARY: Gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GI-GPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that has been known to be restricted to the gastrointestinal tract in rodents. In an effort to determine the expression pattern of GI-GPx mRNA during organogenesis, quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization for GI-GPx ...
Allaman Igor - - 2011
RATIONALE: The pharmacological actions of most antidepressants are ascribed to the modulation of serotonergic and/or noradrenergic transmission in the brain. During therapeutic treatment for major depression, fluoxetine, one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, accumulates in the brain, suggesting that fluoxetine may interact with additional ...
Ashwal Reut - - 2011
Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in skeletal muscle has been suggested to play an important role in insulin resistance and diabetes. We aimed at evaluating the presence of novel AdiopR1 splice variants in human muscle and their regulation under physiological and pathophysiological states. AdipoR1 5'UTR mRNA transcripts, predicted from bioinformatics data, ...
Liu Tian-Qi - - 2011
The glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), a key rate-limiting factor in the transport and metabolism of glucose in cancer cells, is over-expressed in many human cancer cells and this over-expression is correlated with poor biological behavior. The increased levels of Glut-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells functionally affect tumorigenicity. This study ...
Quan Yi - - 2011
AbstractAim:To investigate whether high glucose stimulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the possible mechanisms involved.Methods:ELISA and real-time PCR were used to determine the expression of the inflammatory factors, and a chemiluminescence assay was used to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Results:Compared to low glucose (10 mmol/L), treatment ...
Guan Liping - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the biological safety of human skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HSMSCs) cultured in vitro by detecting changes in karyotype, major histocompatibility complex expression and tumorigenicity. Before the 21st passage of the in vitro culture, cell surface markers were analysed by flow cytometry; major ...
Hesse D - - 2011
Objective:  An immune activation response resembling virus or type I interferon responses has been observed in untreated multiple sclerosis (MS), but its pathogenic significance is uncertain. We studied the relationship between a type I interferon-like response in untreated patients with MS and disease activity. Methods:  Gene expression was analyzed by ...
Ohno Haruya - - 2011
GLUT1 is widely distributed throughout various tissues and contributes to insulin-independent basal glucose uptake. Using a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system, we newly identified 4F2hc as a membrane protein interacting with GLUT1. Though 4F2hc reportedly forms heterodimeric complexes between amino acid transporters, such as LAT1 and LAT2, and regulates amino ...
Williams Virginia - - 2011
The cryptococcus-specific protein antiphagocytic protein 1 (App1) regulates Cryptococcus neoformans virulence by controlling macrophage-driven fungal phagocytosis. This is accomplished through complement receptors (CR), specifically CR3. When inhaled, C. neoformans can cause a life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Because glucose starvation can significantly change the gene expression and virulence of C. ...
Phillips Lynetta M - - 2011
Background/Aims: Altered extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and podocyte apoptosis are characteristic features of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Aliskiren (ALI) inhibits the renin-catalyzed conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. This study tested ALI's effect on podocyte ECM accretion and survival in a high-glucose environment in vitro. Methods: Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were ...
Nawa Ayaka - - 2011
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux transporter, affects the pharmacokinetics of a wide range of substrate drugs. Our previous study clearly revealed that intestinal P-gp expression levels were decreased via an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated mechanism in the early phases of diabetes. Here, we focused on changes in ileal P-gp ...
Brenn Anja - - 2011
Neurovascular dysfunction is an important component of Alzheimer's disease, leading to reduced clearance across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. It has been shown that the ABC transport protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is involved in the export of Aβ from the brain into ...
Song R - - 2011
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between SIRTs 1 and 4 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SIRTs 1 and 4 have been confirmed to be associated with homeostasis of glucose/lipid metabolism, but their roles in T2DM are still poorly understood. Peripheral ...
Park Chanjae - - 2011
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) express a unique set of microRNAs (miRNAs) which regulate and maintain the differentiation state of SMCs. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs during the development of gastrointestinal (GI) SMCs in a transgenic animal model. We generated SMC-specific Dicer null animals ...
Shirato Ken - - 2011
Glucose is an energy substrate, as well as the primary source of nucleotide sugars, which are utilized as donor substrates in protein glycosylation. Appropriate glycosylation is necessary to maintain the stability of protein, and is also important in the localization and trafficking of proteins. The dysregulation of glycosylation results in ...
Chai Tin Fan - - 2011
Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (Txnip) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism and functions by inhibiting cellular glucose uptake. The expression of the Txnip gene is sensitive to glucose availability and is negatively correlated with the glycolytic rate. Here we show that hypoxia induces a rapid decrease in Txnip mRNA and protein ...
Jones Hilary F - - 2011
Fructose is a hexose sugar that is being increasingly consumed in its monosaccharide form. Patients who exhibit fructose malabsorption can present with gastrointestinal symptoms that include chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. However, with no clearly established gastrointestinal mechanism for fructose malabsorption, patient analysis by the proxy of a breath hydrogen ...
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