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Results 351 - 400 of 1834
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Khabar Khalid S A - - 2007
The interferon (IFN) system is a well-controlled network of signaling, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional processes that orchestrate host defense against microbes. The IFN response comprises a multi-array of IFN-stimulated gene products that mediate a variety of biological processes designed to control infection and regulate specific immune responses. In this review, we ...
Sidahmed A M E - - 2007
The ability of small RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce specific gene expression was tested using interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by cultured swine blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A. Antisense (AS) phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) corresponding to a sequence in the region of the AUG ...
Versteeg Gijs A - - 2007
Many viruses encode antagonists to prevent interferon (IFN) induction. Infection of fibroblasts with the murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) and SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) did not result in nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor involved in IFN induction, and induction of IFN mRNA transcription. Furthermore, MHV and SARS-CoV ...
Zhao Mojun - - 2007
The MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) acts in the cell nucleus as the master regulator of MHC class II (MHC II) gene expression. It is important to study CIITA regulation in multiple myeloma since MHC expression is central to ability of myeloma cells to present antigen and to the ability ...
Jacks Stephanie - - 2007
Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes pneumonia in foals but does not induce disease in adult horses. Virulence of R. equi depends on the presence of a large plasmid, which encodes a family of seven virulence-associated proteins (VapA and VapC to VapH). Eradication of R. equi from ...
Johnson Jolyn - - 2007
Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are critically involved in the regulation of innate immune responses. Herein, we investigated the role of conventional PKCalpha in the regulation of IFN-beta gene expression mediated by the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling pathway. Inhibition of conventional PKC (cPKC) activity in monocyte-derived dendritic cells or ...
Lin Chun-Yen - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Immune paralysis, defined as decreased HLA-DR expression on monocytes and indicated immune dysfunctions, was found in sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and acute liver failure. However, the relationship between HLA-DR expression and cirrhosis is unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 64 patients with liver cirrhosis and 23 healthy volunteers. HLA-DR expressions, functions ...
Xu Kai-Lin - - 2007
The present study was purposed to investigate the relation and difference of expression phase between class II transactivator (CIITA) and HLA-DR antigens after IFN-gamma induction, and the inhibition of CIITA and HLA-DR by STAT1-alpha antisense oligonucleotides (STAT1-alpha AS); and to explore the potential effect and significance of CIITA and STAT1-alpha ...
Lynch Rebecca A - - 2007
The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 can mediate antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in cancer cells, and a number of mechanisms have been found whereby STAT1 signaling is attenuated in tumors thereby increasing their malignant behavior. Thus, enhancing gene transcription mediated by STAT1 may be an ...
Umegaki Noriko - - 2007
Despite a number of studies on signal transduction in epidermal keratinocytes, very little is known about how signals move from the cytosol to the nucleus during the course of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we first compared the expression patterns of the karyopherin alpha (KPNA) subtypes, and found ...
He Fei - - 2007
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) trans-activator (CII TA) has been shown to be required for constitutive and IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II transcription. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of anti-CII TA M1-RNA on expression of MHC-II in chondrocytes in response to IFN-gamma. M1-RNAs with different guide sequence (GS) recognizing 452 or ...
Maxwell, Tammy Joy
Ovarian cancer, with the highest mortality rate amongst gynaecological malignancies in Australia, is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Currently, five-year survival for women diagnosed with ovarian cancer is only 40 % and despite many patients experiencing remission, approximately 80 % of ...
Zeng, Jia
Immunity-related GTPases (IRG) are essential, interferon-inducible resistant factors in mice that are actively against a broad spectrum of important intracellular pathogens. IRGs are represented by 25 genes in the mouse and also in almost all mammals and many other vertebrates, but surprisingly not in human. Structurally IRGs all share canonical ...
De Ambrosis Alessandro - - 2007
We previously identified a 1.2 Kb DNA element (P-1161/+16), 5' to caspase-8 exon-1, that acts as promoter in caspase-8-positive, but not in caspase-8-negative neuroblastoma (NB) cells. The P-1161/+16 DNA element regulates both constitutive and interferon IFN-gamma-inducible caspase-8 expression. Two GAS (IFN-activated sequence, STAT-1 binding site) and two ISRE (interferon sensitive ...
Sgarbanti Marco - - 2007
The interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is a key player in the innate immune response against viral infections. Constitutive expression of IRF-7 is limited to peripheral blood lymphocytes and dendritic cells while in most cell types its expression can be induced ...
Martín J A - - 2007
Hepatic gamma-cystathionase, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of L-cysteine from L-methionine in the trans-sulphuration pathway, exhibits significantly higher activity in the newly born infant as compared to the fetus. The aim of this work was: 1) To determine whether the increase in gamma-cystathionase activity occurring in the fetal-to-neonatal transition ...
Hsieh Wen-Ping - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Populations diverge in genotype and phenotype under the influence of such evolutionary processes as genetic drift, mutation accumulation, and natural selection. Because genotype maps onto phenotype by way of transcription, it is of interest to evaluate how these evolutionary factors influence the structure of variation at the level of ...
Sanda Takaomi - - 2007
Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) is normally silenced in plasma/multiple myeloma (MM) cells at the transcriptional level through downregulation of class II transactivator (CIITA), allowing MM cells to escape from immunological responses. Here we demonstrate that a retinoic acid receptor-alpha/beta-selective retinoid Am80 (tamibarotene) could induce the expression of ...
Turner Matthew J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: HLA-B27 is implicated in the pathogenesis of spondylarthritis (SpA), yet the molecular mechanisms are incompletely defined. HLA-B27 misfolding has been associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages from HLA-B27/human beta(2)-microglobulin-transgenic (B27-transgenic) rats. This study was performed to assess the mechanisms that ...
Young H A - - 2007
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a key immunoregulatory protein that plays a major role in the host innate and adaptive immune response. Also known as type II interferon, IFN-gamma is a single-copy gene whose expression is regulated at multiple levels by the host. Transcription control is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms as well ...
Gruener Myriam - - 2007
The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) down-regulates surface expression of HLA-I molecules. The molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are so far unknown. Here we show that HPV16 E5 down-regulates HLA-I surface expression in calnexin-containing but not in calnexin-deficient cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that calnexin and HPV16E5 can ...
Esnault Stephane - - 2007
BACKGROUND/ABSTRACT: Immune responses initiated by T cell receptor (TCR) and costimulatory molecule mediated signaling culminate in maximal cytokine mRNA production and stability. The transcriptional responses to co-stimulatory T cell signalling involve calcineurin and NF-AT, which can be antagonized by interference with the cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIase), cyclophilin A and FKBP. ...
Polakova K - - 2007
Recent studies demonstrated that HLA-G transcription is in some cells silenced by epigenetic mechanisms as DNA methylation and histone modification. Accordingly HLA-G gene transcriptions can be activated in such cells by demethylating agent or by inhibitors of histone deacetylation. In addition to epigenetic alterations HLA-G gene transcription can be activated ...
Miralvès Julie - - 2007
The expression of MHC class I genes is repressed in mature neurons. The molecular basis of this regulation is poorly understood, but the genes are particularly rich in CpG islands. MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor that binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides; mutations in this protein also cause the neurodevelopmental disease ...
Rodríguez T - - 2007
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins (HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ) play a fundamental role in the regulation of the immune response. The level of expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigens is regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and depends on the status of class II trans-activator protein (CIITA), ...
Kitamura Hideo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a member of the DExH/D box family proteins and designated as a putative RNA helicase, which plays various roles in gene expression and cellular functions in response to a variety of RNA viruses. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ...
Sasai Miwa - - 2006
TLR3 and the cytoplasmic helicase family proteins (retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)) serve as dsRNA pattern-recognition receptors. In response to poly(I:C), a representative of dsRNA, and viral infection, they have been shown to activate the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3, which in turn ...
Browne Sarah K - - 2006
IFNs regulate most MHC class I genes by stimulating transcription initiation. As shown previously, IFN-gamma controls HLA-A expression primarily at the posttranscriptional level. We have defined two 8-base sequences in a 39-nucleotide region in the 3'-transcribed region of the HLA-A gene that are required for the posttranscriptional response to IFN-gamma. ...
Blanchette Julie - - 2007
NO is a potent molecule involved in the cytotoxic events mediated by macrophages (MØ) against microorganisms. We reported previously that inhibition of MØ protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) mediates a protective effect against Leishmania infection, which was NO-dependent. Herein, we show that the PTP inhibitors of the peroxovanadium (pV) class, bpV(phen) ...
Mannonen Laura - - 2007
As a step toward understanding the role played by host gene expression in the development and pathogenesis of persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, modulation of the host-cell transcriptional response during interferon (IFN)- gamma -induced persistent C. pneumoniae infection of HL cells was examined by a cDNA array and then selectively by ...
Boye Kjetil - - 2007
We have previously shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibits expression of the metastasis-promoting protein S100A4. In the present study, we further explore the mechanism behind the IFN-gamma-mediated effects on the human S100A4 promoter and demonstrate that IFN-gamma represses S100A4 promoter activity through induction of the class II transactivator (CIITA). The acidic ...
Melichar Bohuslav - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Soluble recombinant human CD40 ligand trimer (rhuCD40Lt) has shown antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical studies. We evaluated the effect of rhuCD40Lt on epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cell lines. METHODS: Expression of the receptor, CD40, was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, and antiproliferative effects of ...
Ponciano Viviane C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Tim-3 was recently described as a Th1-specific molecule, participating in the regulation of immune responses and in the induction of allograft tolerance. Here, we studied Tim-3 mRNA expression together with molecular markers of T-cell activation and cytotoxicity, in rejected human kidney grafts. METHODS: Twenty human kidney grafts that had ...
Boccellato Francesco - - 2007
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma-derived cell lines infected in vitro with a recombinant EBV expressed type II/III latency. High expression of EBNA2 inversely correlated with expression of germinal center (GC)-associated genes, BCL6 and TCL1. The decreased expression of BCL6 appeared to be dose dependent, ...
Raghuraman Gayatri - - 2006
The expression of CD1d molecules is essential for the selection and activation of a unique subset of T cells, invariant NKT cells, which express limited TCR diversity and have been demonstrated to function in both regulatory and antimicrobial immune responses. Although it has been reported that the levels of CD1d ...
Santambrogio Laura - - 2006
One more mechanism for regulating surface expression of MHC class II proteins in dendritic cells (an important process that regulates both tolerance and immunity) has been uncovered, polyubiquitination of Lys225 in the intracytoplasmic region and subsequent endocytosis and proteolysis (Omura-Hoshino et al., 2006; van Neil et al., 2006; Shin et ...
Dijkstra I M - - 2006
Since activated microglia are able to phagocytose damaged cells and subsequently express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and co-stimulatory proteins, they are considered to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the central nervous system. The maturation and migratory potential of professional APCs is associated with the expression of ...
Melroe Gregory T - - 2007
The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription ...
Taniguchi Hideaki - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes and response to interferon therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Forty-four patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C who underwent liver biopsy and then received interferon ...
Choi Youn-Hee - - 2006
IFN-gamma is an immunomodulatory cytokine and uses the STAT-1alpha transcription factor to mediate gene expression. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein regulates transcription as an activator or repressor, depending on the gene under investigation. Herein, we examined the influence of PML on IFN-gamma signaling, using PML wild-type (Pml(+/+)) and deficient (Pml(-/-)) ...
Kaur Surinder - - 2007
The mechanisms regulating initiation of mRNA translation for the generation of protein products that mediate interferon (IFN) responses are largely unknown. We have previously shown that both Type I and II IFNs engage the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), resulting in downstream phosphorylation and deactivation of the translational repressor 4E-BP1 ...
Drozina Gorazd - - 2006
By presenting antigenic peptides on major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) II determinants to CD4(+) T cells, macrophages help to direct the establishment of adaptive immunity. We found that in these cells, lipopolysaccharide stimulates the expression of MHC II genes via the activation of Erk1/2, which is mediated by Toll-like receptor ...
Kohoutek Jiri - - 2006
The class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master integrator of expression of MHC class II genes. It interacts with variety of basal transcription factors to initiate and elongate transcription of these genes. Among others, it recruits positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to MHC class II promoters. In cells, P-TEFb ...
He Qi - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The contribution of the host immune response to sustained virologic response is not clear in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of the toll-like receptor (TLR) expression with the outcome of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C viral infection. METHODS: ...
Nurkkala Merja - - 2007
The expression of MHC class I, MHC class II and the chemokines IP-10, MIP-1alpha, RANTES, fractalkine and I-TAC has been analyzed after intra-vaginal treatment with three synthetic toll-like receptors (TLR) agonists-double-stranded RNA (poly I:C), imiquimod and CpG-rich oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN). These compounds act mainly through TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9, respectively. CpG-ODN ...
Weinzierl Andreas O - - 2007
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents peptides derived from degraded cellular proteins to T-cells and is thus crucial for triggering specific immune responses against viral infections or cancer. Up to now, there has been no evidence for a correlation between levels of mRNA (the "transcriptome") and the density of MHC-peptide ...
van der Stoep Nienke - - 2007
Cell lines established from tumor tissue of cutaneous melanoma biopsies often display constitutive and IFNgamma-inducible expression of MHC class II molecules. The expression of MHC class II molecules in melanoma is associated with an overall poor prognosis and unfavorable clinical outcome. We have analyzed the DNA elements and interacting transcription ...
Ito Isao - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma. ADAM33 is expressed in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and is suggested to play a role in the function of these cells. However, there is little information on the regulation of ADAM33. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Nakasato Norie - - 2006
Interferon (IFN) regulates various target genes that mediate important roles in immune responses such as antiviral state. Protein ISG15-conjugation (ISGylation) is implicated in the IFN-induced antiviral response. Here we demonstrate that Efp mRNA as well as protein expression could be up-regulated by Type I IFN in HeLa cells and HepG2 ...
Ciccaglione Anna R - - 2007
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins are known to interfere at several levels with both innate and adaptive responses of the host. A key target in these effects is the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. While the effects of nonstructural proteins are well established, the role of structural proteins remains controversial. We ...
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