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Csepeggi Chad - - 2010
The phenotypic stability of somatic cells is essential for the maintenance of both structural and functional organ integrity of the adult human body. Deregulated cell plasticity could result in the development of debilitating diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. We have previously demonstrated that a ...
Davis Dawn Belt - - 2010
beta-Cell mass expansion is one mechanism by which obese animals compensate for insulin resistance and prevent diabetes. FoxM1 is a transcription factor that can regulate the expression of multiple cell cycle genes and is necessary for the maintenance of adult beta-cell mass, beta-cell proliferation, and glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that ...
Espiritu Doris Joy - - 2010
Endogenous adipocyte apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in adipocyte lipoprotein metabolism and lipid flux. A potential role for hyperglycemia in regulating adipocyte apoE expression and triglyceride metabolism was examined. Exposure of adipocytes to high glucose or advanced glycosylation end product-BSA significantly suppressed apoE mRNA and protein levels. This ...
Chen Xiaochuan - - 2010
Placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetuses have chronic hypoxaemia and elevated plasma catecholamine concentrations. In this study, we determined whether adrenergic responsiveness becomes desensitized in the perirenal adipose tissue of IUGR fetuses and lambs by measuring adrenergic receptor (AR) mRNA and protein levels. We also tested the ability of ...
Fernández Carmen M - - 2010
S-resistin is a non-secretable resistin spliced variant described in white adipose tissue from Wistar rats. Since resistin has been implicated in adipogenesis regulation, here we have investigated the possible role of this new isoform in this process. For that, we have studied the adipocyte development in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line ...
Ogawa Rumiko - - 2010
We have recently found that 3T3-L1 adipocytes secrete microvesicles, known as adipocyte-derived microvesicles (ADMs), with angiogenic activity. In this study, we found that ADMs contain RNA without typical 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA inside the vesicles. Microarray analysis revealed that ADMs contain approximately 7000 mRNAs and 140 microRNAs. Most of ...
Disthabanchong Sinee - - 2011
Metabolic acidosis (MA) adversely affects protein and lipid metabolism as well as endocrine function. Adipose tissue communicates with the rest of the body through synthesis and release adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and TNF-alpha. Adiponectin enhances insulin sensitivity and possesses anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Circulating adiponectin correlates inversely with cardiovascular ...
González-Muniesa P P Obesity Biology Research Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, UCD, Duncan Building, Liverpool, UK. - - 2010
Inflammation in adipose tissue is a characteristic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic processes within the tissue. Human subcutaneous preadipocytes (Zen Bio) were used as the source of human preadipocytes or adipocytes. Gene expression ...
Howard J M - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, but mechanisms linking fat and carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Altered circulating adipocytokines may be important. This study aimed to identify pathways through which visceral fat impacts on tumour biology. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma underwent anthropometric and radiological assessment of obesity. Expression ...
Huang Jianfeng - - 2010
Chemerin is a novel adipokine which is abundant in adipose tissue to promote adipocyte differentiation and with significant relativity to BMI and insulin sensitivity. We report here the molecular characterization of porcine chemerin and its receptors ChemR23 and GPR1, as well as their transcriptional regulation during lipogenesis. Chemerin was mainly ...
Laliotis George P - - 2010
Ovine 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, provides the necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids. Much of research has been conducted not only on the enzymatic level, but also on molecular level elucidating its cDNA sequence. Herein, we tried to elucidate if ...
Yu Gang - - 2010
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) capable of multipotential differentiation can be isolated with high yields from human subcutaneous lipoaspirates. This study reports our recent experience of isolating and immunophenotypically characterizing ASC from >60 human patients with a mean age of 43.6 and body mass index (BMI) of 27. We examined the ...
Kim Hyojung - - 2010
Tea catechin is one of the compounds that are closely related to obesity and insulin sensitivity. In order to determine the effect of catechin on adipocyte differentiation, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with different kinds of catechins. Our results showed that catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation ...
Li Ling - - 2011
JAZF1 is a novel gene that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer according to genomewide association studies; however, little is known about the function of this gene in regulating metabolism. In the present study, we have shown the expression of JAZF1 in various mouse tissues. To elucidate its ...
Koppen Arjen - - 2010
The development of adipose tissue is a process which involves the concerted cooperation of numerous transcription factors together with their coactivators and corepressors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is considered to be one of the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. The presence of two functionally distinct types of adipose ...
Del Bianco-Borges B - - 2010
The interaction between the reproductive axis and energy balance suggests that leptin acts as a possible mediator. This hormone acts in the regulation of metabolism, feeding behaviour and reproduction. Animals homozygous for the gene 'ob' (ob/ob) are obese and infertile, and these effects are reversed after systemic administration of leptin. ...
Yang C C - - 2010
Visfatin is a visceral adipose tissue-specific adipocytokine that plays a positive role in attenuating insulin resistance by binding to the insulin receptor. Visfatin has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation; however, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of visfatin on ...
Eiras Sonia - - 2010
Adipocyte size has been associated to increase in inflammatory cytokines expression that can be related to the cardiovascular risk of obesity. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was discovered to play a key role in cardiovascular diseases by producing several inflammatory adipokines. We sought to study whether EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
Samuni Yuval - - 2010
Obesity is highly associated with an increased risk of serious health conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Changes in redox status with increased oxidative stress have been linked with obesity. Previous studies have shown that administration of the antioxidant Tempol in the food of mice prevents obesity, causing ...
Lehmann Geniece M GM Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY, - - 2010
Fatty tissue is generally found in distinct "depots" distributed throughout the human body. Adipocytes from each of the various depots differ in their metabolic capacities and their responses to environmental stimuli. Although a general understanding of the factors responsible for adipogenic transformation has been achieved, much is not understood about ...
Tiller G - - 2011
Objective:The member of the tumor necrosis factor family LIGHT (lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry on T cells; TNFSF14 (tumor necrosis factor super family protein 14) is primarily expressed in lymphocytes, in which it induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alterations of lipid homeostasis. ...
Mulumba Mukandila - - 2010
The activation of G protein-coupled receptor 103 (GPR103) by its endogenous peptidic ligands, QRFPs, is involved in the central regulation of feeding by increasing food intake, body weight, and fat mass after intracerebroventricular injection in mice. However, the role of GPR103 in regulating peripheral metabolic pathways has not yet been ...
Küchler Sebastian - - 2010
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) - via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis - may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and related cardiovascular complications. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) - via dissipation of energy in the form of heat - contributes to whole body energy balance. BAT expresses vasopressin receptors. ...
Zaragosi Laure-Emmanuelle - - 2010
Growth of white adipose tissue takes place in normal development and in obesity. A pool of adipose progenitors is responsible for the formation of new adipocytes and for the potential of this tissue to expand in response to chronic energy overload. However, factors controlling self-renewal of human adipose progenitors are ...
Olholm J - - 2010
Human obesity is closely associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which also involves the adipose tissue with enhanced production of bioactive substances (adipokines). Calorie restriction (CR) reduces adipocytokine production and improves metabolic profile in rodents. Some of these effects are mediated through activation of the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) ...
Bengoechea-Alonso Maria T - - 2010
Adipose tissue controls body lipid and energy metabolism, as well as food intake, and abnormalities in adipose function play a central role in diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. Adipocyte differentiation is controlled by a transcriptional cascade involving PPARgamma and members of the C/EBP family of transcription factors. Here, ...
Lagathu C C Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Metabolic Science-Metabolic Research Laboratories, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2010
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling network offers potential targets to diagnose and uncouple obesity from its metabolic complications. In this study, we investigate the role of the Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), in promoting adipogenesis in vitro and adipose tissue expansion in vivo. We use a combination of human and ...
Deiuliis Jeffrey A - - 2010
Mice exposed to cold rely upon brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated nonshivering thermogenesis to generate body heat using dietary glucose and lipids from the liver and white adipose tissue. In this report, we investigate how cold exposure affects the PI3 K/Akt signaling cascade and the expression of genes involved in lipid ...
Nieminen Petteri - - 2010
Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to ...
Zizola C F - - 2010
Adipogenesis is governed by a well-documented cascade of transcription factors. However, less is known about non-transcription factors that govern early stages of adipogenesis. Here we show that cellular retinol-binding protein type I (CRBP-I), a small cytosolic binding protein for retinol and retinaldehyde, is specifically restricted to preadipocytes in white adipose ...
Zhang Xiaodong - - 2010
Sildenafil is the first oral PDE5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sildenafil on adipogenesis in 3T3L1 preadipocytes. Treatment with sildenafil for 8 days significantly promoted adipogenesis characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in ...
Ryan Vivien H - - 2010
Adiposity and obesity are increasing in dogs. We have examined here the endocrine function of canine adipose tissue and the regulation of production of inflammation-related adipokines by dog adipocytes. Adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNFalpha genes were expressed in the main adipose depots of dogs, but there were no major ...
Huang Fen - - 2010
Leptin is a peptide hormone primarily involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have suggested that leptin is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a vital role in arterial intimal thickening and vascular ...
Teixeira Diana - - 2010
It is recognized that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a crucial role in the modulation of food intake and other aspects of energy metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on adipocyte biology. 3T3-L1 cells were used to evaluate proliferation by sulforhodamine B (SRB) ...
Sahu Abhiram - - 2010
Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is required for normal food intake and body weight homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that besides the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway, several non-STAT3 pathways mediate leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. We have previously demonstrated that leptin stimulates phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) activity in the ...
Miranda M - - 2010
CONTEXT: AQP7 is considered to be the sole adipose glycerol channel, and its regulation is crucial for glycemia control. OBJECTIVES: In this work, we aimed to further characterize AQP7 in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D): 1) to assess AQP7 expression levels in paired abdominal adipose ...
Fischer-Posovszky Pamela - - 2010
Caloric restriction leads to retardation of the aging processes and to longer life in many organisms. This effect of caloric restriction can be mimicked by resveratrol, a natural plant product present in grapes and red wine, which is known as a potent activator of sirtuin 1 [silent mating type information ...
Martínez-Agustin O - - 2010
Adenine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of obesity. The objective of the present work was to study and compare AMPK protein expression in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue of morbid obese subjects and to correlate it with adipose tissue characteristics. We selected a total population ...
Xing Yifan - - 2010
In this study, we examined whether matrine could inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and further explored the possible inhibitory mechanisms. Evidenced by Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay, matrine dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 microg/ml. At molecular level, the expression of transcription ...
Tolppanen Anna-Maija AM Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. - - 2010
Different cells of adipose tissue secrete compounds which regulate various biological processes. Changes in body weight, body composition, and amount of fat mass can alter the secretory profile and function of adipose tissue. Comparison of adipose tissue mRNA expression profiles before versus after weight loss or between obese and lean ...
Witasp Anna - - 2010
CONTEXT: The mechanisms behind postoperative insulin resistance and impaired glucose utilization are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to specifically evaluate the transcription profile of genes in the insulin and adipokine signaling pathways in sc and omental adipose tissue after surgical injury. DESIGN: Relative expression of 21 ...
Roy Vikas Kumar - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in circulating level of leptin in natural population of male bat, Scotophilus heathi in relation to seasonal changes in body mass, adipose tissue mass and testicular activity. The peak serum leptin level coincided with the period of maximum body mass due ...
Dushay Jody J Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2010
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an hepatic protein that plays a critical role in metabolism, stimulating fatty acid oxidation in liver and glucose uptake in fat. Systemic administration to obese rodents and diabetic monkeys leads to improved glucose homeostasis and weight loss. In rodents, FGF21 increases with fasting and ...
Song Si-Youn - - 2010
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates food intake and metabolic and endocrine functions. Serum leptin levels have been reported to be increased in patients with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis; however, the explanation for this is unclear. We aimed to demonstrate the differential expression of leptin receptors in ...
Ramanjaneya Manjunath - - 2010
Nesfatin-1 is a recently identified anorexigenic peptide derived from its precursor protein, nonesterified fatty acid/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2). Although the hypothalamus is pivotal for the maintenance of energy homeostasis, adipose tissue plays an important role in the integration of metabolic activity and energy balance by communicating with peripheral organs and the ...
Han Guosheng - - 2010
Previous studies demonstrate that leptin has an osteogenic differentiation effect on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the effect of adenovirus-mediated leptin on MSCs differentiation has not been reported. To explore the mechanism, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector Ad-leptin and transfected propagated MSCs in vitro. The effects of ...
Banerjee A - - 2010
An adiposity-associated rise in leptin occurs at the time of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. The aim of present study was to examine the mechanism by which leptin may inhibit progesterone, and therefore could be responsible for delayed development. The study showed a significant increase in circulating leptin level ...
Foresta Carlo - - 2010
CONTEXT: The adipose tissue (AT), which is an endocrine organ, is linked to several metabolic abnormalities. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOCN) regulates insulin and adiponectin secretion. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the involvement of OCN in obesity and to evaluate, in vitro and ex vivo, the role of AT in the ...
Simonyte Kotryna - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) in the pathogenesis of obesity has been elucidated in humans and in various rodent models. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in glucocorticoid metabolism, circulating adipokine levels, and fatty acid (FA) reesterification. This study was undertaken to evaluate glucocorticoid metabolism in ...
Zhu Lijun - - 2010
CONTEXT: Activation of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) in adipose tissue results in the production of excess tissue glucocorticoids and the induction of adiposity and visceral obesity in particular. Androgens may affect body fat distribution by regulating the local metabolism of cortisol. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study ...
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