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Van Lijsebettens Mieke M Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052, Gent, Belgium; Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052, Gent, - - 2014
The elongation phase of the RNA polymerase (RNAPII) transcription process is dynamic and regulated. Elongator and SPT4/SPT5 are transcript elongation factors that contribute to the regulation of mRNA synthesis by RNAPII in the chromatin context. Recently, the Elongator complex consisting of six subunits and the SPT4/SPT5 heterodimer were isolated from ...
Ansari Suraiya A SA Wadsworth Center, United - - 2014
Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II)1 in eukaryotes requires the Mediator complex, and often involves chromatin remodeling and histone eviction at active promoters. Here we address the role of Mediator in recruitment of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex and its role, along with components of the preinitiation complex (PIC), ...
Sakuraba Yasuhito Y Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, - - 2014
Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation causes leaf yellowing during senescence or under stress conditions. For Chl breakdown, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1) interacts with Chl catabolic enzymes (CCEs) and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) at the thylakoid membrane, possibly to allow metabolic channeling of potentially phototoxic Chl breakdown intermediates. Among these Chl catabolic components, SGR1 acts ...
Chen Zhong Z University of California, United - - 2014
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is a scaffold protein that organizes the assembly of those initiation factors needed to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Plants, like many eukaryotes, express two eIF4G isoforms. eIFiso4G, one of the isoforms specific to plants, is unique among eukaryotic eIF4G ...
Li Mingyu M Key laboratory of Marine Biogenetics and Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 184 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005, - - 2014
In teleost, cathepsin B has been identified from several species and shown to play roles in the host immune response during pathogen challenge. However, the mechanism of how cathepsin B modulates the immune response in teleosts remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified and characterized cathepsin B (LycCatB) and ...
Martin Hilary C - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to mRNAs and target them for translational inhibition or transcriptional degradation. It is thought that most miRNA-mRNA interactions involve the seed region at the 5[prime] end of the miRNA. The importance of seed sites is supported by experimental evidence, although there is growing interest in interactions mediated ...
Chen Gang G Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, - - 2014
Aim:To investigate the effects of puerarin (Pue), an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro.Methods:C57BL/6J mice were infused with Ang II and treated with Pue (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 15 d. After the treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and ...
Davis Melissa A Mullen MA Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, United - - 2014
Gdown1, the substoichiometric 13th subunit of RNA polymerase II (pol II)5, has an important role in pausing during the initial stage of transcript elongation. However, Gdown1 quantitatively displaces the essential initiation factor TFIIF from free pol II and elongating pol II. Thus, it is not clear how, or even if, ...
Wang Yizhong Y Department of Biological Sciences and Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, - - 2014
Polycomb group (PcG) complexes such as PRC1 mediate transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the plant-specific EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 (EMF1), LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, and a histone H3 lysine-4 demethylase form a distinct PcG complex, termed EMF1c, that plays PRC1-like roles and is crucial for regulation of the florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS ...
Wang Ling L College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Environment, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR - - 2014
The proteins encoded by psaA and psaB form a heterodimer, an essential compound of photosystem; while the protein encoded by psbC binds with chlorophyll a in photosystem II, serving as antennae in photosystem. Here we report that a heterocyclic brominated flame retardant, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC), inhibited the expression of psaA ...
Lee Nayoung N Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST, Daejeon, 305-701, - - 2014
Phytochrome-Interacting Factor 1 (PIF1) inhibits light-dependent seed germination. The specific function of PIF1 in seed germination is partly due to its high-level expression in imbibed seeds, but the associated regulatory factors have not been identified. Here, we show that mutation of the EFS gene, encoding an H3K4 and H3K36 methyltransferase, ...
Bentley David L DL Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, MS8101, PO BOX 6511, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2014
Maturation of mRNA precursors often occurs simultaneously with their synthesis by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The co-transcriptional nature of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of coupling mechanisms that coordinate transcription with mRNA capping, splicing, editing and 3' end formation. Recent experiments using sophisticated new methods for analysis of ...
Hanes Steven D SD Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St., Syracuse, NY 13210 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ess1 is a prolyl isomerase that regulates the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. Ess1 works by catalyzing the cis/trans conversion of pSer5-Pro6 bonds, and to a lesser extent pSer2-Pro3 bonds, within the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA pol II. Ess1 is conserved ...
Arata Mayumi M Laboratory of Gene Function, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba, 292-0818, Japan; Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Tokyo, 113-0033, - - 2014
Meiosis comprises two consecutive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and II. Despite this unique progression through the cell cycle, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sequential divisions. In this study, we carried out a genetic screen to identify factors that regulate the initiation of meiosis II in the fission ...
Hess Wolfgang R WR Faculty of Biology; Institute for Biology III; University of Freiburg; Freiburg, - - 2014
Anoxygenic and oxygenic bacteria directly convert solar energy into biomass using photosynthesis. The formation and composition of photosynthetic complexes has to be tightly controlled in response to environmental conditions, as exposure to sunlight can be harmful due to the generation of reactive oxygen species and the damaging effects of UV ...
Hategan Lidia L Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 6726, Szeged, - - 2014
Brassinosteroid (BR)-regulated growth and development in Arabidopsis depends on BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), the BR receptor that is responsible for initiating the events of BR signalling. We analysed the temporal and spatial regulation of BRI1 expression using stable transgenic lines that carried BRI1 promoter:reporter fusions. In both seedlings and mature ...
Kapoor-Vazirani Priya P Emory University, United - - 2014
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) promoter-proximal pausing plays a critical role in post-initiation transcriptional regulation at many metazoan genes. We recently showed that histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16Ac), mediated by the MSL complex, facilitates the release of paused Pol II. In contrast, H4 lysine 20 trimethylation (H4K20me3), mediated by ...
Apitz Janina J Humboldt University Berlin, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Physiology, 10115 Berlin, - - 2014
Arabidopsis HEMA1 and HEMA2 encode glutamyl-tRNA reductase 1 and 2 (GluTR), the two isoforms of the initial enzyme of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. HEMA1 is dominantly expressed in photosynthetic tissue, while HEMA2 shows low constitutive expression and is induced upon stress treatments. We introduce a new HEMA1 knock-out mutant which grows only ...
Miyata Kayoko K 1Tulane University Health Sciences - - 2014
In angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension, the augmented intrarenal Ang II constricts the renal microvasculature and stimulates Rho kinase (ROCK), which modulates vascular contractile responses. Rho may also stimulate angiotensinogen (AGT) expression in preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) but this has not been established. Therefore, the aims of this ...
Sánchez Natalia N Millennium nucleus in stress and addiction (NEDA). Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Inserm, UMR-S 839, Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France; Institut du Fer à Moulin, Paris, - - 2014
Impaired dopaminergic signaling in the striatum is involved in diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease, addiction, and schizophrenia. An important pathophysiological aspect is the loss of balance between striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor and dopamine-regulated immediate-early gene. Classical antipsychotic drugs widely used in the treatment ...
Wang Min-Cheng MC Department and Graduate Institute of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of - - 2014
Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection ...
Chapin Alex A University of - - 2014
Nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a mRNA degradation pathway that regulates a significant portion of the transcriptome. The expression levels of numerous genes are known to be altered in NMD mutants, but it is not known which of these transcripts are direct pathway targets. Here, we present the first ...
Jiang Yanjuan Y Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbana Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunan 650223, - - 2014
Leaf senescence is regulated by diverse developmental and environmental factors. Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) can induce leaf senescence, whereas auxin suppresses this physiological process. Crosstalk between JA and auxin signaling has been well studied, but not during JA-induced leaf senescence. Here, we found that upon methyl jasmonate treatment, Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Li Tian-Fang TF Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 W. Harrison St, Chicago, IL-60612; Department of Orthopaedics, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W. Harrison St, Chicago, IL-60612. Electronic address: - - 2014
BMP-2 is approved for fracture non-union and spine fusion. We aimed to further dissect its downstream signaling events in chondrocytes with the ultimate goal to develop novel therapeutics that can mimic BMP-2 effect but have less complications. BMP-2 effect on COX-2 expression was examined using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. ...
Jung Jae-Hoon JH The Sainsbury Laboratory; University of Cambridge; Cambridge, - - 2014
The Arabidopsis E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPNSIVE GENE1 (HOS1) has been shown to act as a negative regulator of cold responses by degrading the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE1) transcription factor through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Notably, loss-of-function hos1 mutants exhibit early flowering, and the transcript level of ...
Erben Esteban E Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance Heidelberg, - - 2014
In African trypanosomes, there is no control of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II at the level of individual protein-coding genes. Transcription is polycistronic, and individual mRNAs are excised by trans-splicing and polyadenylation. As a consequence, trypanosomes are uniquely reliant on post-transcriptional mechanisms for control of gene expression. Rates of ...
Sgamma Tiziana T School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL, - - 2014
Many plants are incapable of flowering in inductive daylengths during the early juvenile vegetative phase (JVP). Arabidopsis mutants with reduced expression of TEMPRANILLO (TEM), a repressor of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) had a shorter JVP than wild-type plants. Reciprocal changes in mRNA expression of TEM and FT were observed in ...
Liu Liangyu L Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China ; Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany ; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering ...
Mohammadi Abbas A Department of Biochemistry, Physiology Research Center, Kerman, - - 2014
Increased apolipoprotein B100 (apo B) and decreased apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) production are important risk factors in atherosclerosis. Urotensin II (UII), as the most potent vasoconstrictor in human, is related with hypertension and probably atherosclerosis. Because of the relationship between the hypertension and lipoprotein metabolism in atherosclerosis, the aim of ...
Buckley Martin S MS Department of Molecular Biology and - - 2014
The kinetics with which promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) undergoes premature termination versus productive elongation is central to understanding underlying mechanisms of metazoan transcription regulation. To assess the fate of Pol II quantitatively, we tracked photoactivatable GFP-tagged Pol II at uninduced Hsp70 on polytene chromosomes and showed that ...
Wu Jin-Cai JC Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hainan Provincial People's Hospital, Nanhua University, Haikou, People's Republic of - - 2014
We previously reported that the intronic tagSNP +357G/C in the metastasis suppressor HTPAP is associated with metastasis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether SNPs in the HTPAP promoter modulate HTPAP expression and prognosis of HCC. Genomic DNA from 572 microdissected HCCs ...
Zhou Chuanen C Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma - - 2013
Leaf shape elaboration and organ separation are critical for plant morphogenesis. We characterized the developmental roles of LOBED LEAFLET1 by analyzing a recessive mutant in the model legume Medicago truncatula. An ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7), Mt-AGO7/LOBED LEAFLET1, is required for the biogenesis of a trans-acting short interfering RNA ...
Liu Wen W Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; School of Pharmaceutical Science, Xiamen University, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China. Electronic address: - - 2013
Distal enhancers characterized by the H3K4me(1) mark play critical roles in developmental and transcriptional programs. However, potential roles of specific distal regulatory elements in regulating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) promoter-proximal pause release remain poorly investigated. Here, we report that a unique cohort of jumonji C-domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and ...
Sen Gulseren G University of Bilecik Seyh Edebali, Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gulumbe-Bilecik, Turkey; University of Rize Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Faculty of Medicine, Rize, - - 2013
In this study, the effects of short-term aluminium toxicity and the application of spermidine on the lichen Xanthoria parietina were investigated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. Our results suggest that aluminium stress leads to physiological processes in a dose-dependent manner through differences in lipid peroxidation rate, chlorophyll content and ...
Coudert Amélie E AE Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U606, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, - - 2013
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO II) is a rare, heritable bone disorder characterized by a high bone mass and insufficient osteoclast activity. Mutations in the CLCN7 gene have been reported to cause ADO II. To gain novel insights into the pathways dysregulated in ADOII osteoclasts, we identified changes in ...
Mannen Kazuto K Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, - - 2013
All isoprenoids are derived from a common C5 unit, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). In plants, IPP is synthesized via two distinct pathways; the cytosolic mevalonate pathway and the plastidial non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we used a co-expression analysis to identify transcription factors that coordinately regulate the expression of multiple ...
Randoux Marie - - 2013
FT/TFL1 family members have been known to be involved in the development and flowering in plants. In rose, RoKSN, a TFL1 homologue, is a key regulator of flowering, whose absence causes continuous flowering. Our objectives are to functionally validate RoKSN and to explore its mode of action in rose. We ...
Wu Liang - - 2013
The highly conserved florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) functions at the core of the flowering pathways. Extensive studies have examined the transcriptional regulation of FT; however, other layers of FT regulation remain unclear. Here, we identified miR2032, a Pooideae-specific microRNA that is expressed in leaves and targets Brachypodium distachyon ...
Liu Wenwen - - 2013
Although proteins in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family are universal transcription factors in eukaryotes, the biological roles of most bHLH family members are not well understood in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana bHLH122 transcripts were strongly induced by drought, NaCl and osmotic stresses, but not by ABA treatment. Promoter::GUS analysis showed ...
Iwakawa Hiro-Oki - - 2013
microRNAs (miRNAs) bind Argonaute proteins in order to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that can silence the expression of complementary mRNAs. Plant miRNAs can mediate the cleavage of their target mRNAs as well as the repression of their translation. Here, by using an in vitro system prepared from plant culture cells, ...
Zhu Mingku - - 2013
Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a complicated development process affected by both endogenous hormonal and genetic regulators and external signals. Although the role of NOR, a member of the NAC domain families, in mediating tomato fruit ripening has been established, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To further ...
Macgregor Dana R - - 2013
Cold acclimation has been shown to be attenuated by the degradation of the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 protein by the E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1). However, recent work has suggested that HOS1 may have a wider range of roles in plants than previously appreciated. Here, ...
Luse Donal S DS Department of Molecular Genetics; Lerner Research Institute; Cleveland Clinic; Cleveland, OH - - 2013
The general transcription factors required for the assembly of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex at TATA-dependent promoters are well known. However, recent studies point to two quite distinct pathways for assembly of these components into functional transcription complexes. In this review, the two pathways are compared and potential implications ...
Jung Jae-Hoon - - 2013
Exposure to short-term cold stress delays flowering by activating the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cold signaling attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1) negatively regulates cold responses. Notably, HOS1-deficient mutants exhibit early flowering, and FLC expression is suppressed in the mutants. However, it ...
Duan Ruxin - - 2013
In budding yeast, a highly conserved heterodimeric protein complex that is composed of the Rpb4 and Rpb7 proteins within RNA polymerase II shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm where it coordinates various steps of gene expression by associating with mRNAs. Although distinct stages of gene expression potentially contribute to the ...
Meinel Dominik M - - 2013
Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and export are tightly linked, but the molecular mechanisms of this coupling are largely unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved TREX complex couples transcription to mRNA export and mediates mRNP formation. Here, we show that TREX is recruited to the transcription machinery by direct interaction of ...
Salomone Joseph R - - 2013
The evolution of gene networks lies at the heart of understanding trait divergence. Intrinsic to development is the dimension of time: a network must be altered during the correct phase of development to generate the appropriate phenotype. One model of developmental network evolution is the origination of dimorphic (male-specific) abdomen ...
Zouboulis Christos C CC Departments of Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology and Immunology, Dessau Medical Center, Dessau, - - 2013
Side effects of EGFR inhibition do not include primary sebaceous gland changes. Dahlhoff et al. evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands in mutant mice with constitutively activated EGFR expression. Enlarged, hyperproliferative sebaceous glands and increased sebum levels were detected, and c-myc levels were increased. These data indicate that EGFR-induced sebocyte ...
Lahudkar Shweta - - 2013
Yeast mRNA 5'-triphosphatase, Cet1p, recognizes phosphorylated-RNA polymerase II as a component of capping machinery via Ceg1p for co-transcriptional formation of mRNA cap-structure that recruits cap-binding complex (CBC) and protects mRNA from exonucleases. Here, we show that the accumulation of RNA polymerase II at the promoter proximal site of ADH1 is ...
Zhang Xiujuan - - 2013
Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase 45 (CRK45) was found to be involved in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana previously. Here, we reported that it also positively regulates disease resistance. The CRK45 overexpression plants increased expression of the defense genes, and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae whereas the crk45 mutant were ...
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