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Su Guanyong - - 2014
Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) are photolytically unstable flame retarding chemicals. Here, photo-catalyzed by-products of TeDB-DiPhOBz and BDE-209 (i.e Br8- to Br11-PB-DiPhOBz congeners from TeDB-DiPhOBz, and Br6- to Br8-DE congeners from BDE-209), formed after 21 days of natural sunlight irradiation (SI), were assessed for exposure effects on cytotoxicity and ...
Lu Xing X Department of Genetics, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most common microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic and released into a water body during a period of cyanobacterial blooms. These toxicants can be accumulated in aquatic animals and transferred along the food chain and thus pose adverse effects on aquatic environment and public health. ...
Zhang Hui H Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY 11439, USA; Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 510060, - - 2014
Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) plays a critical role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ibrutinib is an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Here we investigated the reversal effect of ibrutinib on MRP1-mediated MDR. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The expression of protein was detected by ...
Carvajal-Gamez Bertha Isabel BI Genomic Sciences Postgraduate, Autonomous University of Mexico City (UACM), Mexico City, - - 2014
Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. ...
Chatterjee S - - 2013
We present in this paper, approximate analytical expressions for the intensity of light scattered by a rough surface, whose elevation ξ(x,y) in the z-direction is a zero mean stationary Gaussian random variable. With (x,y) and (x<sup>'</sup>,y<sup>'</sup>) being two points on the surface, we have ⟨ξ(x,y)⟩=0 with a correlation, ⟨ξ(x,y)ξ(x<sup>'</sup>,y<sup>'</sup>)⟩=σ<sup>2</sup>g(r), where ...
Toledo M A S - - 2013
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited, Gram-negative phytopathogen responsible for economically relevant crop diseases. Its genome was thus sequenced in an effort to characterize and understand its metabolism and pathogenic mechanisms. However, the assignment of the proper functions to the identified open reading frames (ORFs) of this pathogen was impaired due ...
Chiba Mitsuru M Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Medical Life Sciences; ; Research Center for Biomedical - - 2013
Comprehensive analyses of gene expression have been carried out by the development of microarrays and deep sequencers. However, it is difficult to obtain comprehensive information on gene expression from a small amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Therefore, we investigated the reproducibility and application of T7 RNA polymerase-mediated transcription, adaptor ligation ...
Wang Min - - 2012
Skeletal muscles in the limb and body trunk are composed of heterogeneous myofibers expressing different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (Myh), including type I (slow, Myh7), IIA (intermediate, Myh2), IIX (fast, Myh1), and IIB (very fast, Myh4). While the contraction force and speed of a muscle are known to be ...
Terakawa Youhei W - - 2012
The mammalian cerebral cortex can be tangentially subdivided into tens of functional areas with distinct cyto-architectures and neural circuitries; however, it remains elusive how these areal borders are genetically elaborated during development. Here we establish original bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse lines that specifically recapitulate cadherin-6 (Cdh6) mRNA expression profiles ...
Wade Christine - - 2012
Twist1 has been demonstrated to play critical roles in the early development of neural crest and mesodermally derived tissues including the limb. Twist2 has been less well characterised but its relatively late onset of expression suggests specific roles in the development of a number of organs. Expression of Twist2 within ...
Bowers Megan M Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
Anterior-posterior (AP) limb patterning is directed by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling from the posteriorly located zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). GLI3 and GLI2 are the transcriptional mediators generally utilized in SHH signaling, and each can function as an activator (A) and repressor (R). Although GLI3R has been suggested to be ...
Sheeba Caroline J - - 2012
Embryo development proceeds under strict temporal control and an embryonic molecular clock (EC), evidenced by cyclic gene expression, is operating during somite formation and limb development, providing temporal information to precursor cells. In somite precursor cells, EC gene expression and periodicity depends on Retinoic acid (RA) signaling and this morphogen ...
Staines Katherine Ann KA The Roslin Institute and Royal-Dick School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Scotland. - - 2012
The Wnt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development and homeostasis of a variety of adult tissues and, as such, is emerging as an important therapeutic target for numerous diseases. Factors involved in the Wnt pathway are expressed throughout limb development and chondrogenesis and have been shown to ...
Sears Karen E - - 2012
Proper regulation of growth is essential to all stages of life, from development of the egg into an embryo to the maintenance of normal cell cycle progression in adults. However, despite growth's importance to basic biology and health, little is known about how mammalian growth is regulated. In this study, ...
Monaghan James R - - 2012
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a necessary role in limb development and regeneration, but the precise mechanism by which it acts during these processes is unclear. The role of RA in limb regeneration was first highlighted by the remarkable effect that it has on respecifying the proximodistal axis of the regenerating ...
Ballim Reyna Deeya - - 2012
TBX3, a member of the T-box transcription factor gene family, is a transcriptional repressor that is required for the development of the heart, limbs, and mammary glands. Mutations in TBX3 that result in reduced functional protein lead to ulnar-mammary syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by limb, mammary gland, tooth, and ...
Lyle Alicia N - - 2012
Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that neovascularization was impaired in osteopontin (OPN) knockout animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of OPN expression in the setting of ischemia remain undefined. Therefore, we sought to determine whether OPN is upregulated in response to ischemia and hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide ...
Narkis Ginat - - 2012
The developing limb has served as an excellent model for studying pattern formation and signal transduction in mammalians. Many of the crucial genes that regulate growth and patterning of the limb following limb bud formation are now well known. However, details regarding the control of limb initiation and early stages ...
Lopez-Rios Javier - - 2012
Inactivation of Gli3, a key component of Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates, results in formation of additional digits (polydactyly) during limb bud development. The analysis of mouse embryos constitutively lacking Gli3 has revealed the essential GLI3 functions in specifying the anteroposterior (AP) limb axis and digit identities. We conditionally inactivated Gli3 ...
Zhu Xuming X Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, - - 2012
Wnt proteins are diffusible morphogens that play multiple roles during vertebrate limb development. However, the complexity of Wnt signaling cascades and their overlapping expression prevent us from dissecting their function in limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Depletion of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which is required for the secretion of various ...
Cuervo Rodrigo - - 2012
Full limb regeneration is a property that seems to be restricted to urodele amphibians. Here we found that Polypterus, the most basal living ray-finned fish, regenerates its pectoral lobed fins with a remarkable accuracy. Pectoral Polypterus fins are complex, formed by a well-organized endoskeleton to which the exoskeleton rays are ...
Lettice Laura A LA MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, - - 2012
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression during limb development is crucial for specifying the identity and number of digits. The spatial pattern of Shh expression is restricted to a region called the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), and this expression is controlled from a long distance by the cis-regulator ZRS. Here, members ...
Bickelmann Constanze - - 2012
Talpid moles show many specializations in their adult skeleton linked to fossoriality, including enlarged hands when compared to the feet. Heterochrony in developmental mechanisms is hypothesized to account for morphological evolution in skeletal elements. The temporal and spatial distribution of SOX9 expression, which is an early marker of chondrification, is ...
Zuniga Aimée - - 2012
Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal ...
Gross Stefanie - - 2012
During limb development, posterior Hox genes of the Hoxa- and Hoxd cluster provide positional information along the limb axis. Here we report a new function for Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 in regulating the early steps of chondrocyte differentiation. We analyzed forelimbs of Hoxa11(-/-);d11(-/-) and Ulnaless mice, which are characterized by specifically ...
Lang Li-Li - - 2011
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism(s) controlling the LPS responsiveness. The expression and subcellular localization of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 and the expression of myeloid differentiation ...
Lu Biao - - 2011
We examined if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of mice affected cardiolipin (CL) synthesis. Mice were injected i.p. with LPS, the liver harvested, and CL synthase (CLS) enzyme activity and its mRNA expression examined. Treatment of mice with LPS resulted in a 55% decrease (p < 0.01) in mRNA expression of murine CLS compared ...
Ashworth F F Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, University of Oxford, - - 2011
Processing emotional facial expressions is of interest in eating disorders (EDs) as impairments in recognizing and understanding social cues might underlie the interpersonal difficulties experienced by these patients. Disgust and anger are of particular theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated the neural response to facial expressions of anger ...
Wang Jianfei - - 2011
Hypertrophic scar (HTS), a fibroproliferative disorder (FPD), complicates burn wound healing. Although the pathogenesis is not understood, prolonged inflammation is a known contributing factor. Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblasts regulate immune/inflammatory responses through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through adaptor molecules, leading to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of ...
Teijeira-Fernandez E - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an anti-atherogenic insulin-sensitizer hormone whose plasma concentration is lower in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Visceral adiposity, including epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), is closely related to the development of MS and coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to study whether EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adiponectin ...
Yoza Barbara K BK Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. - - 2011
The clinical phenotype in sepsis that is observed as LPS tolerance is determined by silencing of pro-inflammatory genes like IL-1 beta (IL-1β). This study shows that facultative heterochromatin (fHC) silences IL-1β expression during sepsis, where we find dephosphorylated histone H3 serine 10 and increased binding of heterochromatin protein-1 (HP-1) to ...
Rodiño-Janeiro Bruno Kotska - - 2011
Objective. Obesity, a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), is associated with inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while advanced glycation end-products, through their receptor (RAGE), play an important role on these processes. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression levels of RAGE, NADPH oxidase ...
Hsieh Tsai-Pei - - 2011
Icariin has been reported to enhance bone healing and treat osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the detail molecular mechanisms of icariin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis. Our hypothesis is that icariin can inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppressing MAPKs/NF-κB regulated HIF-1α and PGE(2) synthesis. After treatment with icariin, ...
Benfante Roberta - - 2011
We investigated the expression of the partially duplicated α7 nAChR subunit gene in three monocytic cell lines: THP-1, U937 and Mono-Mac-6. Qualitative PCR revealed the presence of the classic α7 gene in these lineages, but real-time PCR showed the exclusive expression of α7dup. Both mRNA and protein levels were reduced ...
Recio Guillermo - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests that dynamic facial expressions of emotion unfolding over time are better recognized than static images. However, the mechanisms underlying this facilitation are unclear. Here, participants performed expression categorizations for faces displaying happy, angry, or neutral emotions either in a static image or dynamically evolving within 150ms. Performance ...
Herman A P - - 2010
This study was designed to determine the effect of intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) gene expression in the hypothalamus of anoestrous ewes. Gene expression of IL-1β and its receptors was assayed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of IL-1β ...
Gaetano L - - 2010
Prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is now well established as a central effector of pyrogen fever. However, questions remain on the source, local vs. blood-borne, of the compound for the early phase of the typically biphasic fever (Phases 1 and 2) to i.v. pyrogens. To verify the role of centrally formed PGE₂, ...
Wang Le-Yu - - 2011
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram negative bacteria plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences showed that LPS-induced neuroinflammation is related to upregulation of NF-kappaB. Here, we report that long-term treatment of lower dosage LPS mainly causes upregulation of Id2 protein. As an inhibitor of cell differentiation, ...
Grisouard Jean - - 2012
High fat diet-induced endotoxaemia triggers low-grade inflammation and lipid release from adipose tissue. This study aims to unravel the cellular mechanisms leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects in human adipocytes. Subcutaneous pre-adipocytes surgically isolated from patients were differentiated into mature adipocytes in vitro. Lipolysis was assessed by measurement of glycerol release ...
Robertson Jennifer - - 2010
Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components including PGN (peptidoglycan) elicit a potent pro-inflammatory response in diverse cell types, including endothelial cells, by activating TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) signalling. The functional integrity of the endothelium is under the influence of a network of gap junction intercellular communication channels composed of Cxs (connexins) ...
Teles M - - 2011
Fish macrophage function can be altered after exposure to pathogens as well as to xenobiotics. Considering that wild and farmed fish can be exposed in their habitats simultaneously to different types of stressors, including chemical contaminants (e.g. heavy metals) and pathogens (e.g. bacteria), it is fundamental to study their impact ...
Lamirand Audrey - - 2011
In the brain, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, which binds to the thyroid hormone receptor with high affinity, is locally generated from thyroxine by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) expressed mainly in astrocytes and tanycytes. We have investigated the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on D2 in cultured rat astrocytes. LPS induced D2 activity ...
Martins Telma da Mata Tda - - 2011
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and β-defensins are important components of the innate immune system. This study aimed to evaluate endometrial mRNA levels of TLRs (1/6, 2, 4, and 5) and β-defensin 5 in Holstein cows by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Uterine biopsies were performed from 6 to 12 h after parturition, ...
Bala Shashi S Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, - - 2011
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) by gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Toll-Like Receptors 4 (TLR4)-LPS-mediated increase in TNFα production has a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Micro-RNA (miR)-125b, miR-146a, and miR-155 can regulate inflammatory responses to LPS. Here we evaluated the involvement of miRs in alcohol-induced macrophage ...
Hyc Anna - - 2011
Synovial membranes are formed by four main types of cells, i.e. fibroblasts, macrophages, epitheliocytes and adipocytes. To study the combined effect of various factors on these cell populations, synovial membranes dissected from rat knee joints were incubated in control medium or medium with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF, TGF-ß1 or IL-4 for ...
Braulke L J - - 2010
The Djungarian hamster is an animal that is prominent for distinct seasonal adaptations. Cued by shortening day length in autumn they spontaneously exhibit reductions in food intake, body mass (BM), fat mass and also in lean mass (LM). The mechanisms behind the seasonal regulation of body composition are only partly ...
Montzka Katrin - - 2010
The beneficial effect of human (h) mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation in a variety of cell-based intervention strategies is widely believed to be because of paracrine mechanisms. The modification of hMSC cytokine and growth-factor expression patterns were studied following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tissue homogenates (representing tissue debris) from ...
Bandow Kenjiro - - 2010
Osteoblasts express Toll like receptor (TLR) 4 and produce osteoclast-activating cytokines in response to the stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has recently been reported that LPS exerts an inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation into osteocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms of this inhibitory effect remain ambiguous. The downstream signals of TLR4 ...
Kim Myung Gu - - 2010
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) induce appropriate immune responses after recognizing certain molecular characteristics of pathogens. It is not known, however, whether PRRs are expressed in middle ear infections and whether the expression of PRRs and immunoglobulins is correlated in recurrent otitis media with effusion (OME). We therefore investigated the expression ...
Van Linthout Sophie - - 2011
The protective effects of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) conditions have been well documented. Here, we investigated whether an effect of HDL on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and signalling may contribute to its endothelial-protective effects and to improved survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced inflammation and lethality. ...
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