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Kim Kyoung Soo KS East-West Bone and Joint Research Institute, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 134-727, Republic of - - 2014
This study was performed to evaluate whether endocan expression, which is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, was increased in rheumatoid arthritic tissues. In addition, the involvement of adiponectin in the regulation of endocan expression in arthritic joints was examined. Arthritic synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ...
Liu Xiaozhuan X Public Health College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China; Medical College, Henan University of Science & Technology, Luoyang, - - 2014
Mesenchymal-cell proliferation is the main process in shelf outgrowth. Both all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) play an important role in mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal (MEPM) cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the crosstalk between RA and TGF-β signaling in MEPM-cell proliferation. We found that atRA ...
Angiolilli Chiara C Department of Experimental Immunology and Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Epigenetic modifications play an important role in the regulation of gene transcription and cellular function. Here, we examined if pro-inflammatory factors present in the inflamed joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could regulate histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression and function in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Protein acetylation in synovial tissue was ...
Maier Esther C EC MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, Bateson Centre and Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United - - 2014
During development of the zebrafish inner ear, regional patterning in the ventral half of the otic vesicle establishes zones of gene expression that correspond to neurogenic, sensory and non-neural cell fates. FGF and Retinoic acid (RA) signalling from surrounding tissues are known to have an early role in otic placode ...
Ray Alpana A Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, - - 2014
In the majority of breast cancers, overexpression and hyperactivation of Ras in the tumor microenvironment play significant role in promoting cancer cell growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We have previously shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in triple negative breast cancer cells is regulated, at least in part, by ...
Sauerschnig Martin - - 2014
BackgroundOsteoarthritis (OA) is defined by signs and symptoms of inflammation within the affected joint. The aim of this study is to determine the mRNA expression levels of selected cytokines and matrix-metalloproteinases of cells found in synovial fluid (SF) obtained from osteoarthritic knee joints compared to healthy controls.MethodsSF was obtained from ...
Wang Feifei F From the Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre; the Key Lab for Biotechnology Drugs of Ministry of Health; the Key Lab of Rare and Uncommon Disease; and the Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, China. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81102275), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2011CQ028), the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB529105), and Shandong Science and Technology Research Program (2012GSF12115). F. Wang, Masters student; L. Wang, PhD; H. Jiang, Masters student; J. Pan, PhD, Assistant Professor, Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre, and the Key Lab for Biotechnology Drugs of Ministry of Health, and the Key Lab of Rare and Uncommon Disease, Shandong Province; X. Chang, Professor, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital. Address correspondence to Dr. J. Pan, Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre, Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong, China. E-mail: pjh933@sohu.com. Accepted for publication October 10, - - 2014
To assess the effect of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 (PCSK6) in the synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PCSK6 is a proteinase implicated in the proteolytic activity of various precursor proteins and involved in the regulation of protein maturation. PCSK6 expression was detected in the synovial tissue of 10 ...
Beckmann Janet J Laboratory of Experimental Trauma Surgery, Justus-Liebig University, Schubert Strasse 81, 35392, Giessen, Germany, - - 2014
Increasing evidence is showing that the non-neuronal cholinergic system plays an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Choline transport into the cell is the rate-limiting step for the synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh), which can be released directly or in vesicles from the cell. However, in the human ...
Chang Yan Y Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Ministry of Education, Hefei 230032, - - 2014
Fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) is the ultimate effectual cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The current study was undertaken to investigate whether a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) mediates the function of FLS in an animal model of RA. Rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) was induced by intradermal injection of 0.1ml complete ...
Scanzello Carla R CR Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Fibronectin (FN) is a widely expressed molecule that can participate in development of osteoarthritis (OA) affecting cartilage, meniscus, and synovial membrane (SM). The alternatively spliced isoforms of FN in joint tissues other than cartilage have not been extensively studied previously. The present study compares FN splice variation in patients with ...
Boyle D L DL University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California, - - 2014
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The pathways affected by tofacitinib and the effects on gene expression in situ are unknown. Therefore, tofacitinib effects on synovial pathobiology were investigated. A randomised, double-blind, phase II serial synovial biopsy study (A3921073; NCT00976599) in ...
Malaise Olivier O Laboratory of Rheumatology and Laboratory of Gastroenterology, GIGA Research, CHU, University of Liège and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, CHU of Liège, CHU, Sart- Tilman B35, Liège, - - 2014
Glucocorticoids are powerful anti-inflammatory compounds that also induce the expression of leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-R) in synovial fibroblasts through TGF-βsignalling and Smad1/5 phosphorylation. Compound A (CpdA), a selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, reduces inflammation in murine arthritis models and does not induce diabetes or osteoporosis, thus offering an improved risk:benefit ...
Guo Huilin H State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, - - 2014
Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is widely used in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is another joint lubricant that protects surface of articular cartilage. But few studies had explored the role of HA in regulation of PRG4 expression in TMJ OA. In this study, the ...
Guo Lishan L Department of Neonatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. - - 2014
β‑thalassemia is a common genetic disease, characterized by the insufficient production of the hemoglobin (Hb) β‑chain. Upregulation of the expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) alleviates the severity of β‑thalassemia. Radix astragali (RA) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of anemia. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness ...
Busada Jonathan T JT Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC, - - 2014
In the testis, a subset of spermatogonia retains stem cell potential, while others differentiate to eventually become spermatozoa. This delicate balance must be maintained, as defects can result in testicular cancer or infertility. Currently, little is known about the gene products and signaling pathways directing these critical cell fate decisions. ...
Yi Jin Woong JW Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon, - - 2014
The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of zoledronate, which is frequently used to treat osteoporosis, on osteoarthritis by analyzing zoledronate-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in chondrocytes and synovial cells. After chondrocytes and synovial cells were separated and cultured, zoledronate was added, ...
Maksymowych Walter P WP Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada. - - 2014
14-3-3 proteins are a conserved family of 7 isoforms with diverse cellular functions found predominantly intracellularly. The 14-3-3η isoform is expressed extracellularly in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and expression in both serum and joint fluid correlates strongly with expression of metalloproteinases. 14-3-3η activates proinflammatory signalling cascades ...
Suzuki Satoshi S Institute for Environment and Gender Specific Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Urayasu , Chiba , Japan - - 2014
Abstract Objective: We have shown that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are modules of CTGF. IGFBPs bind IGF-I and IGF-II. IGF-I plays a role in the regulation of immunity, bone metabolism and inflammation. ...
Zhou Jing-Jing - - 2014
IntroductionRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction and disability. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1ß) is a transcriptional coactivator that plays important roles in regulating multiple aspects of energy metabolism and cytokine signaling pathways. PGC-1ß overexpression leads to the attenuation of macrophage-mediated inflammation. In this study, ...
El-Magd Mohammed Abu MA Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, El-Geish Street, Post Box 33516, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt, - - 2014
Expression of chick early B cell factor 1-3 (cEbf1-3) genes in regions of high retinoic acid (RA) activity, such as somites and pharyngeal arches (PAs), and regulation of other EBF members by RA raise the possibility that the internal cue RA may regulate cEbf1-3 expression in these tissues. To check ...
Gyurkovska Valeriya V Department of Immunology, Institute of Microbiology , Sofia , Bulgaria - - 2014
Abstract Context: Osteoarthritis (OA) has become by far the most common joint disorder. A number of studies using OA animal models have explored the effects of agents that can modulate bone metabolism. Objective: In the present study, we investigated the effect of acetylated derivative of plant alkaloid glaucine (ADG) on ...
Kono Michihito M Division of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
Objective. Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein-4 (RasGRP4) is a calcium-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor and diacylglycerol/phorbol ester receptor not normally expressed in fibroblasts. While RasGRP4-null mice are resistant to arthritis induced by anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase autoantibodies, the human relevance of these data are unknown. We therefore evaluated the importance of RasGRP4 in ...
Mok Gi Fay GF Division of Animal Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, - - 2014
During limb development Pax3 positive myoblasts delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome of limb level somites and migrate into the limb bud where they form the dorsal and ventral muscle masses. Only then do they begin to differentiate and express markers of myogenic commitment and determination such as Myf5 and MyoD. ...
Chen Shih-Yao SY Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, - - 2014
Objective. Transcription factor Snail is involved in various biological functions. We hypothesized that this molecule regulates TNF-α-mediated synovial fibroblasts (SF) activation in rheumatoid joint, and examined its roles in expression of Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) and myofibroblast markers, invasive ability and IL-6 production. Methods. Synovium was obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients ...
Plotnik Joshua P JP Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, - - 2014
The RAS/ERK pathway is commonly activated in carcinomas and promotes oncogenesis by altering transcriptional programs. However, the array of cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors that mediate these transcriptional changes is still unclear. Our genome-wide analysis determined that a sequence consisting of neighboring ETS and AP-1 transcription factor binding sites is ...
White Andrew Jr AJ Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative expression of clinically-relevant components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the adult human eye. We obtained 14 post-mortem enucleated human eyes from patients whom had no history of inflammatory ocular disease nor pre-mortem ocular infection. We determined the gene expression ...
Duan Hongmei H Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, the 1st Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, - - 2014
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is found in inflamed synovium of RA patients and is necessary for formation of RA. We aimed to check whether delivery of CCR5-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) via electroporation suppresses local inflammation in arthritis rats. Vectors ...
Oh J S JS University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital, 290-3 Jeonha-dong, Dong-gu, Ulsan 682-714, - - 2014
Previous studies support the important role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and syndecan-4 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Both VEGF and syndecan-4 are expressed by chondrocytes and both are involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-3, resulting in the activation of aggrecanase II (ADAMTS-5), which is essential in ...
Córdoba Sergio S Departamento de Biología Molecular and Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, - - 2014
A characteristic of all arthropods is the presence of flexible structures called joints that connect all leg segments. Drosophila legs include two types of joints: the proximal or "true" joints that are motile due to the presence of muscle attachment and the distal joints that lack musculature. These joints are ...
Ohrnberger Stefan S Department for Molecular Biology, Tuebingen University, - - 2014
The ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator Serum Response Factor (SRF) is controlled by both Ras/MAPK and Rho/actin signaling pathways, which are frequently activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We generated SRF-VP16(iHep) mice, which conditionally express constitutively active SRF-VP16 in hepatocytes, thereby controlling subsets of both Ras/MAPK- and Rho/actin-stimulated target genes. All SRF-VP16(iHep) ...
Siar Chong Huat CH Professor of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Department of Oro-Maxillofacial Surgical and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the distribution patterns of bone resorption regulators, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in recurrent ameloblastoma (RAs) and to clarify their impact on the biologic behavior of these neoplasms. Fifteen paraffin-embedded RA cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of RANK, ...
Wan Qian Q The Second Affiliated Medical College and Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of - - 2014
4Retinoic acid (RA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were studied about their potential to induce mouse embryonic stem cell R1/E (MESC-R1/E) to differentiate toward germ cells. Embryoid bodies (EBs) first formed from MESC-R1/E and EBs were allowed to attach to the bottoms of normal cell-culturing plate and grow. Then, different compounds ...
Shimomura Tadahiro T Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Expression of the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx8 is restricted to and up-regulated in the mesenchyme of the upper face prominence before lip fusion. Msx1/2 acts in early development to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Deficiency of these genes is associated with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate. Since retinoid is ...
Cuffe J S M JS School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, - - 2014
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is an important mediator of placental development. However, a comprehensive expression profile for 8 key components of the placental RAS throughout murine gestation has not been performed. Furthermore, maternal hypoxia induces dysregulation of RAS expression in fetal tissues but the effects on the murine placental ...
Trzybulska Dorota D Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego Street 39, 60-356 Poznan, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity of serine proteases is an important factor contributing to destructive changes in the joints. The aim of this study was to compare elastase (ELANE) and cathepsin G (CTSG) mRNA levels in peripheral blood CD14(+) cells obtained from RA patients, healthy subjects (HS) and patients with ...
Wang Fang F Department of Biochemistry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Acinus-S' is a co-repressor for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent gene transcription and has been suggested to be involved in RNA processing. In this study the role of Acinus isoforms in regulating pre-mRNA splicing was explored using in vivo splicing assays. Both Acinus-L and Acinus-S', with the activity of Acinus-L higher ...
Sharma Sriganesh B SB Department of Biochemistry Program in Cancer Cell - - 2014
Despite the low prevalence of activating point mutation of RAS or RAF genes, the RAS-ERK pathway is implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) there is recurrent genetic alteration of pathway components. Using shRNA methods, we observed that the zinc finger transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 ...
Ji Jianjian J The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Division of Immunology, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, - - 2014
Increased IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The retinoic-acid-related orphan nuclear receptor (RORγt) is the master regulator of Th17 cells. Our previous research showed that FC99 possesses anti-inflammation activity. However, to date the effects of FC99 on RORγt expression in Th17 cell ...
Miao Cheng-Gui CG School of food and drug, Anhui key laboratory of poultry epidemic prevention and surveillance, Anhui Science and Technology University, Bengbu 233100, China; School of pharmacy, Anhui key laboratory of bioactivity of natural products, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, - - 2014
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and progressive systemic disease of unknown etiology. Research shows that fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) participate in the cartilage erosion, synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cytokine secretion and suggests that fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) display a crucial role in RA pathogenesis. Recent studies have suggested the role of the ...
Sfikakis P P PP Rheumatology Unit, First Department of Propaedeutic and Internal Medicine, Athens University Medical School, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts hyperexpress the mesenchymal cadherin-11, which is involved also in tumor invasion/metastasis, whereas anti-cadherin-11 therapeutics prevent and reduce experimental arthritis. To test the hypothesis that cadherin-11 is aberrantly expressed in RA peripheral blood, 100 patients (15 studied serially) and 70 healthy controls were analyzed by real-time ...
Cheong Kyung Ah KA Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Graduate School of Medicine, 814 Siksa-dong, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-773, South - - 2014
Hydroquinone (HQ) with or without retinoic acid (RA) is routinely used for the treatment of hyperpigmented conditions. Skin irritation is a major problem with popular depigmenting agents, resulting in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. To examine the molecular mechanism associated with skin irritation by RA or HQ. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis was ...
van Baarsen Lisa - - 2014
IntroductionAccumulating evidence suggests an important role for interleukin (IL)-17 in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Accordingly, clinical trials aimed at blocking IL-17 have been initiated but clinical results are highly variable between patients and across different diseases. The objective was to ...
Biniecka Monika M Translation Research Group, Dublin Academic Medical Centre, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, - - 2014
Objective: Inflammatory arthritis (IA) is associated with joint inflammation, synovial tissue proliferation and degradation of articular cartilage and bone. Angiogenesis is an early and fundamental component of synovial inflammation. Oxygen metabolism is recognized as an important mediator of joint vascular remodeling. In this study we investigate if in-vivo synovial hypoxia ...
Lee Hye-Kyung HK Seoul National University, Korea, Republic - - 2014
Odontoblasts are a type of terminally differentiated matrix-secreting cells. A number of molecular mechanisms are involved in the differentiation of odontoblasts. Several studies demonstrated that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) promotes odontoblast differentiation via control of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Because nuclear factor I-C (NFIC) is also known to control DSPP, we ...
Kero D D School of Dental Medicine, University of Split, Soltanska 2, 21000, Split, - - 2014
Spatio-temporal immunolocalizations of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), vimentin, syndecan-1 and Ki-67 were analyzed in ten human incisors and canine tooth germs between the 7th and 20th developmental weeks. CK8 expression was mild to moderate in the epithelial tooth parts, while it shifted from absent or mild in its mesenchymal parts, but ...
Kuzynski Maria M University of Alabama at Birmingham, United - - 2014
TRPS1 is a unique GATA-type transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor. TRPS1 deficiency (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, TRPS) and dysregulated TRPS1 expression (Ambras syndrome) result in skeletal and dental abnormalities implicating TRPS1 in endochondral bone formation and tooth development. Moreover, TRPS patients frequently present with low bone mass indicating TRPS1 ...
Jeong Youngdan Y Department of Conservative Dentistry, Ulsan University Asan Medical Center, Seoul, - - 2014
The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) respectively with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on hard tissue regeneration have been investigated in previous studies. This study aimed to compare the osteogenic effects of MTA/BMP-2 and MTA/EMD treatment in MC3T3-E1 cells. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with MTA ...
Lin Shuxian S Baylor College of Dentistry, Txas A&M University; - - 2014
Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) plays multiple roles in bone, tooth, phosphate homeostasis, kidney, salivary gland, reproductive cycles, and the development of cancer. In vitro studies have indicated two different biological mechanisms: 1) As a matrix protein, DMP1 interacts with αvβ3 integrin and activates MAP kinase signaling; and 2) DMP1 ...
Wu Y Y The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079, - - 2014
Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) with multi-potential differentiational capacity can undergo odontoblastic differentiation when stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. However, factors linking proinflammatory stimuli and their odontoblastic differentiation have, as yet, not been completely understood. As an apoptotic transcription factor, DDIT3 plays a crucial role in the inflammatory reaction and in ...
Kim E J EJ Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Oral Science Research Center, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate a variety of gene functions in many tissues and organs, but their expression and function in tooth development are not well-understood. A specific miRNA, miR-135a, was determined to be highly expressed at the bud stage. Interestingly, after the cap stage, miR-135a was expressed in ...
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