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Lim Kyungtaek K Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, - - 2014
Translation initiation depends on the recognition of mRNA by a ribosome. For this to occur, prokaryotes primarily use the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) interaction, where the 3' tail of small subunit rRNA (core motif: 3'CCUCC) forms base pairs with a complementary signal sequence in the 5' untranslated region of mRNA. Here we ...
Záhonová Kristína K Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic; Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, - - 2014
Euglena gracilis possesses secondary plastids of green algal origin. In this study, E. gracilis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from polyA-selected mRNA were searched and several ESTs corresponding to plastid genes were found. PCR experiments failed to detect SL sequence at the 5'-end of any of these transcripts, suggesting plastid ...
Rosnow Josh - - 2014
In the model single-cell C4 plant Bienertia sinuspersici, chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded photosynthetic enzymes, characteristically confined to either bundle sheath or mesophyll cells in Kranz-type C4 leaves, all occur together within individual leaf chlorenchyma cells. Intracellular separation of dimorphic chloroplasts and key enzymes within central and peripheral compartments allow for C4 ...
Wu Shijin S College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology , Hangzhou, People's Republic of China - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity effects of dichloromethane and dichloroethane on Chlorella vulgaris at the physiological and molecular level. Data showed that the cell number, chlorophyll a, and total protein content gradually decreased with increasing dichloromethane and dichloroethane concentrations over a 96-h exposure. Lower ...
Tangphatsornruang Sithichoke S National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, - - 2014
The amounts of specific transcripts that accumulate in chloroplasts are determined by the rates of synthesis and degradation of the transcripts. The 3' untranslated region of transcripts is a major determinant of the stability of transcripts in chloroplasts. The half-lives of specific transcripts can be determined by northern blot analysis ...
Barrera Daniel D California Center for Algae Biotechnology, La Jolla, CA, - - 2014
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a photosynthetic model organism. One of these is facile, targeted chloroplast transformation by particle bombardment. Functional recombinant proteins can be expressed to significant levels in this system, potentially outperforming higher plants in speed of scaling, cost, and space requirements. Several strategies and regulatory regions ...
Yagi Yusuke Y Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University Fukuoka, - - 2014
Chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles which possess their own genome and gene expression system. However, extant chloroplasts contain only limited coding information, and are dependent on a large number of nucleus-encoded proteins. During plant evolution, chloroplasts have lost most of the prokaryotic DNA-binding proteins and transcription regulators that were present in ...
Hoon Lee Chang C Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, - - 2014
People over the age of 50 are at risk of osteoporotic fracture, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption in bone-related disorders. Genipin is a well-known geniposide aglycon derived from Gardenia jasminoides, which has long been used in oriental medicine for controlling diverse ...
Zhang Xiaofeng X MOE Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, - - 2013
Our previous study demonstrated that a chloroplast co-chaperonin 20 (CPN20), one of the interaction partners of the magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase H subunit (CHLH/ABAR), negatively regulates ABA signaling at the same node with ABAR but upstream of WRKY40 transcription repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present experiment, we showed that ABA ...
Clapp Joshua D JD Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82070, United States. Electronic address: - - 2013
Existing research indicates veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may deliberately inhibit the expression of emotion. However, the degree to which inhibition generalizes to other trauma populations and the specific reasons survivors with PTSD inhibit expression remains unclear. The present study looked to evaluate expressive inhibition among survivors of intimate ...
Heiber Isabelle - - 2013
All genes encoding chloroplast antioxidant enzymes are nuclear encoded and post-transcriptionally targeted to chloroplasts. The transcript levels of most of them decreased upon sucrose feeding like the transcript levels of many genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. However, the transcript abundance of stromal ascorbate peroxidase (s-APX) increased. ...
Hertel Stefanie - - 2013
The chloroplast genome of land plants contains only a single gene for a splicing factor, MatK. To better understand the regulation of matK gene expression, we quantitatively investigated the expression of matK across tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) development at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and protein level. We observed striking discrepancies of MatK ...
Hudy Magdalena H - - 2013
Human rhinovirus (HRV) triggers exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for the development of COPD and 25% of asthmatics smoke. Smokers experience both longer and more severe colds. We previously showed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) inhibited HRV-induced expression of ...
Wang J H - - 2013
MiR146a exerts negative control on inflammatory responses by suppressing cytokine-induced expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) by impairing NF-κB activity and inhibiting the expression of target genes. Recent study suggests that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the regulation of microRNA expression. ...
Bowman Shaun M - - 2013
Plants that utilize the highly efficient C4 pathway of photosynthesis typically possess kranz-type leaf anatomy that consists of two morphologically and functionally distinct photosynthetic cell types, the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells. These two cell types differentially express many genes that are required for C4 capability and function. ...
Odom Obed W - - 2013
Reverse transcription of mRNA is thought to be an important first step in a model that explains certain evolutionary changes within genes, such as the loss of introns or RNA editing sites. In this model, reverse transcription of mRNA produces cDNA molecules that replace part of the parental gene by ...
Liu Lihong - - 2013
The brassinosteroid (BR) response transcription factor Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-mediated BR signalling regulates many specific developmental processes including fruit ripening. Here, we report the effect of 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR) and BZR1-1D overexpression on carotenoid accumulation and quality attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. EBR-treated pericarp discs of ethylene-insensitive mutant, Never ripe, ...
Zhu Yuan - - 2013
Brassinosteroid (BR)-induced antioxidant defence has been shown to enhance stress tolerance. In this study, the role of the maize 65kDa microtubule-associated protein (MAP65), ZmMAP65-1a, in BR-induced antioxidant defence was investigated. Treatment with BR increased the expression of ZmMAP65-1a in maize (Zea mays) leaves and mesophyll protoplasts. Transient expression and RNA ...
Koppel Indrek - - 2013
Histone deactylase (HDAC) inhibitors show promise as therapeutics for neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with memory-enhancing and neuroprotective properties of these drugs, but the mechanism of BDNF induction is not well understood. Here, we compared the effects of a class I/IIb ...
Jiang Meixiu - - 2013
Macrophage adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) plays an important role in foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. Tamoxifen inhibits this disease process. In this study, we determined if the anti-atherogenic property of tamoxifen was related to its inhibition of macrophage FABP4 expression. We initially observed that tamoxifen inhibited ...
Higashi Yuya - - 2013
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metallo-enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the expression of CuZn-SOD in both the chloroplast and cytosol was reported to be down-regulated by microRNA398 (miR398) during growth on low copper. The moss Physcomitrella patens contains chloroplastic and cytosolic CuZn-SOD genes, but lacks ...
Xing Fuqiang - - 2013
We report a novel regulatory mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate fumonisin B1 (FB1)-induced cell death. We found that FB1 induction of light-dependent ROS production promoted the degradation of GFP-labeled chloroplast proteins and increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, PAL1 gene expression and SA content, while pretreatment with ...
Barbuto Richard - - 2013
Osterix (OSX, Sp7) is a zinc-finger transcription factor belonging to the specificity protein (Sp) family expressed in cells of the osteoblast lineage in the developing skeleton where it regulates expression of a number of osteoblastic genes. We previously reported inhibition of osterix mRNA and protein by parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation ...
Zhao Feng - - 2013
3-(Hydroxymethyl)-6,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-(12H)-one is a bioactive indole alkaloid isolated from Nauclea officinalis, a plant species which is used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of 3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-(12H)-one in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The results indicated that it inhibited the overproduction of NO and the release of TNF-α. Furthermore, this ...
Kolotilin Igor - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Chloroplast transformation in tobacco has been used extensively to produce recombinant proteins and enzymes. Chloroplast expression cassettes can be designed with different configurations of the cis-acting elements that govern foreign gene expression. With the aim to optimize production of recombinant hemicellulases in transplastomic tobacco, we developed a set of ...
Ahmed Salahuddin - - 2013
In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1-5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of ...
Wang Weirong - - 2013
The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPARα in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed ...
Allorent Guillaume - - 2013
Arabidopsis seed formation is coupled with two plastid differentiation processes. Chloroplast formation starts during embryogenesis and ends with the maturation phase. It is followed by chloroplast dedifferentiation/degeneration that starts at the end of the maturation phase and leads to the presence of small non-photosynthetic plastids in dry seeds. We have ...
Bohne Alexandra-Viola - - 2013
Metabolic control of gene expression coordinates the levels of specific gene products to meet cellular demand for their activities. This control can be exerted by metabolites acting as regulatory signals and/or a class of metabolic enzymes with dual functions as regulators of gene expression. However, little is known about how ...
Iwanaga Koichi - - 2013
Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISMFs) are crucial for barrier formation against inflammatory stimuli. Physical injury induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression which accelerates wound healing by ISMFs. However, the mechanism of COX-2 induction remains unclear. Physically damaged cells release ATP. Here we investigate the role of purinergic signaling in wound-induced COX-2 induction in ...
Sagar Maha M Université de Toulouse, Institut National Polytechnique-Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génomique et Biotechnologie des Fruits, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, - - 2013
Successful completion of fruit developmental programs depends on the interplay between multiple phytohormones. However, besides ethylene, the impact of other hormones on fruit quality traits remains elusive. A previous study has shown that down-regulation of SlARF4, a member of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) auxin response factor (ARF) gene family, results ...
Kang Hyeon-Ji - - 2013
The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBPβ, PPARγ, C/EBPα, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator ...
Barajas-López Juan de Dios Jde - - 2013
The initiation of chloroplast development in the light is dependent on nuclear encoded components. The nuclear genes encoding key components in the photosynthetic machinery are regulated by signals originating in the plastids. These plastid signals play an essential role in the regulation of photosynthesis associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) when proplastids ...
Ghulam Mustafa Malik - - 2013
Chloroplasts are photosynthetic cell organelles which have evolved from endosymbiosis of the cyanobacterial ancestor. In chloroplasts, genes are still organized into transcriptional units as in bacteria but the corresponding poly-cistronic mRNAs undergo complex processing events, including inter-genic cleavage and 5' and 3' end-definition. The current model for processing proposes that ...
Zhang Qin - - 2013
The oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc causes transformation and tumorigenesis, but it can also induce apoptotic cell death. Although tumor suppressors are necessary for c-Myc to induce apoptosis, the pathways and mechanisms are unclear. To further understand how c-Myc switches from an oncogenic protein to an apoptotic protein, we examined the ...
Queval Guillaume G Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, - - 2012
Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen ...
Specht Elizabeth A - - 2013
Gene expression in chloroplasts is highly regulated during translation by sequence and secondary-structure elements in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. These chloroplast mRNA 5' UTRs interact with nuclear-encoded factors to regulate mRNA processing, stability, and translation initiation. Although several UTR elements in chloroplast mRNAs have been identified by ...
Singh Kamal Krishna - - 2012
KEY MESSAGE : The regulation of GS isoforms by WD was organ specific. Two GS isoforms i.e. OsGS1;1 and OsGS2 were differentially regulated in IR-64 (drought-sensitive) and Khitish (drought-tolerant) cultivars of rice. Water deficit (WD) has adverse effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.) and acclimation requires essential reactions of primary ...
Stoppel Rhea - - 2012
Expression of most plastid genes involves multiple post-transcriptional processing events, such as splicing, editing, and intercistronic processing. The latter involves the formation of mono-, di-, and multicistronic transcripts, which can further be regulated by differential stability and expression. The plastid pentacistronic psbB transcription unit has been well characterized in vascular ...
Germain Arnaud - - 2012
Ribonuclease R (RNR1) and polynucleotide phosphorylase (cpPNPase) are the two known 3' to 5' exoribonucleases in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, and are involved in several aspects of rRNA and mRNA metabolism. In this work, we show that mutants lacking both RNR1 and cpPNPase exhibit embryo lethality, akin to the inviability of the ...
Faust Dagmar - - 2012
Contact inhibition is a crucial mechanism regulating proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Although it is generally accepted that contact inhibition plays a pivotal role in maintaining tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms of contact inhibition are still not fully understood. FoxM1 is known as a proliferation-associated transcription factor and is ...
Wang Yung-Song - - 2012
AIMS: Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) can cause atherosclerosis and neointimal formation. MicroRNAs have been shown to regulate cell proliferation and phenotype transformation. We discovered abundant expression of microRNA-195 in VSMCs and conducted a series of studies to identify its function in the cardiovascular system.Methods and ...
Wu Tingting - - 2012
miRNAs are endogenously expressed 18- to 25-nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene expression through translational repression by binding to a target mRNA. Recently, it has been indicated that miRNAs are closely related to osteogenesis. Our previous data suggested that miR-30 family members might be important regulators during the biomineralization process. However, ...
Peng Linlin - - 2012
Studies have found overexpressed integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and disturbed matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) ratio in diabetic nephropathy epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms of EMT and the inhibiting effect of rhein need further understanding. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible regulating effects of ...
Hanaoka Mitsumasa - - 2012
Chloroplasts have their own DNA and gene expression systems. Transcription in chloroplasts is regulated by two types of RNA polymerase, nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP), and multiple sigma factors for PEP. To study transcriptional regulation in chloroplasts, a molecular genetic approach has extensively been ...
Pieters Tim - - 2012
p120 catenin (p120ctn), a component of the cadherin-catenin complex, was the first member to be identified in a most interesting subfamily of the Armadillo family. Several p120ctn isoforms are generated by alternative splicing. These isoforms fulfill pleiotropic functions according to their subcellular localization: modulating the turnover rate of membrane-bound cadherins, ...
Klein Peter - - 2012
The stromal ascorbate peroxidase (sAPX) functions as central element of the chloroplast antioxidant defense system. Its expression is under retrograde control of chloroplast signals including redox- and reactive oxygen species-linked cues. The sAPX promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana was dissected in transient reporter assays using mesophyll protoplasts. The study revealed regulatory ...
León Patricia - - 2012
The acquisition of plastids is a landmark event in plant evolution. The proper functionality of these organelles depends on strict and continuous communication between the plastids and the nucleus to precisely adjust gene expression in response to the organelle's requirements. Signals originating from the plastids impact the expression of a ...
Hollis Angela - - 2011
Nature does it: Small-molecule inhibitors of transcription factors are highly sought after, but only a limited number are known to date. Here, we report the pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid as a pan-specific inhibitor of the C/EBP transcription factor family, proteins that play prominent roles in adipogenesis and tumorigenesis.
Zeng P L - - 2011
This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter ...
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