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Ji Zongling Z Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, - - 2014
There are numerous forkhead transcription factors in mammalian cells but we know little about the molecular functions of the majority of these. FOXK2 is a ubiquitously expressed family member suggesting an important function across multiple cell types. Here, we show that FOXK2 binds to the SIN3A and PR-DUB complexes. The ...
Warta Rolf R Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Heidelberg; Division of Experimental Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of - - 2014
Proteoglycans are often overexpressed in tumors and can be found on several normal and neoplastic stem cells. In this study we analyzed in-depth the role of CSPG4 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Analysis of CSPG4 in a homogeneous study sample of HPV-negative stage IVa HNSCCs revealed overexpression ...
Wallenius Anders A Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, - - 2014
B-lymphocytes can modify their immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to generate specific antibodies with a new isotype and enhanced affinity against an antigen. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is positively regulated by the transcription factor E2A, is the key enzyme that initiates these processes by deaminating cytosine to uracil in Ig genes. ...
Matsuda Hiroaki H Department of Biomedical Engineering and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, - - 2014
Studies of macromolecular crowding have shown its important effects on molecular transport and interactions in living cells. Less clear is the effect of crowding when its influence is incorporated into a complex network of interactions. Here, we explore the effects of crowding in the cell nucleus on a model of ...
Ray Subir K SK Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. - - 2014
Gene expression programs required for differentiation depend on both DNA-bound transcription factors and surrounding histone modifications. Expression of the bHLH protein NeuroD1 is restricted to endocrine cells in the GI tract where it is important for endocrine differentiation. RREB1 (RAS Responsive Element Binding Protein 1), identified as a component of ...
Xu Wenjia W INRA; Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin; Saclay Plant Sciences; RD10; Versailles, France; AgroParisTech; Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin; Saclay Plant Sciences; RD10; Versailles, - - 2014
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles throughout the plant life cycle and have potential human health beneficial properties. Flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs or condensed tannins) are the three main class of flavonoids found in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have previously shown that PA biosynthesis (occurring exclusively in seeds) ...
Wang W-M WM Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; Biochemistry Department, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, - - 2014
The loss of the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor is detrimental to its function in responsive gene regulation. We diagnosed a Taiwanese family with nail-patella syndrome (NPS) whose members inherited the mutated LMX1b transcriptional factor with no DNA-binding homeodomain. The loss-of-function variants cause haploinsufficiency of LMX1b, leading to the ...
Meyer Kate D KD Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York City, New York 10065, - - 2014
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a modified base that has long been known to be present in non-coding RNAs, ribosomal RNA, polyadenylated RNA and at least one mammalian mRNA. However, our understanding of the prevalence of this modification has been fundamentally redefined by transcriptome-wide m(6)A mapping studies, which have shown that m(6)A ...
Lin Jian J Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, P.R. - - 2014
Low positive cell screening efficiency severely hinders the development of transgenic animals. The major rate‑limiting step of positive cell screening is DNA entering the nucleus, particularly for large DNA molecules. To enhance the transport of large DNA molecules into the nucleus, particularly for the production of transgenic animals, nuclear localization ...
Hu Bin B State Key Lab of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, - - 2014
Histone H2A ubiquitination plays critical roles in transcriptional repression and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage response. More attention has been focused on ubiquitin E3 ligases of H2A, however, less is known about the negative regulators of H2A ubiquitination. Here we identified HSCARG as a new negative regulatory protein for H2A ubiquitination ...
Shimasaki Takafumi T Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Department of Basic Medicinal Sciences, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, - - 2014
The Ecl1 family genes extend the lifespan of fission yeast when overexpressed. They also cause resistance against H2O2 stress. In this study, we found that the bZip transcription factor Atf1 is a direct activator of the induction of extender of chronological lifespan (ecl1 (+)) by H2O2 stress. Based on ChIP ...
Akamata Kaname - - 2014
Although the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) still remains unknown, recent studies have demonstrated that endothelins are deeply involved in the developmental process of fibrosis and vasculopathy associated with SSc, and a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan, has a potential to serve as a disease modifying drug for this disorder. ...
Muntean Brian S BS Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, - - 2014
Primary cilia are sensory organelles that provide a feedback mechanism to restrict Wnt signaling in the absence of endogenous Wnt activators. Abnormal Wnt signaling has been shown to result in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) although the exact mechanism has been debated. Previously, we reported that the calcium channel CaV1.2 functions ...
Zou Jian J Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, P. R. China; Department of Pharmacy, Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu, 611130, - - 2014
C/EBPβ, a member of the bHLH gene family of DNA-binding transcription factors, has been indicated as a central signal in physiologic hypertrophy. However, the role of C/EBPβ in pathological cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we revealed that C/EBPβ is involved in cardiac hypertrophy, the expression of ...
Imai Yoshinori Y Division of Cancer Biology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan; Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, - - 2014
Cell-cycle arrest in quiescence and senescence is largely orchestrated by the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor-suppressor pathway, but the mechanisms underlying the quiescence-senescence switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the crosstalk between the Rb-AKT-signaling pathways forms this switch by controlling the overlapping functions of FoxO3a and FoxM1 transcription factors in cultured fibroblasts. ...
Xue Mingzhan M *Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX, - - 2014
The glyoxalase system is an important component of the enzymatic defence against glycation, preventing particularly quantitatively and functionally important glycation of protein and DNA by methylglyoxal. Expression of genes encoding Glo1 (glyoxalase I) and Glo2 (glyoxalase II) may be induced or suppressed, and rates of proteolysis of Glo1 and Glo2 ...
Hoefig Kai P KP Institute of Molecular Immunology, Research Unit of Molecular Immune Regulation, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, - - 2014
During the cell cycle the expression of replication-dependent histones is tightly coupled to DNA synthesis. Histone messenger RNA (mRNA) levels strongly increase during early S-phase and rapidly decrease at the end of it. Here, we review the degradation of replication-dependent histone mRNAs, a paradigm of post-transcriptional gene regulation, in the ...
Kim Sang Hee SH Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211-7310, USA; C.S. Bond Life Sciences Center and Interdisciplinary Plant Group, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211-7310, - - 2014
The plant immune system needs to be tightly controlled both positively and negatively to maintain normal plant growth and health. We previously identified SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1) as a negative regulator specifically of effector-triggered immunity. SRFR1 is localized in both a cytoplasmic microsomal compartment and in the nucleus. Its TPR ...
de Albuquerque Bruno F M BF Institute of Molecular Biology, D-55128 Mainz, - - 2014
The Piwi-piRNA pathway represents a small RNA-based mechanism responsible for the recognition and silencing of invading DNA. Biogenesis of piRNAs (21U-RNAs) is poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the piRNA-binding Argonaute protein PRG-1 is the only known player acting downstream from precursor transcription. From a screen aimed at the isolation of ...
Lake Robert J RJ Epigenetics Program, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Cockayne syndrome is an inherited premature aging disease associated with numerous developmental and neurological defects, and mutations in the gene encoding the CSB protein account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome cases. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSB functions in transcription regulation, in addition to its roles in DNA repair, and ...
Fu Ye Y Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2014
Cellular RNAs carry diverse chemical modifications that used to be regarded as static and having minor roles in 'fine-tuning' structural and functional properties of RNAs. In this Review, we focus on reversible methylation through the most prevalent mammalian mRNA internal modification, N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A). Recent studies have discovered protein 'writers', 'erasers' ...
Creamer Kevin M KM Dept. of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105, - - 2014
Mit1 is the putative chromatin remodeling subunit of the fission yeast Snf2/HDAC repressor complex (SHREC) and is known to repress transcription at regions of heterochromatin. However, how Mit1 modifies chromatin to silence transcription is largely unknown. Here we report that Mit1 mobilizes histone octamers in vitro and requires ATP hydrolysis ...
Sisto Margherita M Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, - - 2014
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by an epithelium injury surrounded by dense lymphocytic infiltrates. The conditions for the long-term maintenance of human salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) from pSS patients, and a co-culture system with pSS lymphocytes were used to assess the effect of Rituximab (RTX) ...
Slevin Michael K MK Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Integrative Program for Biological and Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2014
Histone mRNAs are rapidly degraded when DNA replication is inhibited during S phase with degradation initiating with oligouridylation of the stem loop at the 3' end. We developed a customized RNA sequencing strategy to identify the 3' termini of degradation intermediates of histone mRNAs. Using this strategy, we identified two types ...
Liu Yan Y College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) plays a vital role in hormone production in the body. In our previous study, mRNA expression of cyp17a1 was regulated by endocrine disrupting chemicals in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation is unclear. In the present study, we aim to explore whether ...
Fetahu Irfete S IS Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2014
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is suggested to mediate the antiproliferative effects of calcium in colon. However, in colorectal cancer (CRC) the expression of the CaSR is silenced and the underlying mechanisms leading to its loss are poorly understood. We investigated whether loss of the CaSR expression in colorectal tumors is ...
Himeda Charis L CL The Wellstone Program, The Departments of Cell and Developmental Biology & Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, - - 2014
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to epigenetic dysregulation of the chromosome 4q35 D4Z4 macrosatellite. However, this does not account for the tissue specificity of FSHD pathology, which requires stable expression of DUX4-fl mRNA from the D4Z4 array in skeletal muscle. Here we describe the identification of two enhancers, DUX4 ...
Gilan O O 1] Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [2] Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
The proto-oncogene c-Jun is a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complexes that regulates processes essential for embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and malignant transformation. Induction of gene expression by c-Jun involves stimulation of its transactivation ability and upregulation of DNA binding capacity. While it is well established that the ...
Hinzpeter Alexandre A U955, INSERM, Créteil, France; Université Paris-Est, Créteil, - - 2014
Cystic Fibrosis may be revealed by nasal polyposis (NP) starting early in life. We performed CFTR DNA and mRNA analyses in the family of a 12y-old boy presenting with NP and a normal sweat test. Routine DNA analysis only showed the heterozygous c.2551C>T (p.Arg851*) mutation in the child and the ...
Ivics Zoltán Z Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, - - 2014
We describe a protocol for high-efficiency germline transgenesis and sustained transgene expression in two important biomedical models, the mouse and the rat, by using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The procedure is based on co-injection of synthetic mRNA encoding the SB100X hyperactive transposase, together with circular plasmid DNA carrying a ...
Ivics Zoltán Z Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, - - 2014
The laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is widely used as a model for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases. In addition, the rabbit is the smallest livestock animal that is used to transgenically produce pharmaceutical proteins in its milk. Here we describe a protocol for high-efficiency germline transgenesis and ...
Sun Na N College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, PR - - 2014
Our previous studies have demonstrated that Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS), a natural compound derived from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen), could effectively inhibit Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection both in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The main objective of the study was to ...
Mathieu Olivier O Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, GReD, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France; INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The processing of pre-mRNAs, including the selection of polyadenylation sites, is influenced by the surrounding chromatin context. We review here recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana highlighting the intricate and reciprocal interplay between chromatin state and RNA processing. The studies have revealed that transcription can be influenced by the presence, in ...
Pérez Moisés M Maimónides Institute for Research in Biomedicine of Córdoba, Reina Sofía University Hospital, University of Córdoba, - - 2014
Galiellalactone (GL) is a metabolite produced by the fungus Galiella rufa that presents antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. GL interferes with the binding to DNA of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and also inhibits other signal pathways such as NF-κB, but the mechanism of action in this pathway remains ...
Liu Dongyun D Beijing Key Laboratory of DNA Damage Response, College of Life Science, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, P.R. - - 2014
XRCC4-like factor (XLF) is involved in non-homologous end joining-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations in the WRN gene results in the development of Werner syndrome (WS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature ageing and genome instability. In the present study, it was identified that XLF protein ...
Fazli Mustafa M Department of International Health, Immunology, and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, - - 2014
In the present review we describe and compare the molecular mechanisms that are involved in biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Our current knowledge suggests that biofilm formation is regulated by cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP), small RNAs (sRNA) and quorum sensing (QS) in all these ...
Ndoja Ada A Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, - - 2014
Ubiquitination of transcription activators has been reported to regulate transcription via both proteolytic and nonproteolytic routes, yet the function of the ubiquitin (Ub) signal in the nonproteolytic process is poorly understood. By use of the heterologous transcription activator LexA-VP16 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that monoubiquitin fusion of the activator ...
Wu Jingbo J Department of Pathology, The Fifth People's Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16(INK4A) and p53 protein expression, to evaluate their roles in the pathological diagnosis and grading for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The detection of HPV DNA and p16(INK4A) and p53 protein expression were examined in a panel ...
Liang Jia-Lin JL From the State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Second Department of Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing People's Republic of - - 2014
Studies have shown that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) participates in the down-regulation of vascular reactivity via both nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide-independent mechanisms during shock. However, the precise mechanisms of nitric oxide-independent pathway remain to be established. The effect of IL-1β on the expression of α1 adrenergic receptors (α1AR) and the ...
Toyoda Yuko Y Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, - - 2014
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and other cytokines that have been reported to be major inflammation mediators in RA. We previously demonstrated that TP plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The ...
Ni Bin B School of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China, - - 2014
The aim of this work was to study the transcriptional regulation mechanism of ter operon by OxyR in Yersinia pestis. Total RNAs were extracted from the wild-type (WT) strain and the oxyR null mutant (ΔoxyR) strain. Primer extension assay was employed to detect the promoter activity (the amount of primer ...
Jang Yun Hee YH Plant Signaling Network Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, - - 2014
During initial spliceosome assembly, SF1 binds to intron branch-points and interacts with U2 snRNP auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65). Here, we present evidence indicating that AtSF1, the Arabidopsis SF1 homolog, interacts with AtU2AF65a and AtU2AF65b, the Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs. A mutant allele of AtSF1 (At5g51300) that contains a T-DNA insertion conferred ...
Tagami Shunsuke S RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, - - 2014
Transcription of DNA to RNA by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the first step of gene expression and a major regulation point. Bacteriophages hijack their host's transcription machinery and direct it to serve their needs. The gp39 protein encoded by Thermus thermophilus phage P23-45 binds the host's RNAP and inhibits ...
Lin Shin-Jen SJ George Whipple Lab for Cancer Research, Departments of Pathology, Urology, and Radiation Oncology, and the Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2014
Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays important roles in metabolism, fertility, and aging. The linkage of TR4 functions in cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using 3 different mouse models, we found TR4 could prevent or delay prostate cancer/PIN development. Knocking down TR4 in ...
Acs Zoltan Z Research Institute of Sport Science, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: - - 2014
We hypothesized that high altitude exposure and physical activity that associated with the attack to Mt Everest could alter mRNA levels of DNA repair enzymes in metabolic and cause oxidative stress- related challenges in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we have tested eight malemountaineers (25-40 years old) before and after five ...
Grande R R Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 15212, U.S.A; Department ofPharmacy, University 'G. d'Annunzio', Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100, Chieti, - - 2014
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important component of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix and is important in the establishment and persistence of Staphylococcus aureus UAMS-1 biofilms. The aim of the study was to determine the temporal expression of genes involved in early biofilm formation and eDNA production. We used ...
Haberle Vanja V 1] Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 53A, N-5008 Bergen, Norway [2] Institute of Clinical Sciences and MRC Clinical Sciences Center, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK - - 2014
A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain ...
Campagne Sébastien S 1] Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. [2] Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Bacterial transcription is controlled by sigma factors, the RNA polymerase subunits that act as initiation factors. Although a single housekeeping sigma factor enables transcription from thousands of promoters, environmentally induced sigma factors redirect gene expression toward small regulons to carry out focused responses. Using structural and functional analyses, we determined ...
Tian Xiaohui - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication are essentially restricted to hepatocytes. Based on the HBV enhancer and promoter complex that links hepatic glucose metabolism to its transcription and replication, HBV adopts a regulatory system that is unique to the hepatic gluconeogenic genes. CRTC2, the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2, is ...
Samraj Ajoy K AK Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Glostrup Research Institute, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, - - 2014
Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis ...
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