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Drexel T - - 2013
Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), emerging as two epidemics of the twenty-first century, are commonly associated with each other. Both have been mechanistically linked to changes in cardiac vagal control. The importance of peripheral chemosensors, located in the carotid body, has not been elucidated so far. We therefore ...
Konoplyannikov Mikhail M Department of Pathology, University of Cincinnati, 231Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267, - - 2013
We tested the hypothesis that simultaneous transgenic overexpression of a select quartet of growth factors activates diverse signaling pathways for mobilization and participation of various stem/progenitor cells for cardiogenesis in the infarcted heart. Human insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1a), and hepatocyte growth ...
Sciarretta Sebastiano - - 2012
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular mechanism for degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that autophagy is deeply involved in the development of cardiac disease. Autophagy is upregulated in almost all cardiac pathological states, exerting both protective and detrimental functions. Whether autophagy activation is an ...
Collino Massimo - - 2012
Heparin and low molecular weight heparins have been demonstrated to reduce myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, although their use is hampered by the risk of haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. Chemical and enzymatic modifications of K5 polysaccharide have shown the possibility of producing heparin-like compounds with low anticoagulant activity and strong anti-inflammatory ...
Zhang Min M Cardiovascular Division, James Black Centre, King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre of Excellence, London, - - 2013
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure but clinical antioxidant trials have been unsuccessful. This may be because effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depend upon their source, location, and concentration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) proteins generate ROS in a highly regulated fashion and modulate ...
Dworakowski Rafal - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate early haemodynamic changes after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and the relationship with myocardial injury and neurohormonal activation. DESIGN: Single-centre prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 42 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Haemodynamic measurements and echocardiography-derived indices ...
Maejima Yasuhiro - - 2012
Expression of GSK-3α is increased in aging hearts and those subjected to hemodynamic overload. Overexpressed GSK-3α inhibits ERK and enhances pressure overload (PO)-induced cardiac dysfunction. We studied whether suppression of the MEK1/ERK pathway contributes to cardiac responses induced by overexpressed GSK-3α using constitutively active MEK1 (CA-MEK1)/GSK-3α bigenic mice (bigenic mice), ...
Braunwald Eugene - - 2012
The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) study group, an academic research organization, was formed in 1984 with initial support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Its initial goal was to compare the effects of the then-new thrombolytic agent, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, with streptokinase. The TIMI study group ...
Arias-Loza Paula-Anahi - - 2012
Estrogens attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac contractility via their cognate estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ. Because female sex hormones enhance global glucose use and because myocardial function and mass are tightly linked to cardiac glucose metabolism, we tested the hypothesis that expression and activation of the ERα might ...
Owens A Phillip AP - - 2012
Atherothrombosis describes the acute thrombotic event that occurs after rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. It often leads to arterial occlusion and subsequent clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death. Tissue factor (TF) is the receptor for plasma factor VIIa (FVIIa) and, once formed, the TF:FVIIa complex activates the ...
Messina Andrea A Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica CNR, Area della Ricerca CNR, via Moruzzi, 1, 56100 Pisa, - - 2013
In this study, the constitutive and inducible expression of the CYP genes (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29 and 3A46), related transcriptional factors (AhR, CAR, PXR, and Nrf2) and the antioxidant enzymes SOD, catalase, GSSH-reductase and GSH-peroxidase were investigated in the liver, heart regions and coronary arteries of control pigs ...
Sobirin Mochamad Ali - - 2012
Rationale: Chronic inflammation in the myocardium is involved in the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been shown to produce inflammatory cytokines and orchestrate tissue inflammation. However, no previous studies have determined the pathophysiological role of iNKT ...
Roberts Byron N - - 2012
Cardiac rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. These impulses spread throughout the cardiac muscle to manifest as electrical waves in the whole heart. Regularity of electrical waves is critically important since they signal the heart muscle to ...
Villeneuve Christelle C INSERM, UMR 1048, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, Toulouse, - - 2013
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction participate together in the development of heart failure (HF). mRNA levels of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), increase in several models of cardiomyopathies. Therefore, we hypothesized that an increase in cardiac MAO-A could cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, ...
Akki Ashwin A Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-6568, - - 2012
Reduced myofibrillar ATP availability during prolonged myocardial ischemia may limit post-ischemic mechanical function. Because creatine kinase (CK) is the prime energy reserve reaction of the heart and because it has been difficult to augment ATP synthesis during and after ischemia, we used mice that overexpress the myofibrillar isoform of creatine ...
Donato Martin - - 2012
This investigation was designed to determine the participation of the vagus nerve and muscarinic receptors in the remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) mechanism. New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized, and the femoral artery was dissected. After 30 min of monitoring, the hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min of global no-flow ...
Ilkhanoff Leonard - - 2012
Sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is responsible for approximately 300,000 deaths in the United States, refers to an unexpected death from a cardiovascular cause in a person with or without preexisting heart disease. Most studies include cases that are associated with death occurring within 1 hour of an acute change ...
Robich Michael P - - 2012
Resveratrol has been shown to reverse some of the detrimental effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to define the impact of supplemental resveratrol on normal myocardium remote from an ischemic territory in a swine model of MetS and chronic myocardial ischemia. Yorkshire swine were fed a normal diet (control), ...
Gu Wei - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction contributes to the low survival rate after successful resuscitation, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether caspase 3-mediated apoptosis is activated in the heart after postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. METHODS: After pigs were subjected to 8 minutes of electrically induced cardiac arrest (CA), standard ...
Ishihara Yasuhiro - - 2012
Increasing evidence shows that cytochrome P450 (CYP) contributes to cardiac reperfusion injury. However, there have been few reports about the roles of CYPs in cardiac ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CYP expression and activity during ischemia using an in vivo rat model of myocardial ...
Yang Jiwen - - 2012
AIMS: The ventricular wall of the heart is composed of trabeculated and compact layers, which are separated by yet unknown processes during embryonic development. Here, we wanted to explore the role of Notch2 and Numb/Numblike for myocardial trabeculation and compaction.Methods and ResultsWe found that Notch2 activity is specifically downregulated in ...
Xiao Juan J Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR, - - 2012
Mitochondrial biogenesis program in heart appears to exhibit adaptive remodeling following biomechanical and oxidative stress. The adaptive mechanisms that protect myocardium metabolism during hypoxia are coordinated in part by nitric oxide (NO). To observe mitochondrial biogenesis and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in hearts of congenital heart disease with cyanosis, ...
Vergara Pasquale - - 2012
Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with a previous myocardial infarction is due to re-entry mechanism in areas of slow conduction. The recognition of the pathogenic mechanism and the characterization of the activation pathway are usually obtained by indirect measures with entrainment mapping and pacing manoeuvres. We studied a ...
Yetgin Tuncay - - 2012
Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an intervention in which intermittent episodes of ischemia and reperfusion in an organ or tissue distant from the target organ requiring protection, provide armour against lethal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the protection mediated through RIC have not been clearly established, the release ...
Huang Conggang - - 2012
This study examined the protective effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) and minocycline postconditioning (MT) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in atherosclerosis (AS) animals and the possible mechanism. Forty male healthy rabbits were injected with bovine serum albumin following feeding on a high fat diet for 6 weeks to establish AS ...
Constantino Jason J Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, - - 2012
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established clinical treatment modality that aims to recoordinate contraction of the heart in dyssynchrous heart failure (DHF) patients. Although CRT reduces morbidity and mortality, a significant percentage of CRT patients fail to respond to the therapy, reflecting an insufficient understanding of the electromechanical activity ...
Nagashima Ayako A Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, - - 2012
Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker, which acts as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Because PPAR-γ initiates a variety of antiinflammatory responses, the effect on myocardial ischemia is to be elucidated. The left anterior descending arteries were ligated to induce myocardial infarction in rats. The ...
Bracey Nathan A - - 2012
Heart failure is associated with a low grade and chronic cardiac inflammation that impairs function, however the mechanisms by which this sterile inflammation occurs in structural heart disease remain poorly defined. Cardiac-specific heterozygous overexpression of the calcineurin transgene (CNTg) in mice results in cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, apoptosis, and ventricular dilation. ...
Parahuleva Mariana S - - 2012
Background: Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating serine protease strongly expressed in unstable plaques and may serve as a marker of plaque destabilization. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between plasma concentrations of FSAP and clinical instability and outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods ...
Gulyás Balázs - - 2012
Although there is increasing evidence for microglial activation after an ischaemic stroke in the infarct core and the peri-infarct region, the "evolution" of the process in stroke patients is poorly known. Using PET and [((11))C]vinpocetine, we measured the regional changes of TSPO in the brain of nine ischaemic stroke patients ...
Pastori Julio Daniel - - 2012
We describe a previously unreported phenomenon of intermittent outflow right ventricular tract capture from the atrial lead of a dual-chamber pacemaker. This was more obvious at slower paced atrial rates and disappeared by decreasing the atrial pulses voltage. Electroanatomical mapping showed that the onset of activation was nearly simultaneous at ...
Schultz Harold D HD Department of Integrative/Cellular Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850, United States. - - 2012
The peripheral arterial chemoreflex, arising primarily from the carotid body in most species, plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function. The peripheral chemoreflex is enhanced in heart failure patients and animal models of heart failure and contributes to the sympathetic hyperactivity ...
Reil Jan-Christian - - 2012
AimsIn diabetes mellitus, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a significant comorbidity. No therapy is available that improves cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize myocardial function and ventricular-arterial coupling in a mouse model of diabetes and to analyse the effect of selective heart rate ...
Bordachar Pierre - - 2012
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven treatment for heart failure and requires the implantation of a left ventricular (LV) lead, usually placed in a tributary of the coronary sinus. Encouraged by the fact that approximately 30 % of the patients receiving CRT do not benefit from this therapy, LV endocardial ...
Sarquella-Brugada Georgia G Arrhythmia Unit, Cardiology Section, Sant Joan de Déu Hospital, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. - - 2013
Sudden cardiac death is a rare but socially devastating event. The most common causes of sudden cardiac death are congenital electrical disorders and structural heart diseases. The majority of these diseases have an incomplete penetrance and variable expression; therefore, patients may be unaware of their illness. In several cases, physical ...
Vilahur Gemma - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Lipids have been detected in the ischemic myocardium of patients' post-myocardial infarction (MI). However, their effect on the cardiac healing process remains unknown. We investigated whether intramyocardial lipids affect the signaling pathways involved in the fibrotic reparative response impairing cardiac healing post-MI. METHODS: Pigs, fed either a high-cholesterol diet ...
Anandan R - - 2012
Despite considerable advances in diagnosis and management over the last three decades, acute myocardial infarction continues to be a major public health problem. It is predicted that ischemic heart diseases will constitute the major disease-burden worldwide in the year 2020. In the present study, an attempt has been made to ...
Gong Dingxu - - 2012
Ischemia/reperfusion damage is common during open-heart surgery. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 can significantly reduce ischemia/reperfusion damage. We hypothesized that adding aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 agonist to regular cardioplegia solution would further ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion damage. Alda-1 was used as an aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 agonist. Cardioprotection by histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution with and without Alda-1 was compared ...
Yeh Che-Chung - - 2012
AIMS: Although activation of MEK-ERK signaling is known to be cardioprotective during acute reperfusion injury, the effect of MEK activation on chronic changes in ventricular structure and function during the more complex process of remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) with or without reperfusion remains uncertain. METHODS/RESULTS: Four weeks after permanent ...
Li Xiang-Dong - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Myocardial edema plays a role in myocardial no-reflow and infarction during ischemia and reperfusion. The effects of statins against no-reflow and infarction may relate to the inhibition of myocardial edema. The current study investigated the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in statin-reduced myocardial edema in reperfused ...
Bagur Rodrigo - - 2012
Management of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade will most often require pericardial drainage. In the absence of hemodynamic evidence of tamponade, however, management of a pericardial effusion represents a clinical dilemma. Pericardial leakage of blood may be transient, and extravasation may have stopped by time of echocardiographic assessment. Besides its usefulness ...
Aizawa Kentaro - - 2012
Background: Activation of Rho-kinase plays a central role in the pathogenesis of drug-eluting stents (DES)-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses in pigs in vivo has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, Rho-kinase activation involved in those responses in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is examined. Methods and Results: In 24 patients with ...
Ravingerová Tá┼ła - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy production, and inflammation. Their role in ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) is less clear, although research indicates involvement of PPARs in some forms of preconditioning. This study aimed to explore the effects of PPAR-α activation on the I/R injury ...
van Heerebeek Loek - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Prominent features of myocardial remodeling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) are high cardiomyocyte resting tension(F(passive)) and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In experimental models, both reacted favourably to raised protein kinase G (PKG) activity. The present study assessed myocardial PKG activity, its downstream effects on cardiomyocyte F(passive) and cardiomyocyte ...
Hogan T S - - 2012
Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity ...
Badheka Apurva O - - 2012
HYPOTHESES: Heart failure with preserved systolic function (HFPSF) has attained epidemic proportions; however evidence-based therapeutic interventions have not advanced despite continued research over the past three decades. We propose the combined use of direct renin inhibitor and carvedilol for this condition. RATIONALE: The Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) plays a ...
Nikolova Andriana - - 2012
In left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, lack of adaptive capillary growth contributes to progression to failure. Remodeling of the hypertrophied myocardium requires proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) carried out by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs, specifically MMP-9, are known to cleave ECM components to generate angiogenesis inhibitors (angiostatin, endostatin, tumstatin). ...
Carnicer Ricardo R Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Level 6, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, OX3 9DU, United - - 2012
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Oral BH4 supplementation preserves cardiac function in animal models of cardiac disease; however, the mechanisms underlying these findings are not completely understood. To study the effect of myocardial transgenic overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis, GTP cyclohydrolase ...
Hogue Bruno - - 2012
Along with redistributive shock, myocardial dysfunction is now recognized as highly prevalent in early severe sepsis. Indeed, aside from their distinct loading potency, resuscitation fluids have been poorly investigated as to their specific molecular impact on myocardial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the load-independent biological impact of different resuscitation fluids on ...
Marrus Scott B SB Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, - - 2012
Cardiac memory refers to the observation that altered cardiac electrical activation results in repolarization changes that persist after the restoration of a normal activation pattern. Animal studies, however, have yielded disparate conclusions, both regarding the spatial pattern of repolarization changes in cardiac memory and the underlying mechanisms. The present study ...
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