Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2276
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Lee Young-Hoon - - 2009
The valves and septa of the mature heart are derived from the cardiac cushions, which develop from discrete swellings in two regions of developing heart tube: the atrioventricular (AV) canal and the ventricular outflow tract (OFT). In higher vertebrates, three distinct lineages contribute to the heart valves and septa, the ...
Drenckhahn Jörg-Detlef - - 2009
The developing mammalian heart responds to a variety of conditions, including changes in nutrient availability, blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, or tissue homeostasis, with impressive growth plasticity. This ensures the formation of a functional and normal sized organ by birth. During embryonic and fetal development the heart is exposed to various physiological ...
van den Borne Susanne W M - - 2010
Myofibroblasts have characteristics of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells: they produce extracellular matrix and are able to contract. In so doing, they can contribute to tissue replacement and interstitial fibrosis following cardiac injury. The scar formed after myocardial injury is no longer considered to be passive tissue; it is an ...
Peal David S - - 2009
Defects in cardiac valvulogenesis are a common cause of congenital heart disease, and the study of this process promises to provide mechanistic insights and lead to novel therapeutics. Normal valve development involves multiple signaling pathways, and recently roles have been identified for extracellular matrix components, including glycosaminoglycans. We, therefore, explored ...
Manso Ana Maria - - 2009
How the myocardium undergoes geometric, structural, and molecular alterations that result in an end phenotype as might be seen in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy or after myocardial infarction is still poorly understood. Structural modification of the left ventricle, which occurs during these pathological states, results from long-term changes in loading ...
Byrne Melissa J - - 2010
Despite pharmacological advances for heart failure, morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. As a result, alternative approaches such as cell therapy have been suggested to hold potential promise. However, a major obstacle is the optimization of cell delivery to the heart. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of a percutaneous recirculation ...
Martino Tami A - - 2009
Diurnal rhythms influence cardiovascular physiology such as heart rate and blood pressure and the incidence of adverse cardiac events such as heart attack and stroke. For example, shift workers and patients with sleep disturbances, such as obstructive sleep apnea, have an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and sudden death. ...
Hosoda Toru - - 2010
The plasticity of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) and their ability to acquire the myocyte lineage and regenerate dead myocardium after infarction has been challenged. Similarly, although several laboratories have identified cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), the controversy concerning myocyte regeneration in the adult heart has not been resolved. The therapeutic ...
Swijnenburg Rutger-Jan - - 2010
Despite ongoing clinical trials, the optimal time for delivery of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) after myocardial infarction is unclear. We compared the viability and effects of transplanted BMCs on cardiac function in the acute and subacute inflammatory phases of myocardial infarction. The time course of acute inflammatory cell infiltration ...
Ritter Malte - - 2010
Although several antiarrhythmic drugs of chemical origin are in clinical use since decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects and especially by their inherited proarrhythmic risk, which can lead to a significantly increased mortality in patients receiving these compounds. On the other hand, aqueous extracts from the ...
Mansour Samer - - 2010
Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising approach to improve healing of the infarcted myocardium, to treat or prevent cardiac failure, and to restore lost cardiac function. Despite initial excitement, recent clinical trials using nonhomogenous human stem cells preparations showed variable results, raising concerns about the best cell type ...
Ausoni Simonetta - - 2009
Cell-mediated cardiac regeneration remains a challenge as a therapeutic option in heart failure, but modest success using experimental models suggests that a better understanding of normal histogenesis will be needed to make progress towards cardiac regeneration. Recent studies of the heart show that the interstitium informs organogenesis and responsiveness to ...
Kang Sheng - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: This study was to investigate the salvaged myocardial and microvascular endothelial cells apoptosis at the first week of reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Sixteen mini swines (20-30 kg) were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group and the AMI group. The acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion model was created, ...
Huang Wei - - 2010
A gene manipulated cell patch using a homologous peritoneum substrate was developed and applied after myocardial infarction to repair scarred myocardium. We genetically engineered male rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using adenoviral transduction to over-express CXCR4/green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MSC(CXCR4)) or MSC(Null) or siRNA targeting CXCR4 (MSC(siRNA)). Gene expression was ...
Ferrario Maurizio - - 2011
Mortality and morbidity after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain high even when myocardial reperfusion is successful. Erythropoietin (EPO) protects against experimental MI. The aim of this single-centre study was to investigate the effects of short-term high-dose erythropoietin on peripheral blood cells (PBCs) and infarct size in 30 patients with a ...
Fischer Kimberlee M - - 2009
Despite numerous studies demonstrating the efficacy of cellular adoptive transfer for therapeutic myocardial regeneration, problems remain for donated cells with regard to survival, persistence, engraftment, and long-term benefits. This study redresses these concerns by enhancing the regenerative potential of adoptively transferred cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) via genetic engineering to overexpress ...
Snider Paige - - 2009
Cardiac fibroblasts are the most populous nonmyocyte cell type within the mature heart and are required for extracellular matrix synthesis and deposition, generation of the cardiac skeleton, and to electrically insulate the atria from the ventricles. Significantly, cardiac fibroblasts have also been shown to play an important role in cardiomyocyte ...
Wang Yigang - - 2010
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced reentry of differentiated rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle. NPY also induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into cardiomyocytes following transplantation into infarcted myocardium. Rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes were treated in vitro with vehicle, NPY, fibroblast growth factor (FGF; ...
Muñoz-Chápuli Ramón - - 2010
Cardiogenesis, considered as the formation of new heart tissue from embryonic, postnatal, or adult cardiac progenitors, is a pivotal concept to understand the rationale of advanced therapies to repair the damaged heart. In this review, we focus on the cellular and molecular regulation of cardiogenesis in the developing embryo, and ...
Fan Lin - - 2009
To investigate the effect of survivin (SVV)-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on post-infarction cardiac performance and remodelling in rats. Mesenchymal stem cells from male Sprague-Dawley rat bone marrow were infected with the self-inactive lentiviral vector GFP-wre-CMV/LTR and Flap-Ubiqutin promoter (GCFU) carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and SVV recombinant vector ...
Kania Gabriela - - 2009
Heart injury from many causes can end up in a common final pathway of pathologic remodeling and fibrosis, promoting heart failure development. Dilated cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure and often results from virus-triggered myocarditis. Monocytes and monocyte-like cells represent a major subset of heart-infiltrating cells at the ...
Crossley Dane A DA - - 2009
Evolutionary morphologists and physiologists have long recognized the phylogenetic significance of the ectothermic sauropsids. Sauropids have been classically considered to bridge between early tetrapods, ectotherms, and the evolution of endotherms. This transition has been associated with many modifications in cardiovascular form and function, which have changed dramatically during the course ...
Mias C??line - - 2009
Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation significantly decreased cardiac fibrosis; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are still poorly understood. In this work, we investigated whether the antifibrotic properties of MSCs involve the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and matrix metalloproteinase endogenous inhibitor (TIMP) production by ...
Kenar H - - 2010
The heart does not regenerate new functional tissue when myocardium dies following coronary artery occlusion, or if it is defective. Ventricular restoration involves excising the infarct and replacing it with a cardiac patch to restore the heart to a more healthy condition. The goal of this study was to design ...
Zhou Yifu - - 2009
Cell-based therapies have been employed with conflicting results. Whether direct injection of ex-vivo expanded autologous marrow stromal cells (MSCs) would improve the function of ischemic myocardium and enhance angiogenesis is not well defined. In a porcine model of chronic ischemia, MSCs were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks. Sixteen animals ...
Beitnes J O - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term safety and efficacy after intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMCs) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Oslo, Norway. PATIENTS: Patients from the Autologous Stem cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ASTAMI) study were re-assessed 3 ...
Dyer Laura A - - 2009
Although de la Cruz and colleagues showed as early as 1977 that the outflow tract was added after the heart tube formed, the source of these secondarily added cells was not identified for nearly 25 years. In 2001, three pivotal publications described a secondary or anterior heart field that contributed ...
Levin Mark D MD Penn Cardiovascular Institute and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2009
Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinical cardiac arrhythmia. It is often initiated by ectopic beats arising from the pulmonary veins and atrium, but the source and mechanism of these beats remains unclear. The melanin synthesis enzyme dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) is involved in intracellular calcium and reactive species regulation in ...
Cortés Raquel - - 2010
The role of the cell nucleus in the development of heart failure (HF) is unknown, so the objectives of this study were to analyse the effect of HF on nucleocytoplasmic transport and density of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). A total of 51 human heart samples from ischaemic (ICM, n ...
Schellings Mark W M - - 2009
Cardiac remodeling after myocardial injury involves inflammation, angiogenesis, left ventricular hypertrophy and matrix remodeling. Thrombospondins (TSPs) belong to the group of matricellular proteins, which are non-structural extracellular matrix proteins that modulate cell-matrix interactions and cell function in injured tissues or tumors. They interact with different matrix and membrane-bound proteins due ...
Sekiya Naosumi - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that autologous myoblast sheets constructed with tissue-engineering techniques improved the function of the impaired heart. In this study, we evaluated the effects of layered myoblast sheets to clarify whether increasing the number of sheets provides improvement of cardiac function. METHODS: Myoblast sheets were constructed in dishes ...
Icardo Jos?? M - - 2009
This article reports on the development of the epicardium in alevins of the sturgeon Acipenser naccarii, aged 4-25 days post-hatching (dph). Epicardial development starts at 4 dph with formation of the proepicardium (PE) that arises as a bilateral structure at the boundary between the sinus venosus and the duct of ...
Altarche-Xifr? Wassim - - 2009
The expression pattern of angiotensin AT2 receptors with predominance during fetal life and upregulation under pathological conditions during tissue injury/repair process suggests that AT2 receptors may exert an important action in injury/repair adaptive mechanisms. Less is known about AT2 receptors in acute ischemia-induced cardiac injury. We aimed here to elucidate ...
Mansour S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes, resulting in impaired ventricular function. Stem cell therapy using autologous progenitor cells has emerged as a promising approach. Experimental studies have demonstrated that highly selected hematopoeitic stem cells, which are characterized by the presence of the surface markers CD34 ...
Vanhoutte Davy - - 2010
Unraveling the biological role of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) during cardiac remodeling and the progression of heart failure has proven to be an enormous challenge. Remodeling of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM), regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, TIMPs, is a well-established paradigm in cardiac health ...
Wang Meijing - - 2009
IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine known to cause tissue injury by inducing inflammation and cell death. Increased levels of IL-18 are associated with myocardial injury after ischemia or infarction. IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP), the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-18 activity, decreases the severity of inflammation in response to injury. In the ...
Michele Daniel E - - 2009
Genetic mutations in a number of putative glycosyltransferases lead to the loss of glycosylation of dystroglycan and loss of its laminin-binding activity in genetic forms of human muscular dystrophy. Human patients and glycosylation defective myd mice develop cardiomyopathy with loss of dystroglycan matrix receptor function in both striated and smooth ...
Bujak Marcin - - 2009
Interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10/CXCL10, an angiostatic and antifibrotic chemokine with an important role in T-cell trafficking, is markedly induced in myocardial infarcts, and may regulate the reparative response. To study the role of IP-10 in cardiac repair and remodeling. We studied cardiac repair in IP-10-null and wild-type (WT) mice undergoing reperfused ...
Yang Yue-Jin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Widespread death of implanted cells hampers stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Based on the pleiotropic beneficial effects of statins, we examined whether simvastatin (SIMV) increased the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chinese miniswine (n=28) were randomized to 1 of ...
Deuse Tobias - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based regenerative strategies were investigated to treat acute myocardial infarction and improve left ventricular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Murine AMI was induced by coronary ligation with subsequent injection of MSCs, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or MSCs +HGF/VEGF into the border zone. ...
Wang Xiaohong X Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, - - 2009
Using a swine model of postinfarction left ventricle (LV) remodeling, we investigated marrow-derived, multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) transplantation into hearts with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) via a novel transarterial catheter. The left anterior descending coronary artery was balloon-occluded after percutaneous transluminal angiography to generate AMI (60-minute no-flow ischemia). The transarterial ...
Goo Soyeon - - 2009
Trabeculae carneae are the smallest naturally arising collections of linearly arranged myocytes in the heart. They are the preparation of choice for studies of function of intact myocardium in vitro. In vivo, trabeculae are unique in receiving oxygen from two independent sources: the coronary circulation and the surrounding ventricular blood. ...
Johnston Peter V PV Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md, - - 2009
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from human endomyocardial biopsies reduce infarct size and improve cardiac function in mice. Safety and efficacy testing in large animals is necessary for clinical translation. Mesenchymal stem cells, which resemble CDCs in size and thrombogenicity, have been associated with infarction after intracoronary infusion. To maximize CDC ...
Xu Tao - - 2009
We report on fabricating functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the 'half heart' (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers ...
Reffelmann Thorsten - - 2009
Soon after the first experimental scientific investigations of cell transplantation in various animal models of myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, a growing number of clinical trials evaluated the effects of intracoronary injection of peripheral blood- or bone marrow-derived cells in patients with myocardial infarction or chronic ischemic heart disease. ...
Pons Jennifer - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of stem cells from various sources into infarcted hearts has the potential to promote myocardial regeneration. However, the regenerative capacity is limited partly as a result of the low survival rate of the transplanted cells in the ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ...
Jansen John A - - 2010
Gap junctions form the intercellular pathway for cell-to-cell transmission of the cardiac impulse from its site of origin, the sinoatrial node, along the atria, the atrioventricular conduction system to the ventricular myocardium. The component parts of gap junctions are proteins called connexins (Cx), of which three main isoforms are found ...
Nomura-Kitabayashi Aya - - 2009
Neural crest-specific ablation of BMP type IA receptor (BMPRIA) causes embryonic lethality by embryonic day (E) 12.5, and this was previously postulated to arise from a myocardial defect related to signaling by a small population of cardiac neural crest cells (cNCC) in the epicardium. However, as BMP signaling via cNCC ...
Bearzi Claudia - - 2009
Primitive cells capable of generating small resistance arterioles and capillary structures in the injured myocardium have been identified repeatedly. However, these cells do not form large conductive coronary arteries that would have important implications in the management of the ischemic heart. In the current study, we determined whether the human ...
Padin-Iruegas M Elena - - 2009
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) possess the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-IGF-1 receptor system, and IGF-1 can be tethered to self-assembling peptide nanofibers (NF-IGF-1), leading to prolonged release of this growth factor to the myocardium. Therefore, we tested whether local injection of clonogenic CPCs and NF-IGF-1 potentiates the activation and differentiation of ...
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