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Results 451 - 500 of 1703
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Penumathsa Suresh Varma - - 2008
Hypercholesterolemia (HC) induced endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased endothelial nitric oxide formation results in impaired angiogenesis and subsequent cardiovascular disorders. Therapeutic angiogenesis is known to be a novel strategy for treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease. We have shown that secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is angiogenic as well as cardioprotective ...
Grobe Justin L - - 2007
Cardiac remodelling is a key risk factor for the development of heart failure in the chronic phase following myocardial infarction. Our previous studies have shown an anti-remodelling role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in vivo during hypertension and that these protective effects are mediated through increased circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) ...
Bartel L C - - 2007
Nifurtimox (Nfx) and Benznidazole (Bz) are being used for the treatment of the acute phase of Chagas' disease. Recently, they were also considered for use in the indeterminate phase. Both the nitroheterocyclic drugs have serious toxic side effects. The mechanism of Nfx toxicity is associated with the formation of reactive ...
Kolettis Theofilos M - - 2007
AIMS: This study investigated whether chronic and acute amiodarone treatment has differential effects on ventricular arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-six rats were randomly allocated into vehicle, chronic oral amiodarone (30 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks), or acute amiodarone (a single dose, 100 mg/kg). Five ...
Durst Ronen - - 2007
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. Inasmuch as adenosine receptors are promising pharmaceutical targets for ischemic heart diseases, we tested the effect of CBD on ischemic rat hearts. For the in vivo studies, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ...
Hatzistergos K E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 participate in post-myocardial infarction healing, but their relative importance is unclear. We compared the treatment effects of these agents on left ventricular remodelling. DESIGN: Wistar rats were randomised into a single dose of either growth hormone (0.5microg, n=29), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (0.5microg, ...
Swaney James S - - 2007
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in left ventricular remodeling (e.g., ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis). Fibrosis contributes to increased myocardial stiffening, impaired ventricular filling and function, and reduced cardiac output. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) expression and activity are reduced in animal models of heart failure. Stimulation of AC can inhibit extracellular matrix ...
Moro Cécile - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that 1 wk after permanent coronary artery ligation in rats, some cellular mechanisms involving TNF-alpha occur and contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction and subsequent heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine whether similar phenomena also occur after ischemia-reperfusion and whether ...
Tian Hai - - 2007
The activity of TIMP-3, a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is decreased in the failing heart. This study evaluated the response to coronary ligation of cardiac structure, function, and matrix remodeling in wild-type (WT) mice, and those deficient in TIMP-3 (timp-3(-/-)). The coronary artery was ligated in timp-3(-/-) ...
Sivakumar P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents a large subset of patients with congestive heart failure (HF), and myocardial fibrosis has been shown to be associated with this process. Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a key enzyme, plays a potential role in the biogenesis of connective tissue matrices by catalyzing crosslinks in collagen and ...
Yao Yu-Yu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Tissue kallikrein is a serine proteinase that generates the vasoactive kinin peptide, which produces vasodilatory, angiogenic, and antiapoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of a stable supply of kallikrein and kinin on ventricular remodeling and blood vessel growth in rats after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Sharma Avadhesh C - - 2007
Despite the fact that septic patients exhibit altered cardiac function, it is not considered a major pathology during sepsis. Thus, the molecular mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction have not been studied extensively. In a polymicrobial septic rat model, +dP/dt and -dP/dt on day 1 were not altered but found depressed ...
Cheng Liang - - 2007
The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of U50,488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Rat heart I/R injury was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and restoring perfusion for ...
Markel Troy A - - 2007
Right and left ventricular myocytes originate from different cellular progenitors; however, it is unknown whether these cells differ in their response to endotoxemia. We hypothesized that 1) the percentage of endotoxemic functional depression within the right ventricle (RV) would be smaller than that of the left ventricle; and 2) that ...
Yamamoto Eiichiro - - 2007
The role of angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species in the exacerbation of diastolic heart failure is unknown. We examined the therapeutic effect of angiotensin blockade on hypertensive diastolic heart failure, focusing on the role of xanthine oxidoreductase and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, major enzymes producing reactive oxygen species. ...
Cabassi Aderville - - 2007
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Left ventricular hypertrophy in human and experimental hypertension is not always associated with pressure overload but seems to precede an increase in blood pressure. In this study, performed in male 5-week-old prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 65) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (n = 56), the ...
Prante Christian - - 2007
In cardiac fibrosis remodeling of the failing myocardium is associated with a complex reorganization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Xylosyltransferase I and Xylosyltransferase II (XT-I and XT-II) are the key enzymes in proteoglycan biosynthesis, which are an important fraction of the ECM. XT-I was shown to be a measure for ...
Thomas Manesh - - 2007
Zinc is a structural constituent of many proteins, including Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), an endogenous antioxidant enzyme. Hypozincemia has been found in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure, where neurohormonal activation, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is expected and oxidative stress is present. This study was undertaken to elucidate potential ...
Baldwin Steven L - - 2007
Increased myocardial stiffness in aging and diabetes that may result in pathologies such as diastolic dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to an increase in cross linking of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. With the development of new approaches to cardiovascular therapy, it becomes increasingly important to develop noninvasive ...
Iheagwara Kelechi N - - 2007
Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation often leads to cardiac dysfunction, dysrhythmias, ischemia, infarction, and death. However, the underlying mechanism of CO toxicity is poorly understood. We hypothesize that inhaled CO interrupts myocardial oxidative phosphorylation by decreasing the activity of myocardial cytochrome oxidase (CcOX), the terminal oxidase of the electron transport chain. ...
Chopra Mani - - 2007
We hypothesized that progressive decline in myocardial performance would correlate with upregulation of markers for apoptotic mechanisms following increased duration of polymicrobial sepsis in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g) were randomized into sham, 1-, 3- and 7-day sepsis groups. Each septic rat received 200 mg/kg cecal inoculum intraperitoneally ...
Abbate Antonio - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in cardiac function in animals with ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF) treated with a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. BACKGROUND: In patients with CHF, COX-2 expression was associated with features of worsening failure. However, evidence of beneficial or detrimental functional effects of COX-2 inhibition in ischemic CHF ...
Trindade Daniel C - - 2007
We investigated the morphologic and functional changes of infarcted rat hearts under a paradigm of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibition. Myocardial infarction was induced by left coronary artery ligation and a control group (SHAM) underwent sham-operation. Infarcted rats received normal drinking water with (CAP group) or without (INF group) captopril. Functional assessment ...
Berthonneche Corinne - - 2007
Myocardial infarction induces contractile dysfunction and remodeling that can lead to heart failure. Nitric oxide has been proposed as one of the major actors of this pathophysiologic process. We note that N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration from day 2 to day 7 after myocardial infarction in rats improves stroke ...
Wang, Xi
The failing heart is characterized by blunted B-adrenoceptor (B-AR) responses associated with a number of changes in the signal transduction pathway including downregulation of B-ARs, increased expression of inhibitory G-proteins and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and impaired adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities. However, a careful review of the literature reveals ...
Walia, Baljit S.
In the present study, we have investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) during the development of volume overload induced moderate heart failure. Furthermore, we have tested whether the renin angiotensin system (RAS) or specifically the activation of AT1 receptors is involved in the progression to cardiac hypertrophy and heart ...
Reid, Nicole Lynn
The structural and functional integrity of the heart can be attributed to an ex racellular matrix (ECM) composed mainly of fibrillar collagens (types I and III). Remodeling of the collagen matrix is implicit in cardiac fibrosis and this event may contribute to the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) due ...
Shao, Qiming
By employing a rat model of heart failure following coronary occlusion, we have tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of imidapril (IMP), a long acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, on heart failure are associated with revention of Ca$\sp{2+}$-handling abnormalities in cardiomyocytes. In this study, IMP (1 mg/kg, daily) was given ...
Gizurarson S - - 2007
AIMS: Severe sustained bradycardia may cause acute and possibly chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic effects of complete heart block (CHB) on cardiac function, morphology, and creatine (Cr) metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHB was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (approximately ...
Guo Jun - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of anti-inflammation for MSCs transplantation in rat models of myocardial infarction. Rats with AMI induced by occlusion of the left coronary artery were randomized to MSCs transplantation group, MI group and sham operated group. The effects of MSCs transplantation ...
Jugdutt Bodh I - - 2007
We investigated whether therapeutic drugs given during healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) modify infarct collagens and left ventricular (LV) distensibility. We treated dogs with drugs from major classes (i.e., indomethacin, ibuprofen, captopril, enalapril, verapamil, amlodipine, propranolol, isosorbide dinitrate [ISDN] and digoxin) between day 2 and 6 weeks and measured ...
Wu Limao - - 2007
As indicated in ancient Chinese medical books, Corydalis yanhusuo has therapeutic effects on cardiovascular diseases. The analgesic effect of this plant has been fully elucidated, and l-tetrahydropalmatine has been shown to be the main active principle. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate its protective effects in a rat ...
Hizume Deborah C - - 2007
Our purpose in this study was to access the pulmonary effects of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; 10 cmH2O) or without PEEP (zero PEEP-ZEEP) in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction that resulted in hypotension but not in pulmonary congestion. Wistar rats were anesthetized (1.5% isoflurane) and ...
Hu Die - - 2007
Cyclovirobuxine D is an active compound extracted from Buxus microphylla, which has been used for treating acute myocardial ischemia in China. The present study was to investigate its mechanism on myocardial ischemia. Cyclovirobuxine D significantly increased cardiomyocytes viability injured by oxidation or hypoxia. It significantly reduced the infarct size induced ...
Elmes Matthew J - - 2007
Rats exposed to protein restriction as fetuses develop hypertension as adults. Hypertension increases the risk of myocardial ischaemia and infarction. We investigated whether rats exposed to low-protein diets in utero are more susceptible to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control or low-protein (MLP) diets throughout pregnancy. ...
Sparagna Genevieve C - - 2007
The mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin is required for optimal mitochondrial respiration. In this study, cardiolipin molecular species and cytochrome oxidase (COx) activity were studied in interfibrillar (IF) and subsarcolemmal (SSL) cardiac mitochondria from Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats throughout their natural life span. Fisher Brown Norway (FBN) ...
Schneider Mikael - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein S100A4 (also known as Mts1 and Fsp1) is involved in fibrosis and tissue remodeling in several diseases including cancer, kidney fibrosis, central nervous system injury, and pulmonary vascular disease. We previously reported that S100A4 mRNA expression was increased in hypertrophic rat hearts and that it ...
Pantos Constantinos - - 2007
The present study investigated whether changes in thyroid hormone (TH) signalling can occur after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with possible physiological consequences on myocardial performance. TH may regulate several genes encoding important structural and regulatory proteins particularly through the TR alpha 1 receptor which is predominant in the myocardium. AMI ...
Liu Xiang - - 2007
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the combination of 2 angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor 165(VEGF165) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), could increase angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte(CM) proliferation in an infarcted myocardium. METHODS: Myocardial ischemia was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) ...
Lee Tsung-Ming - - 2007
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) determines the acetylation status of histones and, thereby, controls the regulation of gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have been shown to inhibit cardiomyocyte growth in vitro and in vivo. We assessed whether HDAC inhibitors exert a beneficial effect on the remodeling heart in infarcted rats. At 24 h ...
Pinto V D - - 2007
AIM: Myocardial infarction (MI) induces a progressive ventricular remodelling leading to a contractility depression. During the acute phase of MI inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production increases in the heart. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of iNOS in the left ...
Dedkov Eduard I - - 2007
We tested the hypothesis that chronically reducing the heart rate in infarcted middle-aged rats using ivabradine (IVA) would induce arteriolar growth and attenuate perivascular collagen and, thereby, improve maximal perfusion and coronary reserve in the surviving myocardium. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in 12-mo-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then ...
Omerovic Elmir - - 2007
Excessive sympathetic activity is believed to be the key arrhythmogenic factor both in the setting of acute myocardial infarction and during chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neuropeptide Y2 blockade on malignant ventricular arrhythmias in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Vagotonic dose-finding ...
Kristek F - - 2007
We evaluated the long-term effect of NO-donor, pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (Petn), and sildenafil citrate (sildenafil) on the cardiovascular system of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Petn (100 mg/kg/day) and sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day) were administered to SHR individually or together from week 4 (pre-hypertensive period) to week 9 of age. Blood pressure ...
Jozefowicz Elsa - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, on cardiac function in a rat endotoxemia model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Three-month-old male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were fed with standard diet containing no drug or fenofibrate (0.2%) for 14 ...
Habibi Javad - - 2007
Angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-stimulated increases in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity and oxidative stress are known to play a key role in cardiac remodeling. Inhibition of isoprenylation and activation of small G proteins, such as Rac1, a component of NADPH oxidase, may mediate the antioxidant actions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme ...
Brower Gregory L - - 2007
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors represent the front-line pharmacological treatment of heart failure, which is characterized by left ventricular (LV) dilatation and inappropriate hypertrophy. The mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors is still unclear, but evidence suggests that they may act by influencing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. This study sought to ...
Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska Agnieszka - - 2007
Experimental objectives. Because myocardial infarct is associated with overactivation of brain angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin (AVP) V1a receptors we decided to determine whether AT1 and V1a receptors-mediated effects of ANG II and AVP interact in central cardiovascular control during the post-infarct state. Four groups of infarcted and four ...
Krishnamurthy Prasanna - - 2007
Sympathetic nerve activity increases in the heart during cardiac failure. Here, we hypothesized that beta1 integrins play a protective role in chronic beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated cardiac myocyte apoptosis and heart failure. L-isoproterenol (iso; 400 microg/kg per hour) was infused in a group of wild-type (WT) and beta1 integrin heterozygous knockout (hKO) ...
Ieishi Kiyoshi - - 2007
PURPOSE: It has been reported that G-CSF administration improves cardiac function by reducing the area of the infarct in a myocardial infarction model rat. In the present study, myocardial infarction model rats, produced by ligation of the left anterior coronary artery, were prepared. The G-CSF effect for treating cardiac muscle ...
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