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Results 451 - 500 of 1726
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Stones Rachel R Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, - - 2008
Mechanical stimulation has important consequences for myocardial function. However, this stimulation and the response to it, is not uniform. The right ventricle is thinner walled and operates at lower pressure than the left ventricle. Within the ventricles, differences in the orientation of myocardial fibres exist. These differences produce inhomogeneity in ...
Der Sarkissian Shant - - 2008
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been linked to cardiac dysfunction and hypertension-induced cardiac pathophysiology. In this study, we used a gene overexpression approach to investigate the role of ACE2 in cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction. Rats received an intracardiac injection of 4.5x10(8) lentivirus containing ACE2 cDNA, followed ...
Fukui Shinya - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Midkine is expressed in the developing fetus and in adult organs stressed by ischemia, but its physiologic role in ischemic organs is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of midkine on cardiac remodeling after ischemia caused by myocardial infarction. METHODS: The expression pattern of the endogenous midkine gene ...
Burchill L - - 2008
Patients with kidney failure are at high risk of a cardiac death and frequently develop left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The mechanisms involved in the cardiac structural changes that occur in kidney failure are yet to be fully delineated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a newly described enzyme that is expressed ...
Ohno Tomoyuki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have known that endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and oxidative stress may play a key role in cardiac performance in failing rat hearts. However, the interactions between eNOS or oxidative stress and bradykinin (BK) under treatment of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) remain unknown. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the ...
Shreesh K. Ojha
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of <i>Tribulus terrestris </i>Linn. (Family; Zygophyllaceae), a traditional medicine used in Indian and Chinese systems of medicine. Wistar male albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into three main experimental groups; sham (saline treated only), isoproterenol ...
Armour, Sylvia
It has been found that there are gender differences in the cardiovascular system that result with the male gender being at an advantage after a myocardial infarction (MI) (Norton et al, 2008). In an effort to understand the cause of these differences, researchers have investigated the effects of testosterone on ...
Meng Hua - - 2008
Angelica and ChuanXiong are used to cure ischemic heart disease in China. Previous studies found that these two herbs could increase myocardial blood flow, oxygen-supply and keep myocardial oxygen balance, etc. However, the mechanisms of angiogenic effects of these two herbs are not well-known. The purpose of this study was ...
Ciulla Michele M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Bone Marrow (BM) progenitor cells can target the site of myocardial injury, contributing to tissue repair by neovascolarization and/or by a possible direct paracrine effect on the inflammatory cascade. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are effective in reducing mortality and preventing left ventricular (LV) function deterioration after myocardial infarction. ...
He Haibo - - 2008
The present study was conducted to investigate whether hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) has a protective effect on acute and chronic heart failure (AHF/CHF) induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 3 h and 8 weeks, respectively. The rats were divided into the following groups: sham operation, ...
Cosyns Bernard - - 2008
The role of structural and functional abnormalities of small vessels in diabetes cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Myocardial contrast echocardiography allows the quantification of myocardial blood flow at rest and during dipyridamole infusion. The aim of the study was to determine the myocardial blood flow reserve in normal rats compared with streptozotocin-induced ...
Zhao Xiao-Yan - - 2008
Diminished myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity and upregulated phospholamban (PLB) level during cardiac dysfunction, had been reported in many studies. The current study was designed to examine the effects of rAAV-antisense phospholamban (asPLB) gene transfer on cardiac function, SERCA expression and activity, as well as PLB expression and phosphorylation ...
Sanganalmath Santosh K - - 2008
Antiplatelet agents, sarpogrelate (SAR), a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, and cilostazol (CIL), a phosphodiesterase III (PDE-III) inhibitor, are used for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. We tested whether these agents affect cardiac function and subcellular remodelling in congestive heart failure (CHF) induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Three weeks after MI, ...
Miranda Amarildo - - 2007
In animal models the evaluation of myocardial infarct size in vivo and its relation to the actual lesion found post mortem is still a challenge. The purpose of the current study was to address if the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or echocardiogram (ECHO) could be used to adequately predict the size ...
Zagorski John - - 2007
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a strong risk factor for poor clinical outcome following pulmonary embolism (PE), the third most prevalent cardiovascular disease. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that RV failure during PE is mediated, in part, by neutrophil-dependant cardiac inflammation. In this study we use DNA microarray analysis ...
Frantz S - - 2007
Clinical data suggest an association of increased serum androgens with cardiovascular mortality in females, but not in males. Therefore, we examined effects of chronic anabolic testosterone administration on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in female rats. Ovariectomized adult female rats were treated with placebo, supraphysiologic testosterone undecanoate (T), estradiol ...
Veeraveedu Punniyakoti T - - 2008
Torasemide is a long-acting loop diuretic that combines the effects of both furosemide and spironolactone. It has been reported that torasemide may block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and therefore it might attenuate myocardial remodeling accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction. However, nothing is known about the effect of torasemide on myocardial remodeling ...
Bencsik P - - 2008
Sensory neuropathy develops in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. diabetes, dyslipidemia), but its pathological consequences in the heart are unclear. We have previously shown that systemic sensory chemodenervation by capsaicin leads to impaired myocardial relaxation and diminished cardiac nitric oxide (NO) content. Here we examined the mechanism of ...
Li Yong-shun - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Most cardiac regenerative approaches can restore injured heart muscles. In this study, we investigated if fibrin sealant could help neonatal cardiomyocytes restore myocardial function in a rat model of myocardial infarction. METHODS: The left anterior descending artery in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was ligated to make a myocardial ...
Wang Jian - - 2008
We investigated the effects of partial left ventricular unloading on failing rat hearts by using heterotopic heart-lung transplantation model. Heart failure (HF) was induced in Lewis rats by ligating the left anterior descending artery. After four weeks, the infarcted hearts and lungs were harvested and transplanted into the recipient rats ...
El-Bahai M N - - 2009
The intrinsic cardiac responses to 2-months Nigella sativa (black seed) oral supplementation (800 mg/kg) in rats were investigated. The isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation to demonstrate the effects of N. sativa on the baseline inotropic and chronotropic functions and the myocardial flow rate. N. sativa supplementation induced ...
Piegari Elena - - 2008
The aim of our study was to determine if strain (S) and strain rate (SR) imaging are more sensitive indices with respect to standard echocardiographic parameters to assess cardiac function in an experimental model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX was administered intraperitoneally 4x/wk at the dose of 1.25 mg/kg/d over ...
Bujak Marcin M Section of Cardiovascular Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2007
Postinfarction cardiac repair is regulated through timely activation and repression of inflammatory pathways, followed by transition to fibrous tissue deposition and formation of a scar. The transforming growth factor-beta/Smad3 pathway is activated in healing infarcts and may regulate cellular events critical for the inflammatory and the fibrotic responses. We examined ...
Penumathsa Suresh Varma SV Molecular Cardiology and Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-1110, - - 2008
Hypercholesterolemia (HC) induced endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased endothelial nitric oxide formation results in impaired angiogenesis and subsequent cardiovascular disorders. Therapeutic angiogenesis is known to be a novel strategy for treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease. We have shown that secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is angiogenic as well as cardioprotective ...
Grobe Justin L - - 2007
Cardiac remodelling is a key risk factor for the development of heart failure in the chronic phase following myocardial infarction. Our previous studies have shown an anti-remodelling role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in vivo during hypertension and that these protective effects are mediated through increased circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) ...
Bartel L C - - 2007
Nifurtimox (Nfx) and Benznidazole (Bz) are being used for the treatment of the acute phase of Chagas' disease. Recently, they were also considered for use in the indeterminate phase. Both the nitroheterocyclic drugs have serious toxic side effects. The mechanism of Nfx toxicity is associated with the formation of reactive ...
Kolettis Theofilos M - - 2007
AIMS: This study investigated whether chronic and acute amiodarone treatment has differential effects on ventricular arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-six rats were randomly allocated into vehicle, chronic oral amiodarone (30 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks), or acute amiodarone (a single dose, 100 mg/kg). Five ...
Durst Ronen - - 2007
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. Inasmuch as adenosine receptors are promising pharmaceutical targets for ischemic heart diseases, we tested the effect of CBD on ischemic rat hearts. For the in vivo studies, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ...
Hatzistergos K E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 participate in post-myocardial infarction healing, but their relative importance is unclear. We compared the treatment effects of these agents on left ventricular remodelling. DESIGN: Wistar rats were randomised into a single dose of either growth hormone (0.5microg, n=29), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (0.5microg, ...
Swaney James S - - 2007
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in left ventricular remodeling (e.g., ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis). Fibrosis contributes to increased myocardial stiffening, impaired ventricular filling and function, and reduced cardiac output. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) expression and activity are reduced in animal models of heart failure. Stimulation of AC can inhibit extracellular matrix ...
Moro Cécile - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that 1 wk after permanent coronary artery ligation in rats, some cellular mechanisms involving TNF-alpha occur and contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction and subsequent heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine whether similar phenomena also occur after ischemia-reperfusion and whether ...
Tian Hai - - 2007
The activity of TIMP-3, a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is decreased in the failing heart. This study evaluated the response to coronary ligation of cardiac structure, function, and matrix remodeling in wild-type (WT) mice, and those deficient in TIMP-3 (timp-3(-/-)). The coronary artery was ligated in timp-3(-/-) ...
Sivakumar P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents a large subset of patients with congestive heart failure (HF), and myocardial fibrosis has been shown to be associated with this process. Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a key enzyme, plays a potential role in the biogenesis of connective tissue matrices by catalyzing crosslinks in collagen and ...
Cheng Liang - - 2007
The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of U50,488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Rat heart I/R injury was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and restoring perfusion for ...
Yao Yu-Yu YY Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, - - 2007
Tissue kallikrein is a serine proteinase that generates the vasoactive kinin peptide, which produces vasodilatory, angiogenic, and antiapoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of a stable supply of kallikrein and kinin on ventricular remodeling and blood vessel growth in rats after myocardial infarction. At 1 week after ...
Sharma Avadhesh C AC Cardionome Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA. - - 2007
Despite the fact that septic patients exhibit altered cardiac function, it is not considered a major pathology during sepsis. Thus, the molecular mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction have not been studied extensively. In a polymicrobial septic rat model, +dP/dt and -dP/dt on day 1 were not altered but found depressed ...
Markel Troy A - - 2007
Right and left ventricular myocytes originate from different cellular progenitors; however, it is unknown whether these cells differ in their response to endotoxemia. We hypothesized that 1) the percentage of endotoxemic functional depression within the right ventricle (RV) would be smaller than that of the left ventricle; and 2) that ...
Yamamoto Eiichiro - - 2007
The role of angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species in the exacerbation of diastolic heart failure is unknown. We examined the therapeutic effect of angiotensin blockade on hypertensive diastolic heart failure, focusing on the role of xanthine oxidoreductase and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, major enzymes producing reactive oxygen species. ...
Cabassi Aderville - - 2007
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Left ventricular hypertrophy in human and experimental hypertension is not always associated with pressure overload but seems to precede an increase in blood pressure. In this study, performed in male 5-week-old prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 65) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (n = 56), the ...
Prante Christian - - 2007
In cardiac fibrosis remodeling of the failing myocardium is associated with a complex reorganization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Xylosyltransferase I and Xylosyltransferase II (XT-I and XT-II) are the key enzymes in proteoglycan biosynthesis, which are an important fraction of the ECM. XT-I was shown to be a measure for ...
Thomas Manesh - - 2007
Zinc is a structural constituent of many proteins, including Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), an endogenous antioxidant enzyme. Hypozincemia has been found in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure, where neurohormonal activation, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is expected and oxidative stress is present. This study was undertaken to elucidate potential ...
Baldwin Steven L - - 2007
Increased myocardial stiffness in aging and diabetes that may result in pathologies such as diastolic dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to an increase in cross linking of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. With the development of new approaches to cardiovascular therapy, it becomes increasingly important to develop noninvasive ...
Iheagwara Kelechi N KN Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, - - 2007
Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation often leads to cardiac dysfunction, dysrhythmias, ischemia, infarction, and death. However, the underlying mechanism of CO toxicity is poorly understood. We hypothesize that inhaled CO interrupts myocardial oxidative phosphorylation by decreasing the activity of myocardial cytochrome oxidase (CcOX), the terminal oxidase of the electron transport chain. ...
Chopra Mani M Cardionome Laboratory Department of Biomedical Sciences Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX 75246, - - 2007
We hypothesized that progressive decline in myocardial performance would correlate with upregulation of markers for apoptotic mechanisms following increased duration of polymicrobial sepsis in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g) were randomized into sham, 1-, 3- and 7-day sepsis groups. Each septic rat received 200 mg/kg cecal inoculum intraperitoneally ...
Abbate Antonio - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in cardiac function in animals with ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF) treated with a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. BACKGROUND: In patients with CHF, COX-2 expression was associated with features of worsening failure. However, evidence of beneficial or detrimental functional effects of COX-2 inhibition in ischemic CHF ...
Trindade Daniel C - - 2007
We investigated the morphologic and functional changes of infarcted rat hearts under a paradigm of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibition. Myocardial infarction was induced by left coronary artery ligation and a control group (SHAM) underwent sham-operation. Infarcted rats received normal drinking water with (CAP group) or without (INF group) captopril. Functional assessment ...
Berthonneche Corinne - - 2007
Myocardial infarction induces contractile dysfunction and remodeling that can lead to heart failure. Nitric oxide has been proposed as one of the major actors of this pathophysiologic process. We note that N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration from day 2 to day 7 after myocardial infarction in rats improves stroke ...
Wang, Xi
The failing heart is characterized by blunted B-adrenoceptor (B-AR) responses associated with a number of changes in the signal transduction pathway including downregulation of B-ARs, increased expression of inhibitory G-proteins and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and impaired adenylyl cyclase (AC) activities. However, a careful review of the literature reveals ...
Walia, Baljit S.
In the present study, we have investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) during the development of volume overload induced moderate heart failure. Furthermore, we have tested whether the renin angiotensin system (RAS) or specifically the activation of AT1 receptors is involved in the progression to cardiac hypertrophy and heart ...
Reid, Nicole Lynn
The structural and functional integrity of the heart can be attributed to an ex racellular matrix (ECM) composed mainly of fibrillar collagens (types I and III). Remodeling of the collagen matrix is implicit in cardiac fibrosis and this event may contribute to the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) due ...
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