Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1700
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Ballo Piercarlo - - 2004
AIMS: To analyse whether heart rate may affect the efficacy of adenosine, verapamil and carotid sinus massage in terminating symptomatic episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population was selected among 175 adult patients, affected by symptomatic PSVT. One hundred and six of them ...
Monnink S H J - - 2004
Coronary vasomotor function plays an important role in onset and progression of coronary artery disease. Suwaidi [Circulation 101 (2000) 948] and Schächinger [Circulation 101 (2000) 1899] demonstrated that vasomotor dysfunction has a significant impact on events in patients with minimal coronary artery disease. Endothelial specific testing can be performed in ...
Rosales Oscar R - - 2004
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside available for the diagnosis and treatment of various cardiovascular conditions. It may be given for pharmacologic stress tests as well as administered directly into the coronary arteries during cardiac catheterization. The latter treatment may be utilized to measure fractional flow reserve in addition to treating ...
Jones Richard D - - 2004
Recent clinical studies have reported that testosterone therapy reduces myocardial ischaemia in men with coronary artery disease, and the beneficial modulation of coronary vascular tone by testosterone has been proposed as an effector mechanism. Maintenance of a correct response to vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory agents is essential in the control of ...
Teragawa H - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine how C reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation, is related to coronary endothelial function. DESIGN: Changes in quantitative coronary angiographic findings and Doppler flow velocity measurements in response to locally infused acetylcholine were assessed. SETTING: Tertiary cardiology centre. PATIENTS: 46 patients with angiographically normal coronary ...
Steinhauff Silke S Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Munich-Grosshadern, 81377 Munich, - - 2004
We evaluated the potential of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) to modulate resting coronary vasomotor tone and endothelial dysfunction, and to decrease vascular oxidative stress and endothelin (ET)-1 activity in human heart transplant recipients. Coronary vasomotor responses and transcardiac metabolism of glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and ET-1 were determined before and after ...
Okajima Masaki - - 2004
On the basis of in vitro experiments showing that endothelin (ET)-1 interferes with smooth muscle ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opening, which is pivotal in beta-adrenergic coronary dilation, we hypothesized that pathophysiological plasma ET-1 levels impair beta-adrenergic dilation of resistance coronary vessels. In conscious instrumented dogs, graded intravenous doses of dobutamine ...
Mori Masanobu - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase type III inhibitors are often delivered by continuous intravenous infusion without initial loading to prevent hypotension, i.e., by "slow induction". We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of olprinone slow induction after open-heart surgery. METHODS: Olprinone was infused at a rate of 0.2 microg x kg(-1) x ...
Nishikawa Yasuhiro - - 2004
The heart constitutively expresses heme oxygenase (HO)-2, which catabolizes heme-containing proteins to produce biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO). The heart also contains many possible substrates for HO-2 such as heme groups of myoglobin and cytochrome P-450s, which potentially could be metabolized into CO. As a result of observations that CO ...
Asanuma Hiroshi - - 2004
Carvedilol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with a vasodilatory action that is more effective for the treatment of congestive heart failure than other beta-blockers. Recently, carvedilol has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, which may consequently reduce the deactivation of adenosine-producing enzymes and increase cardiac adenosine levels. Therefore, carvedilol may also ...
Lamping Kathryn G - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Determining the role of specific muscarinic (M) receptor subtypes mediating responses to acetylcholine (ACh) has been limited by the specificity of pharmacological agents. Deletion of the gene for M5 receptors abolished response to ACh in cerebral blood vessels but did not affect dilation of coronary arteries. The goal of ...
Tentolouris Costas - - 2004
The effects of an intracoronary infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (LNMMA) followed by intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin in non-stenotic proximal and distal coronary segments were studied in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and in 19 subjects with "normal arteriograms". In normal subjects, LNMMA induced significant constriction (p<0.01) of proximal and distal ...
Aarnoudse Wilbert - - 2004
By injecting a few cubic centimeters of saline into the coronary artery and using thermodilution principles, mean transit time (T(mn)) of the injectate can be calculated and is inversely proportional to coronary blood flow. Because microvascular resistance equals distal coronary pressure (P(d)) divided by myocardial flow, the product P(d). T(mn) ...
Wang Sheng - - 2004
Flavonoids are known to relax isolated large arteries, but the cardiovascular actions of flavonoids are not well studied in vivo. Hence, we determined the systemic and regional haemodynamic responses to a novel synthetic flavonol, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF), in conscious sheep previously instrumented with flow probes on the aorta and coronary, mesenteric, ...
Asanuma Hiroshi - - 2004
Methotrexate, an anti-rheumatic agent, has recently been reported to show an anti-inflammatory action via ecto-5'-nucleotidase- and adenosine-dependent mechanisms. Because ecto-5'-nucleotidase contributes to the production of adenosine and adenosine has a potent cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, we investigated whether methotrexate or MX-68 [N-1-((2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl) methyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzothiazine-7- carbonyl]-N-2- aminoadipic acid] could reduce infarct ...
Farouque H M Omar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence indicates that ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels regulate coronary blood flow (CBF). However, their contribution to human coronary metabolic vasodilation is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventeen patients (12 male, age 58+/-10 years) were studied. Coronary hemodynamics were assessed before and after K(ATP) channel inhibition with subselective intracoronary glibenclamide ...
Miner S E S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uses arginine for the production of nitric oxide (NO). High intracellular concentrations of arginine suggest that NOS activity should be independent of plasma arginine supply. However, under certain conditions, increased plasma arginine concentrations appear to be associated with increased NOS activity. The purpose of this ...
Schindler Thomas H - - 2004
The aims of this study were to determine whether responses in myocardial blood flow (MBF) to the cold pressor testing (CPT) method noninvasively with PET correlate with an established and validated index of flow-dependent coronary vasomotion on quantitative angiography. METHODS: Fifty-six patients (57 +/- 6 y; 16 with hypertension, 10 ...
Ouattara Alexandre - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that in vitro coronary and myocardial effects of propofol (10-300 microM) should be significantly modified in an isolated and erythrocyte-perfused rabbit heart model in the absence (PaO(2) = 137 +/- 16 mm Hg, n = 12) or in the presence (PaO(2) = 541 +/- 138 mm ...
Krams Rob - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The present study introduces a modification of the diastolic coronary conductance concept that maintains its sensitive properties to detect changes in the coronary microcirculation in human hypertrophy. BACKGROUND: Decrements of coronary flow in hypertrophy have been explained by changes in the coronary microcirculation. No measure is available to detect ...
Litmathe Jens - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In spite of progress in diagnosis and treatment, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remains a serious medical problem. Among many issues, the pathophysiology of the coronary circulation in HOCM has not yet been fully examined. AIM: To assess coronary flow reserve in HOCM. METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 ...
Mericli Metin - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that female sex hormone depletion and estradiol replacement therapy significantly influences the biomechanical properties of intramural coronary resistance arteries. DESIGN: Female rats (n=30) were divided into three groups. In group O, rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy. Group HRT was subjected to bilateral ovariectomy and ...
Veeravalli K K - - 2004
Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator in the coronary vascular bed. Endothelial mediators released by bradykinin include nitric oxide, prostacyclin and as yet unidentified endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factors. We wished to determine the involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in the cardioprotective actions mediated by bradykinin via the combined inhibition ...
Konidala Srilakshmi - - 2004
Under physiologic conditions, epicardial arteries contribute minimally to coronary vascular resistance. However, in the presence of endothelial dysfunction, stimuli that normally produce vasodilation may instead cause constriction. Examples include neural release of acetylcholine or norepinephrine, platelet activation and production of serotonin and thrombin, and release of local factors such as ...
Widlansky Michael E - - 2004
In humans with cardiovascular risk factors, increased vascular production of superoxide anion may contribute to endothelial dysfunction by its reacting with nitric oxide and reducing its biological activity. High concentrations of ascorbic acid scavenge superoxide anion and restore normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate the ...
Sun Yi-Hui - - 2004
Wave-intensity analysis, which separates upstream from downstream events and defines their interaction, has been used to study the effects of changes in left ventricular (LV) contractility (E(max)) and left circumflex coronary artery resistance (R(LCx)) on the coronary systolic flow impediment (CSFI). In 10 anesthetized, open-chest dogs, we measured coronary, aortic, ...
Matsuda Keiji - - 2003
Because atherosclerotic plaque burden affects the likelihood of plaque rupture, it is important to determine the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaque. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction becomes more prominent with development of atherosclerotic plaque; therefore, we examined the relation between coronary endothelial dysfunction and the presence of atherosclerotic plaque. ...
Tiefenbacher Christiane P - - 2004
Long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonists and statins reduces cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease as well as chronic heart failure. Little is known about the acute effects of these compounds on vascular reactivity of coronary resistance ...
De Matteo R - - 2003
Increased circulating levels of adrenomedullin (ADM) cause peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension, accompanied by cardiac actions including tachycardia and increases in cardiac contractility, cardiac output, coronary conductance (CC) and coronary blood flow (CBF). It is unclear to what extent these cardiac effects are direct actions of ADM or secondary to the ...
Dabisch Paul A - - 2003
Ephedrine is a mixed adrenergic agonist, stimulating both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. The effects of ephedrine use include increases in heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood pressure, and its use is associated with serious cardiovascular events such as stroke, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. The vascular endothelium plays a ...
Nakamura Shin-ichi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The minor -588T allele of polymorphism -588C/T of a modifier subunit gene in glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM), a rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, was associated with lower plasma GSH levels and was a risk factor for myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined effects of the -588C/T polymorphism on ...
Liao Yulin - - 2003
Sympathomimetic stimulation, angiotensin II, or endothelin-1 is considered to be an essential stimulus mediating ventricular hypertrophy. Adenosine is known to protect the heart from excessive catecholamine exposure, reduce production of endothelin-1, and attenuate the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. These findings suggest that adenosine may also attenuate myocardial hypertrophy. To ...
Ruel Marc - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Discrepancy exists between the potent effects of therapeutic angiogenesis in laboratory animals and the marginal results observed in patients with advanced coronary artery disease. In vitro and small animal data suggest that angiogenesis may depend on locally available nitric oxide (NO), but the impact of endothelial dysfunction on therapeutic ...
Meuwissen Martijn - - 2003
Adequate patient selection for percutaneous coronary intervention is of utmost importance to minimize early and late complications. Consequently, objective evidence for myocardial ischemia is mandatory for the management of patients with coronary artery disease, in particular in multivessel disease and intermediate lesions (40-70% diameter stenosis on angiography). The use of ...
Goebel S - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: To date, investigation of coronary arteriole vasomotor activity has been limited to arterioles >30- 40 microm. Here, we introduce a new experimental model to allow for in situ microscopy of terminal coronary arterioles. METHODS: Rat hearts were perfused in a closed loop system (priming volume 20 ml) which was ...
Villarreal Francisco - - 2003
The increasing incidence of congestive heart failure has stimulated efforts to develop pharmacologic strategies to prevent or reverse the associated process of adverse cardiac remodeling. The possibility of utilizing endogenously generated factors that are capable of inhibiting this process is beginning to be explored. Adenosine, has been described as a ...
Prasad Abhiram - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction may potentially lead to myocardial ischemia and to the progression of heart failure. Though endothelial dysfunction is associated with advanced heart failure in humans, relatively little is known regarding their temporal relationship. Thus, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial dysfunction ...
Oishi Yasuhisa - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction after brain death, which are thought to be mainly associated with massive catecholamine release, have not been fully elucidated, especially with respect to the coronary circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in function of the coronary artery and its ...
Emani Sitaram M - - 2003
Although percutaneous, adenoviral-mediated intracoronary gene delivery to the heart has been demonstrated in some species, consistent and safe methodology is needed before clinical applicability is possible. In this study, we examine the effects of altering intracoronary flow rate and obtaining an adequate seal between the catheter and the coronary lumen ...
McLeod Andrew L - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Arterial remodeling may increase or decrease the luminal encroachment of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary circulation. However, the factors determining the nature and consequences of the remodeling process remain poorly characterized. The study aims were to assess whether the pattern of vascular remodeling influences the physical and vasomotor responses ...
Lacza Zsombor - - 2003
Nitric oxide (NO) in contrast to most prostanoids, plays a major role in the maintenance of coronary arterial tone under physiological conditions. However, in case of endothelial damage or other NO-depleting situations the importance of other vasodilating mechanisms may be increased. The aim of the present study was to investigate ...
Masugata Hisashi - - 2003
The authors examined the ability of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to assess adenosine-induced coronary steal in the setting of coronary artery occlusion. The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded in 8 open-chest dogs. Real-time MCE was performed during LAD occlusion, and the extent of opacification defects from ...
Le D Elizabeth - - 2003
Diminished myocardial function can be seen in chronic coronary stenosis (CS) even in the presence of normal resting myocardial blood flow. We hypothesized that adenosine contributes to myocardial depression in this setting, predominantly through activation of the A(1) adenosine receptor. To test this hypothesis we used aminophylline, a nonselective adenosine ...
Murtagh Blaithnead - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The achievement of maximal vasodilatation of the coronary microvessels is mandatory for the accurate determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR); the optimal dosing to achieve maximal vasodilation is unclear. This study was designed to address the hypothesis that incremental doses of intracoronary adenosine are necessary to ensure complete vasodilatation ...
Beltrame John F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is an angiographic finding characterized by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI)-2 flow in the absence of significant large vessel coronary disease. Although clinical and pathological features have been previously described, the underlying pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the persistence ...
Watanabe Kouki - - 2003
We examined the effects of cilostazol on impaired coronary arterial responses in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA). Thirty patients who were diagnosed with VSA based on an acetylcholine provocation test and 10 subjects with normal coronary arteries were enrolled. The patients were divided into the following 3 groups: no antiplatelet ...
Takagi Yuichiro - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with harmonic power Doppler (HPD) employing a simple ultrasound pulsing sequence enables estimation of the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients. BACKGROUND: Contrast intensity (CI) during MCE with intravenous microbubble infusion is dependent on the myocardial blood flow velocity (MBFV) and ...
Bonetti Piero O - - 2003
Experimental hypercholesterolemia is characterized by increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) activity and is associated with an attenuated myocardial perfusion response and an inappropriate increase in coronary microvascular permeability during episodes of increased myocardial demand. This study was designed to determine the effect of chronic selective ET type A (ET(A)) receptor antagonism on ...
Michaels Andrew D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Nesiritide, recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide, has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of decompensated heart failure. The effects of intravenous nesiritide on the human coronary vasculature have not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients underwent right and left heart catheterization. Baseline coronary blood flow was ...
Casadei Barbara - - 2003
In the heart, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced by the vascular and endocardial endothelium, the cardiomyocytes and the autonomic nerves. Whereas stimulation of NO release from the vascular endothelium has consistently been shown to quicken the onset of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and cause a small reduction in peak ...
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