Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1681
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Krams Rob - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The present study introduces a modification of the diastolic coronary conductance concept that maintains its sensitive properties to detect changes in the coronary microcirculation in human hypertrophy. BACKGROUND: Decrements of coronary flow in hypertrophy have been explained by changes in the coronary microcirculation. No measure is available to detect ...
Litmathe Jens - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In spite of progress in diagnosis and treatment, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remains a serious medical problem. Among many issues, the pathophysiology of the coronary circulation in HOCM has not yet been fully examined. AIM: To assess coronary flow reserve in HOCM. METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 ...
Mericli Metin - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that female sex hormone depletion and estradiol replacement therapy significantly influences the biomechanical properties of intramural coronary resistance arteries. DESIGN: Female rats (n=30) were divided into three groups. In group O, rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy. Group HRT was subjected to bilateral ovariectomy and ...
Veeravalli K K - - 2004
Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator in the coronary vascular bed. Endothelial mediators released by bradykinin include nitric oxide, prostacyclin and as yet unidentified endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factors. We wished to determine the involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in the cardioprotective actions mediated by bradykinin via the combined inhibition ...
Konidala Srilakshmi - - 2004
Under physiologic conditions, epicardial arteries contribute minimally to coronary vascular resistance. However, in the presence of endothelial dysfunction, stimuli that normally produce vasodilation may instead cause constriction. Examples include neural release of acetylcholine or norepinephrine, platelet activation and production of serotonin and thrombin, and release of local factors such as ...
Widlansky Michael E - - 2004
In humans with cardiovascular risk factors, increased vascular production of superoxide anion may contribute to endothelial dysfunction by its reacting with nitric oxide and reducing its biological activity. High concentrations of ascorbic acid scavenge superoxide anion and restore normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate the ...
Sun Yi-Hui - - 2004
Wave-intensity analysis, which separates upstream from downstream events and defines their interaction, has been used to study the effects of changes in left ventricular (LV) contractility (E(max)) and left circumflex coronary artery resistance (R(LCx)) on the coronary systolic flow impediment (CSFI). In 10 anesthetized, open-chest dogs, we measured coronary, aortic, ...
Matsuda Keiji - - 2003
Because atherosclerotic plaque burden affects the likelihood of plaque rupture, it is important to determine the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaque. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction becomes more prominent with development of atherosclerotic plaque; therefore, we examined the relation between coronary endothelial dysfunction and the presence of atherosclerotic plaque. ...
Tiefenbacher Christiane P - - 2004
Long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonists and statins reduces cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease as well as chronic heart failure. Little is known about the acute effects of these compounds on vascular reactivity of coronary resistance ...
De Matteo R - - 2003
Increased circulating levels of adrenomedullin (ADM) cause peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension, accompanied by cardiac actions including tachycardia and increases in cardiac contractility, cardiac output, coronary conductance (CC) and coronary blood flow (CBF). It is unclear to what extent these cardiac effects are direct actions of ADM or secondary to the ...
Dabisch Paul A - - 2003
Ephedrine is a mixed adrenergic agonist, stimulating both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. The effects of ephedrine use include increases in heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood pressure, and its use is associated with serious cardiovascular events such as stroke, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. The vascular endothelium plays a ...
Nakamura Shin-ichi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The minor -588T allele of polymorphism -588C/T of a modifier subunit gene in glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM), a rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, was associated with lower plasma GSH levels and was a risk factor for myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined effects of the -588C/T polymorphism on ...
Liao Yulin - - 2003
Sympathomimetic stimulation, angiotensin II, or endothelin-1 is considered to be an essential stimulus mediating ventricular hypertrophy. Adenosine is known to protect the heart from excessive catecholamine exposure, reduce production of endothelin-1, and attenuate the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. These findings suggest that adenosine may also attenuate myocardial hypertrophy. To ...
Ruel Marc - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Discrepancy exists between the potent effects of therapeutic angiogenesis in laboratory animals and the marginal results observed in patients with advanced coronary artery disease. In vitro and small animal data suggest that angiogenesis may depend on locally available nitric oxide (NO), but the impact of endothelial dysfunction on therapeutic ...
Meuwissen Martijn - - 2003
Adequate patient selection for percutaneous coronary intervention is of utmost importance to minimize early and late complications. Consequently, objective evidence for myocardial ischemia is mandatory for the management of patients with coronary artery disease, in particular in multivessel disease and intermediate lesions (40-70% diameter stenosis on angiography). The use of ...
Goebel S - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: To date, investigation of coronary arteriole vasomotor activity has been limited to arterioles >30- 40 microm. Here, we introduce a new experimental model to allow for in situ microscopy of terminal coronary arterioles. METHODS: Rat hearts were perfused in a closed loop system (priming volume 20 ml) which was ...
Villarreal Francisco - - 2003
The increasing incidence of congestive heart failure has stimulated efforts to develop pharmacologic strategies to prevent or reverse the associated process of adverse cardiac remodeling. The possibility of utilizing endogenously generated factors that are capable of inhibiting this process is beginning to be explored. Adenosine, has been described as a ...
Prasad Abhiram - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction may potentially lead to myocardial ischemia and to the progression of heart failure. Though endothelial dysfunction is associated with advanced heart failure in humans, relatively little is known regarding their temporal relationship. Thus, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial dysfunction ...
Oishi Yasuhisa - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction after brain death, which are thought to be mainly associated with massive catecholamine release, have not been fully elucidated, especially with respect to the coronary circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in function of the coronary artery and its ...
Emani Sitaram M - - 2003
Although percutaneous, adenoviral-mediated intracoronary gene delivery to the heart has been demonstrated in some species, consistent and safe methodology is needed before clinical applicability is possible. In this study, we examine the effects of altering intracoronary flow rate and obtaining an adequate seal between the catheter and the coronary lumen ...
McLeod Andrew L - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Arterial remodeling may increase or decrease the luminal encroachment of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary circulation. However, the factors determining the nature and consequences of the remodeling process remain poorly characterized. The study aims were to assess whether the pattern of vascular remodeling influences the physical and vasomotor responses ...
Lacza Zsombor - - 2003
Nitric oxide (NO) in contrast to most prostanoids, plays a major role in the maintenance of coronary arterial tone under physiological conditions. However, in case of endothelial damage or other NO-depleting situations the importance of other vasodilating mechanisms may be increased. The aim of the present study was to investigate ...
Masugata Hisashi - - 2003
The authors examined the ability of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to assess adenosine-induced coronary steal in the setting of coronary artery occlusion. The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded in 8 open-chest dogs. Real-time MCE was performed during LAD occlusion, and the extent of opacification defects from ...
Le D Elizabeth - - 2003
Diminished myocardial function can be seen in chronic coronary stenosis (CS) even in the presence of normal resting myocardial blood flow. We hypothesized that adenosine contributes to myocardial depression in this setting, predominantly through activation of the A(1) adenosine receptor. To test this hypothesis we used aminophylline, a nonselective adenosine ...
Murtagh Blaithnead - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The achievement of maximal vasodilatation of the coronary microvessels is mandatory for the accurate determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR); the optimal dosing to achieve maximal vasodilation is unclear. This study was designed to address the hypothesis that incremental doses of intracoronary adenosine are necessary to ensure complete vasodilatation ...
Beltrame John F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is an angiographic finding characterized by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI)-2 flow in the absence of significant large vessel coronary disease. Although clinical and pathological features have been previously described, the underlying pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the persistence ...
Watanabe Kouki - - 2003
We examined the effects of cilostazol on impaired coronary arterial responses in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA). Thirty patients who were diagnosed with VSA based on an acetylcholine provocation test and 10 subjects with normal coronary arteries were enrolled. The patients were divided into the following 3 groups: no antiplatelet ...
Takagi Yuichiro - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with harmonic power Doppler (HPD) employing a simple ultrasound pulsing sequence enables estimation of the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients. BACKGROUND: Contrast intensity (CI) during MCE with intravenous microbubble infusion is dependent on the myocardial blood flow velocity (MBFV) and ...
Bonetti Piero O - - 2003
Experimental hypercholesterolemia is characterized by increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) activity and is associated with an attenuated myocardial perfusion response and an inappropriate increase in coronary microvascular permeability during episodes of increased myocardial demand. This study was designed to determine the effect of chronic selective ET type A (ET(A)) receptor antagonism on ...
Michaels Andrew D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Nesiritide, recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide, has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of decompensated heart failure. The effects of intravenous nesiritide on the human coronary vasculature have not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients underwent right and left heart catheterization. Baseline coronary blood flow was ...
Casadei Barbara - - 2003
In the heart, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced by the vascular and endocardial endothelium, the cardiomyocytes and the autonomic nerves. Whereas stimulation of NO release from the vascular endothelium has consistently been shown to quicken the onset of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and cause a small reduction in peak ...
Rzeczuch Krzysztof - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Induction of maximal hyperaemia is a prerequisite for a reliable estimation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in a moderate coronary artery stenosis. Intracoronary adenosine is the most frequently used agent to achieve maximal hyperaemia. However, an insufficient dose of adenosine may induce only partial hyperaemia, thus artificially increasing the ...
Talukder M A Hassan - - 2003
To clarify which adenosine receptor subtype(s) are responsible for regulation of coronary flow through endogenous adenosine, coronary vascular responses were examined in isolated hearts from wild-type (WT) and A(2A) knockout (A(2A)KO) mice. Adenosine deaminase inhibitor, erythro-9-hydroxy-nonyl-adenine (EHNA), and adenosine kinase inhibitor, iodotubericidine (ITU), were used to examine the effects of ...
Sezgin Alpay Turan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Slow coronary flow (SCF) in a normal coronary angiogram is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its etiopathogenesis remains unclear. DESIGN: The aim of the study was to determine endothelial function in patients with SCF using a flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) technique in the brachial artery. METHODS: Coronary flow was quantified ...
Asanuma Hiroshi - - 2003
Celiprolol is a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist with antihypertensive actions, which causes renal vasodilation by increasing tissue nitric oxide (NO) levels. The authors tested whether celiprolol increases coronary blood flow (CBF) by increasing cardiac NO release in the ischemic heart in vivo. In open-chest dogs, coronary perfusion pressure of the left ...
Perrault Louis P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The endothelium protects the vascular wall through the nitric oxide (NO) release. Coronary endothelial dysfunction occurs early after heart transplantation and predicts the development of intimal thickening typical of graft coronary vasculopathy. OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to examine the effect of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibition on the ...
Shioiri Hiroki - - 2003
An increase in coronary flow conductance during acidosis is an important compensatory mechanism in various diseased conditions. On the other hand, hypercholesterolemia causes microvascular dysfunction as well as macrovascular disorders. We investigated the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the coronary microvascular response to acidosis. Coronary arterioles (< 150 microm) isolated from ...
Massicotte Julie - - 2003
AIM: Lercanidipine is a new vasoselective dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a short plasma half-life, long duration of action, and demonstrated cardioprotective properties. We hypothesized that it might be effective at attenuating the adverse impact observed on the coronary compartment and myocardium in the transition phase to heart failure in ...
Chen Jaw-Wen - - 2003
Recent evidence suggests that myocardial ischemia may occur in patients with neurally mediated syncope and normal coronary angiograms. This study was conducted to evaluate if coronary microvascular function is impaired in such patients. Coronary hemodynamic studies and head-up tilt table tests (HUTs) were performed on 30 consecutive patients with normal ...
Furuyama Hideto - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Coronary arterial lesions after Kawasaki disease (KD) may cause coronary endothelial dysfunction as the result of intimal hypertrophy. Our purpose was to assess myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and endothelial function in various myocardial regions after KD by using positron emission tomography. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven patients, 17.2 +/- 3.2 years ...
Chenevard Rémy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate as to whether the gastrointestinal safety of COX-2 inhibition compared with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may come at the cost of increased cardiovascular events. In view of the large number of patients at cardiovascular risk requiring chronic analgesic therapy with COX-2 inhibitors for arthritic ...
- - 2003
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is an important feature of atherosclerosis. Inhibition of the HMG-CoA pathway and of calcium channels improves endothelial function experimentally and in the forearm circulation. Thus, we investigated the effects of a statin and/or a calcium antagonist on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). ...
Tomanek Robert J - - 2003
The development of the heart is closely linked to its temporally and spatially regulated vascularization. Hypoxia has been shown to stimulate myocardial capillary growth and improve myocardial perfusion during reperfusion in postnatal animals exposed to chronic or intermittent exposure to hypobaria. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is up-regulated by hypoxia ...
Katz S D - - 2003
Endothelial dysfunction is associated with impairment of aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure and may play a role in the progression of disease. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with heart failure can be attributed to decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide and attenuated responses to nitric oxide in vascular smooth ...
Demaria Roland G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A new penetrating stapled anastomotic system using nitinol microclips (Coalescent Surgical U-Clip) has been developed to facilitate the construction of compliant interrupted sutures for minimally invasive and robotic surgery as well as for conventional procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nitinol U-Clips used ...
Bouyer-Dalloz F - - 2003
The frequent exposure of the heart to radiation during thoracic tumor radiotherapy often results in chronic impairment of myocardial function. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on coronary vascular tone in rat hearts exposed in vivo to a single dose of 20 Gy ...
Kjaer Andreas A Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2003
Much evidence suggests endothelial dysfunction to be present in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to be important for the development of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial function in the coronary vessels may be studied in various ways. We compared the effect of cold pressor testing (CPT) with that of dipyridamole, a pharmacologic ...
Marzilli Mario - - 2002
We designed a study to explore the effect of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa blockade on the atherosclerotic plaque and distal coronary vasculature. Platelet GP IIb/IIIa blockers have been proven to be beneficial in acute ischemic syndromes. This effect has also been attributed to the prevention of microvascular obstruction, although the underlying ...
Heloire François - - 2002
Coronary effects of Ca -channel blockers mibefradil and amlodipine were compared in conscious dogs. Ten dogs were instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular pressures, circumflex coronary blood flow velocity (CBFv), and coronary diameter (CD). A permanent catheter was implanted in the circumflex coronary artery. At doses having no ...
Gillies Hunter C - - 2002
Sildenafil citrate is the first oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The wide use of sildenafil by patients with erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease has resulted in a considerable number of independent studies investigating the cardiovascular safety and functional role of the phosphodiesterase type ...
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