Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1700
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Jacob Matthias - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Shear stress induces coronary dilatation via production of nitric oxide (NO). This should involve the endothelial glycocalyx (EG). A greater effect was expected of albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch (HES) perfusion, because albumin seals coronary leaks more effectively than HES in an EG-dependent way. METHODS: Isolated hearts (guinea pigs) were ...
Grossini Elena - - 2007
The peptide ghrelin has been linked to the atherosclerotic process and coronary artery disease. We planned to study, for the first time, the primary effects of ghrelin on the intact coronary circulation and determine the mechanisms involved. In 24 sodium pentobarbitone-anesthetized pigs, changes in anterior descending coronary blood flow caused ...
Oflaz Huseyin - - 2007
The diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism and detection of its effects on cardiovascular system is important. Also, the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism even at the very early stage are at increased risk for developing atherosclerosis. We evaluated coronary microvascular circulation and endothelial dysfunction of epicardial coronary arteries by the measurement of ...
Makker Robina - - 2006
Increased pulmonary vascular resistance can be detrimental to the cardiac output in post-operative cardiac surgical patients. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy by systemic pharmacologic agents is non-selective. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator and does not cause systemic hypotension. In this prospective study, 14 adult post-operative cardiac surgical patients with ...
Nishino Masami - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to investigate whether coronary flow reserve (CFR) using coronary sinus flow (CSF), which can be measured by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography (TEDE), especially when contrast enhanced, is useful in evaluating microvascular dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: CSF recordings using contrast enhanced ...
Montes Félix R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan, an inotropic drug that enhances myocardial contractility through myofilment calcium sensitazion, induces peripheral vasodilation via opening ATP-dependent K(+) channels. It is unknown whether this drug can be used for the treatment of perioperative vasospasm of arterial conduits used for coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: We investigated the effects ...
Cogolludo Angel - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa) regulate coronary artery tone in vivo, play a key role in blood pressure regulation, and have been suggested as novel potential drug targets in hypertension. Quercetin exerts systemic and coronary vasodilator effects in vitro and reduces blood pressure in several rat models of ...
Bitar Fahed - - 2006
Attenuation of endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation has been reported in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and anatomically normal coronaries; however, data are insufficient for understanding the incidence and extent of this finding. The response of conductance and resistance coronary arteries to endothelial stimulation with acetylcholine was examined in 25 patients. Coronary blood flow ...
Dick Gregory M - - 2006
Elevated plasma levels of fat-derived signaling molecules are associated with obesity, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and coronary heart disease; however, little is known about their direct coronary vascular effects. Accordingly, we examined mechanisms by which one adipokine, resistin, affects coronary vascular tone and endothelial function. Studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs ...
Micari Antonio - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the cyclic variation in ultrasonic myocardial integrated backscatter (IBS) is due to cardiac contraction-induced changes in the number of patent myocardial microvessels. METHODS: We performed experiments in open-chest dogs in which we increased the number of patent myocardial microvessels without changing cardiac contraction. We ...
Saihara Keishi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The relationship between coronary remodeling, shear stress and endothelial function remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effects of mechanical factors on structure and function of epicardial coronary arteries. METHODS: Patients (group 1: %area stenosis<40%, n=55; or group 2: %area stenosis>or=40%, n=17) with a discrete mildly stenotic lesion ...
Aptecar Eduardo - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Coronary vasomotor responses to sympathetic stimulation vary with endothelial-layer integrity or presence of atherosclerosis. Our study objective was to assess the effects of phenylephrine-induced alpha-adrenergic stimulation on coronary vasomotion in heart transplant recipients with and without graft atherosclerosis. METHODS: Intracoronary phenylephrine (alpha(1)-selective agonist) was injected in 6 control subjects, ...
Maas Renke - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and coronary endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 289 patients with coronary artery disease we assessed coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular responses to intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine, adenosine, and nitroglycerin, respectively, and determined plasma ADMA ...
Prakash Rajan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that vasomotor control is impaired in the coronary circulation of prediabetic obese (OZR) relative to lean Zucker rats (LZR). METHODS: Cardiac function was assessed with in vivo measures of cardiac output and microvascular structure and function was assessed in vitro using videomicroscopic techniques. RESULTS: OZR ...
Merkus Daphne - - 2006
The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis by contributing to the regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and vascular tone. Because AT(1) receptors have been described in the coronary microcirculation, we investigated whether ANG II contributes to the regulation of coronary vascular tone and whether its contribution ...
Koifman Bella - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of losartan and the combination of losartan and L-arginine on endothelial function and hemodynamic variables in patients with heart failure (HF). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in patients with HF. It was hypothesized that the administration of losartan and the ...
Tanriverdi Halil - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronary slow-flow phenomenon is characterized by delayed opacification of coronary vessels in a normal coronary angiogram. Although clinical and pathological features have been previously described, the underlying pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. Thus, it still remains to be determined whether either microvascular or epicardial diffuse atherosclerotic ...
Tanriverdi Halil - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Smoking contributes to the progression of atherosclerotic heart disease by causing endothelial dysfunction. In the present study the effect of smoking on endothelial functions and coronary flow was investigated, as well as the relationship of these factors with oxidative stress parameters, in subjects with normal coronary arteries. MATERIALS AND ...
Kennedy Richard H - - 2006
1. Previous studies have shown that homocysteine elicits acute negative inotropic and coronary vasodilatory effects in rat hearts. In addition, this earlier work suggested that the inotropic action is mediated via an endothelium-derived agent that is neither nitric oxide (NO) nor a cyclooxygenase product, while the coronary actions were found ...
Takagi Atsushi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: As coronary flow velocity (CFV) is inversely related to the luminal size that exists for the myocardial bed, the elevated arterial tone can be assessed as the higher flow velocity in the epicardial artery. We examined the usefulness of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) for the assessment of coronary arterial ...
Aquilina O - - 2006
This article is the first of three articles that will deal with pacing. The history and background leading to pacemakers as we know them is briefly discussed.
Tawfik Huda E - - 2006
To determine whether A1 adenosine receptors (AR) participate in adenosine-induced changes of coronary flow, isolated hearts from A1AR(-/-) and A1AR(+/+) mice were perfused under constant pressure, and the effects of nonselective and selective agonists were examined. Adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, nonselective), and the selective A2AAR agonist 2-2-carboxyethylphenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) augmented maximal coronary ...
Rosano Giuseppe M C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Estrogens produce several beneficial effects upon the cardiovascular system. Amongst these, an endothelium-independent effect has been convincingly demonstrated only in vitro, while there is no evidence for such an effect in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute administration of estradiol 17beta ...
Aptecar Eduardo - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of selective B1-receptor stimulation with des-Arg9-bradykinin on coronary vasomotion in transplanted and non-transplanted patients. BACKGROUND: Bradykinin B1-receptors have been identified on endothelial and smooth muscle cells in human coronary arteries in vitro; however, their physiologic role in the ...
Versari Daniele - - 2006
Experimental studies have shown the beneficial effects of antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function in the presence of increased endogenous oxidative stress, whereas limited data are available under normal conditions. The present study tested the hypothesis that in normal pigs long-term antioxidants would have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. Normal ...
Wöhrle Jochen - - 2006
The present study examined the association of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and serum levels of markers of inflammation or endothelial activation. Twelve patients with typical angina pectoris without coronary artery disease were enrolled in this study, and CMR perfusion ...
Cosson Emmanuel - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation are both predictors for cardiac events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether microalbuminuria correlated with coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated 84 patients (47 men, mean age 50.5 +/- 5.9 years) with ...
Li Jingtian - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has demonstrated that increased intracoronary perfusion leads to a flow-dependent inversion of T waves on body surface ECG. However, whether increased coronary flow influences ventricular action potential duration measured directly from myocardium is unknown. METHODS: In six pentobarbital-anesthetized sheep, fresh arterial blood was injected into the ...
Takase Bonpei - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) (ie, endothelium-dependent dilation) is impaired in the peripheral and coronary circulation of patients with coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). There is a close relationship of vasodilator response to ACh in both the coronary artery (CA) and the brachial artery (BA), but ...
Dourado Paulo Magno Martins - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Myocardial contrast echocardiography has been used for determination of infarct size (IS) in experimental models. However, with intermittent harmonic imaging, IS seems to be underestimated immediately after reperfusion due to areas with preserved, yet dysfunctional, microvasculature. The use of exogenous vasodilators showed to be useful to unmask these infarcted ...
Li Jian-Jun - - 2006
The concept of slow coronary flow was firstly described in 1972. This phenomenon indicates a coronary slow flow phenomenon in the absence of any known etiology. This phenomenon is not infrequently detected finding during routine coronary angiography, while it is, apparently, quite different from coronary slow flow phenomenon with evident ...
Varbiro Szabolcs - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders is higher among men than in age-matched women. This is probably related, in part, to gender-dependent differences in coronary function including thromboxane-A(2) (TXA(2)) sensitivity. This question has been examined only on major, epicardial coronaries. The intramural small arteries directly responsible for supplying the myocardial ...
Szebeni János - - 2006
Cardiac anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening manifestation of acute hypersensitivity reactions to allergens and drugs. Earlier studies highlighted an amplifying effect of locally applied C5a on the process; however, the role of systemic complement (C) activation with C5a liberation in blood has not been explored to date. In the present ...
Ueda Kentaro - - 2005
Experimental studies have shown that adrenomedullin (AM) causes vasodilation, in part, mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). However, it remains to be clarified how NO is involved in AM-induced coronary vasoreactivity in humans. We examined whether NO contributes to the vasodilatory effects of adrenomedullin on human coronary arteries. In 10 ...
Kajihara Noriyoshi N Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, - - 2005
Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists may enhance the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-nitric oxide system and thereby attenuate ventricular and coronary endothelial dysfunction after heart preservation. We used an isolated rabbit heart preparation perfused with blood from a support rabbit. The rabbit heart was excised, stored for 24 hours, and ...
Micari Antonio - - 2005
The aim of this study was to use myocardial contrast echocardiography to evaluate the effect of intravenous adenosine on microvascular reflow in patients with acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary coronary stenting (PCS). Thirty patients who underwent primary PCS for acute myocardial infarction were randomized to intravenous adenosine (50 to ...
Hunter Arwen L - - 2005
Cytochrome p450 (CYP) inhibitors provide protection against myocardial infarction following both global and focal cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). We hypothesized that sulfaphenazole, an inhibitor of CYP2C6 and 9, also attenuates post-ischemic endothelial dysfunction by reducing CYP-mediated superoxide generation (which scavenges nitric oxide (NO)), thereby restoring NO bioavailability and vascular ...
Marwick Thomas H - - 2005
Inactivity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of cardiovascular disease. Exercise training has a favourable effect in the management of hypertension, heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. These beneficial effects are probably mediated through improvements of vascular function and, in this issue of Clinical Science, Hägg and co-authors ...
Zong Pu - - 2005
Few studies have investigated factors responsible for the O2 demand/supply balance in the right ventricle. Resting right coronary blood flow is lower than left coronary blood flow, which is consistent with the lesser work of the right ventricle. Because right and left coronary artery perfusion pressures are identical, right coronary ...
Grossini E - - 2005
In this study the hemodynamic effects of intracoronary injection of levosimendan in anesthetized pigs and the mechanisms involved were examined. In 12 anesthetized pigs instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), aortic blood pressure (ABP), central venous pressure (CVP), left ventricular end-diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular contractility and relaxation, and ...
Komaru Tatsuya - - 2005
Coronary microvascular dilation in response to myocardial ischemia is an important defense mechanism for minimizing heart injury. Since myocardial ischemia is an intense stimulus for a living body, many biologic signals that affect the vascular tone are activated. Recent evidence demonstrated that among them, ischemic myocardium-derived factors play dominant roles ...
Bianchi Patrícia Rocon - - 2006
Clinical studies demonstrated that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is low in premenopausal women, rises in postmenopausal women, and is reduced to premenopausal levels in postmenopausal women who receive estrogen therapy. The interaction between gender and myocardial infarction indicates that the survival advantage of women is modified by the occurrence ...
Abou-Agag Laila H - - 2005
Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate alcohol consumption reduces the incidence of heart disease. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a key regulator of vascular homeostasis and myocardial functions through the controlled production of nitric oxide (*NO). These studies were conducted to determine if the apparent alcohol-associated cardioprotection is mediated, in ...
Elbaz Meyer - - 2005
This study aimed to assess endothelium-dependent vasomotor function in non-culprit coronary vessels in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Endothelial dysfunction can also concern peripheral vessels during ACS, but the frequency of this phenomenon at coronary circulation level is unknown. Endothelial function was assessed by infusion of graded doses ...
Thanyasiri Panuratn - - 2005
Atherosclerosis is a diffuse, systemic process. In addition, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are associated with inflammatory marker elevations that are hypothesized to affect the function of nonculprit coronary as well as peripheral vessels. We investigated whether femoral vascular reactivity and/or fibrinolytic capacity are impaired in ACS patients over and above ...
Riza Erbay Ali - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are currently considered a major, independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several investigators have suggested that even mild elevation in plasma homocysteine level can severely disturb vascular endothelial function and subsequently impair coronary blood flow. Accordingly, we investigated plasma homocysteine level in patients ...
Naber Ch K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of the -786C allele at the promoter and the 894T allele in exon 7 of the gene encoding the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) on coronary vasomotor responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. METHODS: In 47 individuals undergoing coronary angiography for chest pain, but without ...
Rozec Bertrand - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze whether beta3-adrenoceptors (beta3-ARs) were effectively present and functional in the human internal mammary artery (IMA). BACKGROUND: The beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors classically mediate the relaxant effects of catecholamines in the vessels. In vitro and in vivo studies performed in various animal ...
Manintveld Olivier C - - 2005
Endogenous adenosine is a trigger for ischemic myocardial preconditioning (IPC). Although intravascular administration of adenosine has been used to further unravel the mechanism of protection by IPC, it is questionable whether adenosine and IPC employ the same signaling pathways to exert cardioprotection. We therefore investigated whether the active metabolic barrier ...
Przyklenk Karin - - 2005
Review of the published literature on adenosine and cardioprotection could lead one to paraphrase the famous words of Sir Winston Churchill (Radio broadcast, 1 October 1939 (in reference to Russia)) and conclude: 'I cannot forecast to you the action of adenosine. It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside ...
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