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Nakamura Ayumi A Department of Cardiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, - - 2014
The objective of this study is to determine whether pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is clinically a biomarker of inflammation, a player in anti-inflammation, or both with regard to coronary atherosclerosis, we compared levels of PTX-3 with levels of adiponectin in addition to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). We enrolled 693 patients (51 % male; ...
Ben-Assa Eyal E 1 Department of Cardiology, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv, Israel - - 2014
Abstract Background: Patients hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at risk for early readmission. Readmission rates in the community reportedly reach approximately 20%, and 30-day readmission rates have become a quality-of-care marker. Telemedicine is one strategy for improving clinical outcomes by offering real-time biometrics tracking and rapid intervention. ...
Herrett Emily E Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK - - 2014
Ischaemia in different arterial territories before acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may influence post-AMI outcomes. No studies have evaluated prospectively collected information on ischaemia and its effect on short- and long-term coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare patients with and without prospectively measured ischaemic presentations before AMI ...
Di Chiara Tiziana T Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127, Palermo, - - 2014
This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities and the changes in left ventricular geometry and function in 135 subjects subgrouped according to low or normal total adiponectin plasma (ADPN) levels. Left ventricular (LV) internal diameter/height, total LV mass (LVM) and LVM index (LVMI), relative wall thickness ...
Pilgrim Thomas T Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, Bern, - - 2014
The choice and duration of antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is determined by the clinical context and treatment strategy. Oral antiplatelet agents for secondary prevention include the cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibitor aspirin, and the ADP dependent P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor. Aspirin constitutes the cornerstone in ...
Bavry Anthony A AA North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, Florida; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, - - 2014
Deferral of revascularization for abnormal but nonischemic lesions is usually recommended; however, the long-term outcome of this approach is not well known. Deferral of nonischemic lesions will be associated with a low frequency of adverse events. A PubMed search of the MEDLINE database identified studies that reported clinical outcomes among ...
Capodanno Davide D Ferrarotto Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, - - 2014
Aims: Clinical data on the early and midterm outcomes of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) in routine clinical practice are limited. To fill this gap, we report on the early and midterm clinical outcomes of PCI with everolimus-eluting BVS from the large multicentre GHOST-EU registry. Methods and results: Between November 2011 ...
Soriano Francisco Garcia FG 1Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, São Paulo, Brazil 2Emergências Clínicas do Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 3Departamento de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 4Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo - Divisão de Clínica Médica - UTI, São Paulo, - - 2014
Sepsis impairs the autoregulation of myocardial microcirculatory blood flow, but whether this impairment is correlated with myocardial remodeling is unknown. This study investigated the role of coronary driving pressure (CDP) as a determinant of microcirculatory blood flow and myocardial fibrosis in endotoxemia and sepsis. The study is composed by two ...
Baig Sheharyar S SS Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford - - 2014
Revascularization in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) can be achieved through percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) depending on the anatomical pattern of CAD, comorbidities and patient preference. Recent studies in the USA, Canada and Australia show marked local variation in the PCI/CABG ratio that is ...
Uslu Nevzat N Cardiology Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, - - 2014
Fragmented QRS (fQRS) has been found to be associated with high mortality and arrhythmic events in acute coronary syndromes. Regional systolic function using wall motion score index (WMSI) is an alternative to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for the assessment of left ventricular systolic function. The aim of this study ...
Marcantoni Lina L Department of Cardiology, S. Anna Hospital, University of Ferrara, Cona, Ferrara, - - 2014
In the last decade, there has been an exponential increase in cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implants. Remote monitoring systems, allow daily follow-ups of patients with ICD. To evaluate the impact of remote monitoring on the management of cardiovascular events associated with supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias during long-term follow-up. A total of 207 ...
Barutçu Ahmet A Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, - - 2014
Ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) are usually considered a benign condition that can be managed with conservative measures. Heart rate variability (HRV), which is one of the most important methods for assessing autonomic activity, is a noninvasive, quantitative method of analyzing autonomic effects on the heart. We aimed to investigate the ...
Olsen Mb M Oslo University Hospital, Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo, - - 2014
Accumulation of DNA damage due to impaired base excision repair (BER) may play a role in the pathogenesis of myocardial failure. The DNA glycosylase Neil3 is known to carry out BER during oxidative stress induced DNA damage, but is also thought to have a role in stem cell biology. Based ...
Sandanger O O University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Oslo, - - 2014
NLRP3 is an innate immune receptor that recognizes tissue damage and initiate inflammatory processes: chiefly, upon activation, NLRP3 forms multiprotein complexes with the adaptor protein ASC and caspase-1, termed inflammasomes, which cleaves pro-IL-1β and mediates release of bioactive IL-1β. Thus, NLRP3 activation may lead to further tissue damage. Hence, we ...
Sénéchal Martin M Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine whether high fitness attenuates the defects in left ventricular (LV) structure, function and triglyceride (TG) content in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients (n = 74) with T2DM and ≥1 additional cardiac risk factor were recruited to participate in this ...
Puri Rishi R Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA C5Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
While the relationship between epicardial coronary vasomotor reactivity and cardiovascular events is well established, this observation has yet to be evaluated within the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in humans in vivo. Our aims were to test the endothelium-dependent vasomotor properties of the LMCA, and to compare these responses to ...
Iles-Smith Heather H Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK - - 2014
Following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, some patients are readmitted with potential ischaemic heart disease symptoms. This study investigated the proportion of PPCI patients readmitted due to potential ischaemic heart disease symptoms within six months, and the cause of symptoms and associated factors. A prospective cohort ...
Hale Sharon L SL The Heart Institute of Good Samaritan Hospital, 1225 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, 90017, USA, - - 2014
The no-reflow phenomenon occurs when an epicardial coronary artery is reopened following myocardial infarction, but portions of the intramural microvasculature fail to reperfuse. One potential mechanism for this is the presence of fibrin tactoids. In addition, some recent studies have suggested that dabigatran treatment may be associated with increased incidence ...
Body Richard R The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Central Manchester University Hospitals Foundation NHS Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, - - 2014
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of emergency physician gestalt in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected cardiac chest pain, both alone and in combination with initial troponin level and ECG findings. We prospectively included patients presenting to the ED with suspected cardiac chest pain. Clinicians recorded their 'gestalt' at the ...
Neven Kars K Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands & Department of Rhythmology, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen, Germany - - 2014
-Irreversible electroporation is a promising non-thermal ablation modality able to create deep myocardial lesions. We investigated lesion size after epicardial electroporation catheter ablation with various energy levels following subxiphoid pericardial puncture. -In 6 six-month-old pigs (60-75 kg), a custom deflectable octopolar 12 mm circular catheter with 2 mm ring electrodes ...
Hoong Caroline Wei Shan CW aNational Heart Centre Singapore bDuke NUS Graduate Medical School, - - 2014
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) has been shown to be of better or equivalent prognosis than heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). We aimed to characterize and study the outcome of HF-PEF in a multiethnic South East Asian context. This is a single-centre retrospective analysis of 312 ...
Tenekecioglu Erhan E Department of Cardiology, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Education and Resarch Hospital, Bursa, - - 2014
White blood cells are reported as important not only in plaque vulnerability but also in thrombus formation and thrombus growth in acute coronary syndromes. Eosinophils contain granules that promote thrombus formation and thrombus growth in some heart diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the relation of eosinophil count ...
Auguadro Carla C aCardiovascular Catheterization Laboratory, Policlinico di Monza bBiostatistics Unit, Policlinico di Monza cDepartment of Cardiology, Policlinico di Monza, Monza, - - 2014
To assess the prognostic role of isolated troponin I (TnI) elevation after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The prognostic role of minor troponin elevation after PCI is controversial. A total of 1532 consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI were included. Follow-up data were ...
Lønborg Jacob J Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark - - 2014
The impact of angiographically visible distal embolization (DE) and distal protection occurring during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on long-term outcome has not been studied in a contemporary ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort. To evaluate the association between DE and long-term outcome in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI ...
Kono Atsushi K AK From the Departments of *Radiology, and †Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the - - 2014
Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging by computed tomography (CT) was recently introduced to calculate myocardial blood flow (MBF). Because absolute MBF thresholds may be affected by technique, methodology, and the microvasculature, we investigated whether a relative measure of MBF improves accuracy to identify hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. In this prospective study, ...
Zehir Regayip R Kartal Kosuyolu Heart and Research Hospital, Cardiology Department, Istanbul, - - 2014
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is closely related to increased cardiovascular risk in women of reproductive age. Atrial conduction abnormalities in these patients have not been investigated in terms of atrial electromechanical delay measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) as an early predictor of atrial fibrillation development. The aim of this ...
Hori Yuichi Y Department of Cardiology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya - - 2014
Background:Atrial low-voltage areas are suggested to be related to maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). The influence of the left atrium (LA) contact area (CoA) has not been investigated.Methods and Results:Twenty-two persistent AF patients underwent high-density mapping during AF and sinus rhythm (SR). Three representative CoA regions in the LA (ascending aorta: anterior ...
Fanning Jonathon P - - 2014
BackgroundCerebral infarction is a commonly observed radiological finding in the absence of corresponding, clinical symptomatology, the so-called silent brain infarction (SBI). SBIs are a relatively new consideration as improved imaging has facilitated recognition of their occurrence. However, the true incidence, prevalence and risk factors associated with SBI remain controversial.MethodsSystematic searches ...
Giglio Vincenzo - - 2014
This study was designed to assess whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers (DMDc) may index any cell milieu elements of LV dysfunction and whether this cardiac phenotype may be related to genotype. The null hypothesis was that myocardial fibrosis, assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), ...
Tsutsui Rayji S RS Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, - - 2014
Several methods that estimate right atrial pressure (RAP) from echocardiographic parameters have been proposed. However, their precision (i.e., how much they decrease RAP estimation uncertainty) is unknown. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate and compare the precision of previously proposed RAP estimates in patients with acute decompensated ...
Manders Emmy E Department of Pulmonology, Vrije Universiteit (VU) University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Physiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the - - 2014
After lung transplantation, increased left ventricular (LV) filling can lead to LV failure, increasing the risk of post-operative complications and mortality. LV dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a reduced LV ejection fraction and impaired diastolic function. The pathophysiology of LV dysfunction in PAH is incompletely understood. ...
Garg Jalaj J Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College. - - 2014
The pathophysiology of coronary artery dissection (CD) remains poorly understood and little is known about the factors predicting mortality in these patients. We aimed to study the epidemiology of CD and predictors of mortality in these patients. All patients diagnosed with CD in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009 - 2010 ...
Rzeszutko Lukasz - - 2014
Current revascularization guidelines recommend coronary stenting with either bare metal stent (BMS) or drug eluting stent (DES). The results of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in the setting of both stable angina or acute coronary syndrome have proven to be both safe and efficacious. Our aim was to describe current ...
Stępińska Janina - - 2014
Heart rate (HR) is an important risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is little contemporary data on HR and the use of HR-lowering medications, particularly beta-blockers, among patients with stable CAD in routine clinical practice. To describe HR in the Polish population of the CLARIFY registry, overall ...
Celik Omer O Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Chest and Cardiovascular Surgery Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey - - 2014
We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with ...
Reimold Sharon C SC University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX - - 2014
Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is a disorder characterized by significant ventricular trabeculations on cardiovascular imaging. The most common echocardiographic criteria used to define the disorder are the Jenni and Chin criteria.(1,2) These criteria were developed after the observation that some patients, primarily children, had cardiomyopathies characterized by significant trabeculations ...
Kumar Prathap P Meditrina Hospital, Trivandrum, - - 2014
Durable polymers used for first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) potentially contribute to persistent inflammation and late DES thrombosis. We report the first real-life human experience with the rapamycin-eluting biodegradable polymer-coated Rapstrom stent. All consecutive patients with single de novo native coronary stenosis (<30 mm and between 2.5 and 4.0 mm) were enrolled. Major ...
Campos Carlos M CM Department of Interventional Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Centre-University Medical Centre - - 2014
Background:SYNTAX score II (SSII) provides individualized estimates of 4-year mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in order to facilitate decision-making between these revascularization methods. The purpose of the present study was to assess SSII in a real-world multicenter registry with distinct regional and epidemiological ...
Pusuroglu Hamdi H aDepartment of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center, Training and Research Hospital bDepartment of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakıf University cDepartment of Cardiology, Acıbadem University, Istanbul dDepartment of Cardiology, Erzurum State Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum eDepartment of Cardiology, Rize Education and Research Hospital, Rize, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic value of sCD40L has been documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome; however, its value in acute ...
Mathews Robin R Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, - - 2014
-Blacks are less likely than whites to receive coronary revascularization and evidence-based therapies following acute myocardial infarction (MI), yet the impact of these differences on long-term outcomes is unknown. -We linked CRUSADE registry data to national Medicare claims, creating a longitudinal record of care and outcomes among 40,500 non-ST-segment elevation ...
Trifunovic Danijela D Department of Cardiology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address: - - 2014
To analyze plasma adiponectin kinetics in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and its association with coronary flow reserve (CFR), an index of coronary microcirculatory function. A total of 96 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI treated by pPCI without heart ...
Hosaka Akihiro A Department of Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The effect of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) among young and middle-aged adults can be significant, but no previous study has examined the prognosis and the associated health care cost of the disease in this population. We evaluated the clinical and economic burden of PAD in patients from a large claims ...
Seronde Marie France MF University Hospital Jean Minjoz, EA3920, Besançon, - - 2014
We aimed to describe the determinants of discharge heart ratein acute coronary syndrome patients and assess the impact of discharge heart rateon 5 year mortality in hospital survivors. FAST-MI (French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction) 2005 is a nationwide French registry that included all consecutive patients with ...
Weismann Constance G CG Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, - - 2014
Quantitative assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is important for the management of patients with congenital heart disease. Tissue Doppler (TDI)-derived myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA) is an echocardiographic measure of contractility that is independent of loading conditions. The aim of this study was to establish normative data for ...
Arsanjani Reza R From Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cardiac Image Research, Los Angeles, Calif (J.K.M.) and the CONFIRM Investigators. Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif (R.A., D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif (T.L., J.K.M.); Weill Cornell Medical College and the New York Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, 515 E 70th St, S402, New York, NY 10021 (F.Y.L., J.K.M., A.D.); Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich (M.A.); Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif (M.J.B.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville, Tenn (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul, Korea (H.J.C.); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy (F.C.); Department of Cardiology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, Mich (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont, Canada (B.J.W.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Cardiac Imaging, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.K.); Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga (L.J.S.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.V.); Department of Cardiovascular CT, Oklahoma Heart Institute, Tulsa, Okla (V.Y.C.); Department of Radiology, Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, Fla (R.C.C.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea (Y.J.K.); and Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada - - 2014
Purpose To assess whether gradations of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes measured with coronary computed tomography (CT) would augment risk stratification and discrimination for incident mortality. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained when required. Subjects without ...
Rathod Krishnaraj S KS aDepartment of Cardiology, London Chest Hospital bDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University cNIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, London Chest Hospital, London, - - 2014
To compare long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) using radial and femoral arterial access. The present study was an observational cohort study of patients with STEMI treated consecutively with PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at a single centre. The ...
Kannan Arun A 1Department of Inpatient Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; and 2Angiocare, Tucson, - - 2014
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis have an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity secondary to occlusive coronary artery disease. Optimal revascularization strategy is unclear in this high-risk population. We have performed a meta-analysis to compare coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus ...
Hall Allison B AB University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, - - 2014
-Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), two states of increased metabolic demand and sympathetic nervous system activation, often co-exist. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), which alleviates OSA, can improve ventricular function. It is unknown whether this is due to altered oxidative metabolism or pre-synaptic ...
Nucifora Gaetano G University Hospital "Santa Maria della Misericordia" - - 2014
Left ventricular twist (LVT) and untwisting (LVUT) rate are global and thorough parameters of LV function. Aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in LV rotational mechanics between patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty consecutive patients with CA, 20 consecutive patients with HCM ...
Walton Richard D RD Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux U1045, Bordeaux, France Inserm, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux U1045, Bordeaux, France L'Institut de Rythmologie et Modélisation Cardiaque LIRYC, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, - - 2014
Transmural heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD) is known to play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. Regions of non-uniformities of APD gradients often overlap considerably with the location of Purkinje-Muscle junctions (PMJ). We therefore hypothesized that such junctions are novel sources of local endocardial and transmural heterogeneity of repolarization and ...
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