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Results 401 - 450 of 657
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Zimmerman Janice L - - 2002
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common causes of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Multiple etiologies lead to direct and indirect pulmonary injury that progresses through an acute exudative phase, fibroproliferative phase, and recovery phase. Inflammatory mechanisms are thought to play a predominant role in the pathophysiology ...
Johnston S C - - 2001
A 79-year-old woman presented with chronic dyspnea and hyperventilation. There was no evidence of pulmonary disease. Hyperventilation persisted during sleep and after high-dose administration of a narcotic. A head MRI revealed bilateral medial thalamic infarctions. Central neurogenic hyperventilation was diagnosed in this alert patient. The case may illustrate a role ...
Baldaro B - - 2001
The effect of an aversive, high-arousing film on heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and electrogastrographic activity (EGG) was investigated. Previous studies have indicated a larger heart-rate deceleration for visual stimuli depicting surgery or blood compared to neutral content, and this phenomenon is similar to the bradycardia observed in animals in ...
Lorin de la Grandmaison G - - 2001
A 64-year-old man died in spite of surgery 4 days after attempting suicide. He first tried to hang himself with a rope and when the hanging did not succeed, he cut his throat with a knife. The autopsy showed four sutured cervical wounds with laryngeal wounds but without associated important ...
Kondo Cláudia Seiko - - 2002
The use of intravenous (IV) furosemide is common practice in patients under mechanical ventilation (MV), but its effects on respiratory mucus are largely unknown. Furosemide can affect respiratory mucus either directly through inhibition of the NaK(Cl)2 co-transporter on the basolateral surface of airway epithelium or indirectly through increased diuresis and ...
Ghio A J - - 2001
Epidemiological investigation has established an association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and both human mortality and diverse indices of human morbidity. However, attributing adverse health effects of specific individuals to PM exposure in these studies is not possible. Consequently, their clinical presentation remains ill-defined. We describe a 42-yr-old male ...
Schultz T R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes between physician-directed and protocol-directed weaning from mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective-randomized. SETTING: Pediatric and cardiac intensive care units in a 307-bed tertiary referral hospital for children. INTERVENTIONS: The control group (physician-directed) was weaned according to individual physician order for reduction in minute ventilation, positive end-expiratory ...
Ashrafian H - - 2001
Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarone's potential to cause acute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible ...
Wong Y K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with organisms such as Chlamydia pneumoniae is thought to cause coronary heart disease. We investigated whether myocardial infarction deaths are associated with large household size and overcrowding, as these are factors that may facilitate the transmission of infection. DESIGN: Ecological study of England and Wales. METHODS: Population ...
Coirault C - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Respiratory muscle strength has been shown to be reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether long-term therapy with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril improves respiratory muscle strength in patients with chronic heart failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen ...
Ye F - - 2001
We studied exposures to higher daily maximum temperatures and concentrations of air pollutants in Tokyo during the summer months of July and August from 1980 to 1995 and their effects on hospital emergency transports for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for males and females > 65 years of age. Cardiovascular diseases ...
Vitacca M - - 2001
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death, and constitutes a major medical and an increasing economic problem for acute and long term care. A low level of irreversible airway obstruction when in stable condition, hypercapnia, hypoxia, the presence of comorbid heart disease, right ventricular failure, and ...
Schmidt H B - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The assessment of autonomic function is an important tool for risk stratification in critically ill patients. Peripheral cardiac chemoreflex sensitivity has been considered a marker for increased risk of sudden cardiac death. In normals, the evaluation of peripheral cardiac chemoreflex sensitivity is performed under controlled breathing conditions during inhalation ...
Flacke S J - - 2001
PURPOSE: To establish a method for measuring the partition coefficient (lambda) of gadopentetate dimeglumine in humans in vivo, evaluate the spatial and intersubject variation in the lambda of normal myocardium, and compare these values on a regional basis with lambda values of acute and chronic infarcted myocardium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Barbé C - - 2001
This study was designed to investigate whether exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) could alter the ischemic tolerance induced by chronic hypoxia. We aimed to determine whether chronic hypoxia-induced cardiovascular adaptation was modified during the return to normoxia or by subchronic CO exposure. The degree of resistance to an in vitro ...
Novoa-Takara L - - 2001
A 59-year-old man with a 30-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with fatigue, confusion, and weight loss over a 3-month period. He was found to be hypercalcemic (11.8 mg/dL) and dehydrated, and his hypercalcemia improved with intravenous fluids. While in the hospital, he developed hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and hypotension. ...
Lerman-Sagie T - - 2001
Idebenone, a synthetic analogue of coenzyme Q10, has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with Friedreich ataxia and a deficiency of respiratory chain complexes I-III. We describe a woman with severe combined right and left heart failure due to a mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. The patient underwent an endomyocardial biopsy ...
MacKenzie I M - - 2001
In the time it has taken medicine to develop the techniques to describe the circulatory changes of severe infections, both pattern and process have been profoundly influenced by the use of intravenous fluids, vasopressors, antibiotics, steroids, mechanical ventilation and haemoflltration. Constant features of severe sepsis include a reduction in peripheral ...
Alexander M P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Akinetic mutism (AKM) is an uncommon disorder with a complex neuropathology. There is no generally accepted treatment, and it is not known if late treatments are effective. The relationship between AKM and abulia is uncertain. METHODS: The effects of dopaminergic treatment of a patient with chronic AKM after discrete ...
Ge R L - - 2001
High-altitude heart disease, a form of chronic mountain sickness, has been well established in both Tibet and Qinghai provinces of China, although little is known regarding this syndrome in other countries, particularly in the West. This review presents a general overview of high-altitude heart disease in China and briefly summarizes ...
Turrini P - - 2001
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a heart muscle disease that is often familial, characterized by arrhythmias of right ventricular origin, due to transmural fatty or fibrofatty replacement of atrophic myocardium. ARVC is usually diagnosed in the clinical setting between 20 and 40 years of age. The disease is seldom ...
Sharov V G - - 2000
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode ...
Rinaldi C A - - 2000
Myocardial stunning and hibernation are both clinically important causes of myocardial dysfunction and are caused by episodes of myocardial ischaemia. Stunning tends to occur acutely and may produce transient but clinically important reductions in left ventricular function in the setting of myocardial infarction, post coronary artery bypass grafting and even ...
Coley B D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We have observed many infants with lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV) on neurosonograms who do not have classic histories of prenatal infection, trisomy, or prenatal drug exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying clinical conditions in patients with LSV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three cases of LSV were identified among approximately 2,400 neurosonograms ...
Manfredini R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to confirm the existence of a circadian pattern in the onset of acute pulmonary edema (APE) and to verify whether sex, age, preexisting diseases, and clinical causes determining the event may influence it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study considered all consecutive cases of APE observed ...
Graciano A L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of the use of asynchronous independent lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (AIL-HFOV) in the management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in a large pediatric patient with markedly asymmetric lung disease. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric intensive care unit in a pediatric teaching hospital. PATIENT: ...
Wada H - - 2000
Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) has come to be applied for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in the management of severe respiratory failure as well as severe heart failure. We investigated cerebral tissue oxygen saturation during PCPS in a canine model of respiratory failure using near-infrared spectroscopy. Animals were mechanically ventilated with 10% ...
Miller D W - - 2000
Although hypophosphatemia is relatively uncommon, it may be seen in anywhere from 20% to 80% of patients who present to the ED with alcoholic emergencies, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and sepsis. Severe hypophosphatemia, as defined by a serum level below 1.0 mg/dL, may cause acute respiratory failure, myocardial depression, or seizures. ...
Koskinas J - - 2000
A 30-year-old HBsAg-positive woman was admitted to the hospital because of 6 days of progressive shortness of breath. She was in severe respiratory distress with circulatory collapse. She had an enlarged liver but no stigmata of chronic liver disease or signs of cirrhosis. She had rapidly developed respiratory arrest and ...
Ishikawa S - - 2000
Severe pulmonary oxygenation impairment resulting from peripheral lung atelectasis occurred in some patients with pleurotomy during the harvest of the internal mammary artery graft followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We studied the efficacy of intraoperative positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) therapy for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary oxygenation ...
Durward A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To report the dramatic resolution of unilateral mucus plugging and atelectasis in a mechanically ventilated child with refractory status asthmaticus after intratracheal recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) therapy. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Critical care unit. PATIENT: A 7-yr-old boy with status asthmaticus, severe respiratory failure and barotrauma unresponsive to conventional ...
Serrano N - - 2000
Adrenal insufficiency after cardiac surgery can easily be confused during the course of an immediate unstable postoperative period. If unrecognized, this condition may cause serious morbidity and can be fatal. We report on a 43-yr-old female patient with chronic known adrenal insufficiency, who, despite her adequate preoperative replacement therapy, presented ...
Wong H Y - - 2000
Wegener's granulomatosis classically involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys. Rarely, it also affects the skin and heart. Cardiac involvement is uncommon in Wegener's granulomatosis and myocardial infarction is seldom highlighted. It can be a difficult diagnosis to make in the elderly who often have multiple co-existing illnesses. We ...
Ponikowski P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of persistent neurohormonal and cardiorespiratory reflex abnormalities in chronic heart failure remain unclear. Also, why chronic heart failure patients who develop cachexia demonstrate a particularly abnormal neurohormonal profile and have a high risk of death is not known. Impaired reflex control within the cardiac and respiratory systems, ...
Borruat F X - - 1999
A 57-year-old man had isolated transient recurrent vertical diplopia. Left hypoglobus and enophthalmos were present. Investigations revealed an otherwise asymptomatic left maxillary chronic aspecific sinusitis, with 8 mm lowering of the left orbital floor. Transient diplopia was thought to be secondary to transient fusion impairment. Orbital floor reconstruction cured the ...
Kumagai R - - 1999
This study reports a 38-year-old woman with adult Leigh syndrome associated with partial deficiency of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The patient had intermittent diplopia, loss of vision, dystonia, central respiratory failure and unconsciousness with lactic acidosis. Treatment with an intravenous ketogenic emulsion resulted in rapid clinical and biochemical improvement. In ...
Zwischenberger J B - - 1999
Pulmonary complications following thoracic surgery are common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Respiratory failure after pneumonectomy occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of cases and significantly increases patient mortality. Strategies for ventilator support are based on the nature of the underlying complication and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure. ...
Haider A W - - 1999
PURPOSE: A persistent inflammatory response accompanying chronic infections may contribute to the risk of coronary atherothrombosis. Recent studies have reported an association between chronic respiratory infections and an increased risk of coronary heart disease; however, these reports have not accounted for important confounders such as impaired lung function. METHODS: We ...
Swain R - - 1999
Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. A high index of suspicion is needed in cases of severe contusion, especially if patient complaints seem to outweigh physical findings. Acute surgical fasciotomy is an effective treatment and should be carried out expeditiously if compartment pressures are elevated over 70 mm Hg ...
Tepes B - - 1999
AIM: Our aim was to determine interobserver agreement in the application of the Sydney system to assess reversibility of gastritis after Helicobacter pylori eradication. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-three patients with a Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer disease were included in the study. All patients included had successful H. pylori eradication after ...
McDowell G - - 1999
Candoxatril (UK-79300) is the orally-active prodrug of candoxatrilat (UK-73967), the active enantiomer of (+/-)candoxatrilat (UK-69578), a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor. This article describes the rationale behind the use of such a drug in the treatment of chronic heart failure in man. It further describes the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ...
Grech V - - 1999
Pictures of congenital heart lesions are very useful for patient and parent understanding of underlying problems, and the actual physical mechanics of treatment/s, both past and proposed. In this article, we have produced scanned pictures by Heartline from their book 'Heart Children'. We have also added some new graphics that ...
Parmar M S - - 1998
A 61-year-old woman with ischemic cardiomyopathy continued to have recurrent episodes of respiratory failure secondary to acute pulmonary edema requiring ventilatory support on each occasion, despite undergoing surgical revascularization and mitral valve replacement. These episodes of acute respiratory failure were successfully averted by using nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure ...
Sharov V G - - 1998
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria that include hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In the present study, we examined mitochondrial respiration in myocardium of 10 normal dogs and 10 dogs with chronic HF (LV ejection fraction 24+/-2%) produced by intracoronary micro-embolizations. ...
D'Arsigny C - - 1998
Although the exact incidence of postthoracotomy respiratory failure is unknown, it can be estimated to lie between 5% and 15%, given that many of these patients suffer from comorbid cardiopulmonary disease. Preoperative assessment is essential to more accurately predict those patients at increased risk for the development of respiratory failure. ...
Keenan S P - - 1998
This article reviews the literature of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with acute respiratory failure. The article divides acute respiratory failure into the categories of primary ventilation failure and oxygenation failure, and examines various diagnostic groups within these categories. Although the use of NPPV for patients with acute ...
Strickland K N - - 1998
The caval syndrome is a serious complication of chronic heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs and cats. The syndrome is characterized by acute anorexia, respiratory distress, weakness, right-sided cardiac murmur, anemia, hemoglobinuria, hepatic and renal dysfunction, signs of forward and backward heart failure, and, possibly, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Retrograde ...
Corcos T - - 1998
Chronic total occlusion remains a relative contraindication and the main cause of failure of coronary angioplasty. Previously available hydrophilic guidewires had numerous limitations. The Crosswire is a new 0.014" hydrophilic nitinol guidewire which can be accommodated by very-low-profile balloon catheters and has a shapeable and highly radiopaque platinum-iridium coiled tip. ...
Howard R S - - 1998
OBJECTS AND METHODS: Respiratory dysfunction may occur as a result of lesions in the upper cervical spinal cord disturbing the descending pathways subserving automatic and volitional ventilatory control. Four patients are described who presented with acute respiratory insufficiency caused by infarction of the anterior portion of the upper cervical cord ...
La Vecchia C - - 1998
We used data from the 1993 Italian Household Multipurpose Survey, based on a sample of 46,693 subjects ages 15 years or over, to analyze the relation between frequency of vegetable consumption and prevalence of 12 chronic diseases. We observed little association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and allergy. There were inverse ...
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