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Korkmaz M E - - 2000
Recent data show that blockade of aldosterone receptors by spironoloctone reduces the risk of morbidity and death among patients with severe heart failure. Heart failure secondary to ischemia is characterized by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system, which can be assessed by analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV). ...
Pinna G D - - 2000
AIMS: The ATRAMI (Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarction) study has proved the independent prognostic value of baroreflex sensitivity. A limitation of the traditional method of estimating baroreflex sensitivity by phenylephrine, is the need to monitor intra-arterial blood pressure. Our objective was to establish whether this invasive method of ...
Shite J - - 2000
Selegiline is a centrally acting sympatholytic agent with neuroprotective properties. It also has been shown to promote sympathetic reinnervation after sympathectomy. These actions of selegiline may be beneficial in heart failure that is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous activity and functional sympathetic denervation. Twenty-seven rabbits with rapid cardiac pacing (360 ...
Estorch M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Sinus bradycardia in trained athletes is predominantly a manifestation of increased vagal tone, but it is not known whether an alteration in the cardiac sympathetic system can contribute to blunted chronotropic response. This study assessed the integrity of the sympathetic system in trained athletes with sinus bradycardia by means ...
Guo N - - 2000
To compare the efficacy and sensitivity of heart rate variability (HRV), QT dispersion (QTd) and ventricular late potential (VLP) examination in judging autonomic function. Thirty three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 33 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), all of whom were diagnosed with autonomic neuropathy determined by a ...
Laitio T T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Dynamic measures of heart rate variability (HRV) may uncover abnormalities that are not easily detectable with traditional time and frequency domain measures. The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in RR-interval dynamics in the immediate postoperative phase of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using traditional and ...
Sakamaki F - - 2000
It remains unclear whether cardiac sympathetic nervous function is disturbed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) and how sympathetic dysfunction is related to PH. METHODS: In this study, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging of the heart, which reveals the sympathetic innervation of the left ventricle, was performed in 7 healthy volunteers ...
Kazuta T - - 2000
Iodine123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine, a radioiodinated analogue of norepinephrine, is a tracer for evaluating sympathetic function. We used iodine123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy and sympathetic skin response to study autonomic nervous functions in 19 patients with Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and 20 control subjects. Planar imaging of all the participants was done to evaluate ...
Uijtdehaage S H - - 2000
Invasive animal models indicate that the accelerative effects of the sympathetic nervous system on heart rate are highly dependent on the background level of vagal activity. A noninvasive, parasympathetic chronotropic index (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and a sympathetic chronotropic index (left ventricular ejection time) were used to evaluate autonomic control of ...
Lucreziotti S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In advanced chronic heart failure (CHF), correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and parameters of disease severity is still unclear. A reduced HRV has been related to left but not to right ventricular function parameters. Moreover, the prognostic role of spectral measures is not fully defined. We sought to ...
Tio R A - - 2000
Experimental data have shown that rIL2 has negative inotropic properties. This has not been investigated in humans with normal left ventricular function. Seventeen consecutive renal cell carcinoma patients who received rIL2 therapy because of dissemination were analyzed before and after treatment with a low dose of rIL2 subcutaneously. Left ventricular ...
Rosen H - - 2000
We investigated the relationship between spectral power and both mean heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Spectral power was calculated using digital heart rate recordings from term infants. Regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between low-frequency (LF) sympathetic power and HR, and a negative correlation between high-frequency (HF) ...
Kuo C D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine which recumbent position can lead to the highest vagal modulation in patients during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Intensive care unit in a medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 52 patients admitted to the intensive care unit because of acute myocardial infarction ...
Hoffmann J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between cardiac autonomic tone, assessed by baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability, and left ventricular function, arrhythmias on Holter monitoring, and clinical variables in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. PATIENTS: 160 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and preserved sinus rhythm ...
Calvert C A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the salient variables of the time-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers and to compare those variables with those of Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy and mild to moderate myocardial failure. ANIMALS: 46 Doberman Pinschers. PROCEDURE: HRV was analyzed in the time-domain from ...
Cao J M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve activity is known to be important in ventricular arrhythmogenesis, but there is little information on the relation between the distribution of cardiac sympathetic nerves and the occurrence of spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 53 native hearts of transplant recipients, 5 hearts obtained ...
Kaye D M - - 2000
Maintenance of cardiac performance is tightly controlled by the autonomic nervous system. In congestive heart failure (CHF), although the adverse pathophysiological effects of cardiac sympathetic overactivity are increasingly recognized, the paradoxical finding of reduced sympathetic innervation density in the failing heart remains unexplained. Given these observations, we tested the hypothesis ...
Langer O - - 2000
The radiolabeled catecholamine analogue (1R, 2S)-6-[(18)F]fluorometaraminol (6-[(18)F]FMR) is a substrate for the neuronal norepinephrine transporter. It has been used as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand to map sympathetic nerves in dog heart. 6-[(18)F]FMR could be only synthesized with low specific radioactivity, which precluded its use in human subjects. We ...
Bonnemeier H - - 2000
Depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with adverse outcome during and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The effects of reperfusion in AMI on the course of HRV have not been well characterized as yet. We analyzed 123 consecutive patients with a first AMI who underwent successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis ...
Uberfuhr P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx) results in complete cardiac denervation. Reestablished partial sympathetic nerve function has been found in patients some years after HTx. However, the atrial and ventricular regional patterns of reinnervation have not been established. METHODS: Two parallel methods were used to evaluate the regional restoration of sympathetic ...
Palomba D - - 2000
The autonomic basis of cardiac reactions to unpleasant film stimuli was investigated. Film clips depicting major surgery, threats of violence, and neutral material were presented to 46 subjects. Self-report measures of emotion were obtained, as well as heart rate, respiration rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, T-wave amplitude and skin conductance level. ...
Tjeerdsma G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Mibefradil was recently withdrawn from the market because of an unfavorable clinical profile in patients with chronic heart failure. Although drug interactions appear to play a role, other mechanisms such as proarrhythmia and autonomic deterioration could also be relevant. Chronic heart failure is accompanied by autonomic impairment and analysis ...
Stein P K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Clinical and demographic determinants of heart rate variability (HRV), an almost universal predictor of increased mortality, have not been systematically investigated in patients post myocardial infarction (MI). HYPOTHESIS: The study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between pretreatment clinical and demographic variables and HRV in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression ...
Esler M - - 2000
Recent demonstration that the level of sympathetic nervous drive to the failing heart in patients with severe heart failure is a major determinant of prognosis, and that mortality in heart failure is reduced by beta-adrenergic blockade, indicate the clinical relevance of heart failure neuroscience research. The cardiac sympathetic nerves are ...
Patel K P - - 2000
A number of neurohumoral processes are activated in heart failure, including an increase in the plasma concentration of norepinephrine. Few studies have been performed to examine the role of the central nervous system in the activation of sympathetic outflow during heart failure (HF). In this paper I review these limited ...
Biswas P K - - 2000
Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive neurohormonal activation. Analysis of heart rate variability is considered a valid technique for assessment of the autonomic balance of the heart. Twenty symptomatic patients of dilated cardiomyopathy in NYHA class II-IV symptomatic status and as many normal controls were subjected to 24 hours ...
Lanza G A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated a striking impairment in cardiac uptake of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in most patients with syndrome X. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiac MIBG defects and cardiac autonomic activity in these patients. METHODS: MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and time-domain and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) ...
Inazumi T - - 2000
Although the autonomic nervous system has been implicated in the genesis of coronary spasm, the precise mechanism by which it serves as the trigger of coronary spasm remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in autonomic nervous activity associated with ischemic episodes in patients with variant ...
Wang W - - 2000
Heart failure is characterized by an elevation in sympathetic tone. The mechanisms responsible for this sympatho-excitation of heart failure are not completely understood. Several studies from this laboratory have compared differences in the cardiac "sympathetic afferent" reflex between sham dogs and dogs with pacing-induced heart failure. We found 1) that ...
Wennerblom B - - 2000
AIM: To investigate whether uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease causes changes in heart rate variability and if so, whether the heart rate variability pattern is different from that described in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Heart rate variability was studied in 65 patients with angina who had no previous ...
Clark A L - - 2000
Chronic heart failure is characterised by excess adrenergic activity that augurs a poor prognosis. The reasons for increased adrenergic activity are complex and incompletely understood. The circumstantial evidence relating increased activity to adverse outcome is powerful, but not yet conclusive. In normal subjects, autonomic control of the circulation is predominantly ...
Davila D F - - 2000
Cardiac chambers have afferent connections to the brainstem and to the spinal cord. Vagal afferents mediate depressor responses and become activated by volume expansion, increased myocardial contractility and atrial natriuretic factor. Sympathetic afferents, on the contrary, are activated by metabolic mediators, myocardial ischemia and cardiac enlargement. These opposite behaviors may ...
Yi G - - 2000
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis from 24-hour ambulatory ECG has been widely used in risk stratification of patients after myocardial infarction (MI). The accuracy of HRV assessment is known to potentially vary when different commercial systems are used. However, the consistency of HRV measurements has never been fully investigated. Twenty-six ...
Halberg Franz - - 2000
Magnetic storms trigger myocardial infarctions with mechanisms relating to heart rate variability. Solar cycle-to-solar cycle differences and solar cycle stage dependence shown herein may resolve prior controversy and serve to advocate coordinated worldwide systematically aligned biological and physical monitoring. * This paper was originally invited by the historian-geophysicist Wilfried SCHRöDER ...
Machado C R - - 2000
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with activation of the cardiac sympathetic nerves. However, impairment of the sympathetic nerve terminals in patients with CHF has been indicated by studies showing reduction of cardiac norepinephrine uptake and stores. This investigation studies the histochemical evaluation of the sympathetic nerve terminals in CHF. ...
La Rovere M T - - 2000
As the arterial baroreflex importantly contributes to modulation of the autonomic influences on the heart and thereby arrhythmogenesis, baroreflex sensitivity has been used as a measure of the interaction between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities at the cardiac level. The most widely applied technique both in the experimental and clinical setting ...
Soejima K - - 2000
The age-adjusted, heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated as a parameter for the severity of heart failure and its prognosis. HRV was obtained by 24-h Holter monitoring in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, echocardiography, radioisotope ventriculography, and blood examination were performed, and ...
Tokudome T - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of basal coronary artery tone in normal and atherosclerotic plaque segments by using intravascular ultrasound in humans. In each of 21 patients, a short-axis image at one site of coronary artery was ...
Joho S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We assessed time-varying spectral components of heart rate and left ventricular (LV) pressure variability during coronary angioplasty to elucidate dynamic autonomic responses to transient myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND: Sympathoexcitatory reflexes elicited by acute coronary occlusion are rarely addressed in the clinical settings because of a lack of technique to monitor ...
Butera G - - 1999
AIM: To determine whether cavopulmonary connections are associated with abnormalities of heart rate variability. METHODS: Heart rate variability was studied by 24 hour Holter monitoring in 39 patients (mean (SD) age 12.2 (4.1) years) who underwent cavopulmonary connection operations (partial in 12, total in 13, and atriopulmonary in 14). Two ...
Mani V - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) may change immediately before onset of a ventricular arrhythmia (ONSET). METHODS AND RESULTS: Power spectrum analysis was performed on instantaneous heart rate (IHR; including all beats) and normal heart rate (NHR; excluding ectopics) curves obtained at equally spaced 0.5-second intervals using a cubic spline. ...
Kontopoulos A G - - 1999
Abnormal autonomic nervous system impairment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has a circadian pattern with the greatest manifestation in the morning hours; it probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and acute ischemic syndromes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improve autonomic function in patients with AMI, ...
Castellanos A - - 1999
This study revealed that conventional temporal and spectral indexes of heart rate variability were reduced in patients with sinus tachycardia due to various, easily detectable, causes. These findings were attributed to the fast rates, per se, regardless of the cause, without reflecting a particular shift in the degree of autonomic ...
Vaile J C - - 1999
Evidence from animal studies suggests that beta-blockers can act within the central nervous system to increase cardiac vagal motoneuron activity. We have attempted to determine whether such an effect is evident in healthy humans, by examining the effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic agents on heart rate variability and cardiac vagal ...
Crick S J - - 1999
The immunological problems of pig hearts supporting life in human recipients have potentially been solved by transgenic technology. Nevertheless, other problems still remain. Autonomic innervation is important for the control of cardiac dynamics and there is evidence suggesting that some neurons remain intact after transplantation. Previous studies in the human ...
Brembilla-Perrot B - - 1999
AIM: To find a rapid way of identifying non-responders to D, L-sotalol in patients with ventricular tachycardia. METHODS: Programmed ventricular stimulation and RR variability were studied in the control state and 10 days after treatment with 160 to 320 mg of D,L-sotalol in 36 consecutive patients with ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: ...
Rasmussen K G - - 1999
Anticholinergic medications such as atropine or glycopyrrolate have long been used in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to eliminate parasympathetically mediated dysrhythmias. However, such agents increase heart rate and myocardial workload and may increase risk of cardiac adverse events. What is needed is an intervention that is parasympatholytic without substantially increasing myocardial ...
Matheja P - - 1999
The autonomic innervation of the heart modifies most cardiac functions. Especially the heart rate and the force of contraction of myocytes are modulated by the autonomic nervous system. A number of specific neurotransmitters interact with receptors on post- and presynaptic binding sites regulating the complex electromechanical system of the heart. ...
Du X J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To seek direct evidence for a cause-effect relation between sympathetic activation and arrhythmogenesis. METHODS: Rats underwent open-chest surgery with either coronary artery occlusion or sham operation, and were studied 8 weeks later using in situ heart perfusion and nerve stimulation methods. RESULTS: Infarcted rats showed cardiac functional impairment and ...
West B J - - 1999
Human heart rate, controlled by complex feedback mechanisms, is a vital index of systematic circulation. However, it has been shown that beat-to-beat values of heart rate fluctuate continually over a wide range of time scales. Herein we use the relative dispersion, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, ...
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