Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1298
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Zareba W - - 2001
Epidemiologic evidence indicates that air pollution adversely affects the cardiovascular system, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms of such an association are unknown. Although potential mechanisms of deleterious effects of air pollution may involve response of the respiratory system, immunologic response, or coagulation abnormalities, the cardiovascular ...
Nollo G - - 2001
Despite the widely demonstrated association of reduced heart rate variability (HRV) to bad prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI), reference values for HRV parameters are still not available. The GISSI-3 Arrhythmias Substudy studied short-term HRV in a relatively unselected population of patients (324) with recent MI (13 +/- 7 days) providing ...
Huikuri H V - - 2001
Major untoward events, such as life-threatening arrhythmias and acute coronary events, have been suggested to be triggered by the activation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with coronary artery disease. Analysis of heart rate variability by conventional time and frequency domain methods, as well as by newer methods derived ...
Anastasiou-Nana M I - - 2001
The stability of indexes of heart rate variability and their possible association with spontaneous variability of ventricular ectopy was examined in 13 patients with advanced congestive heart failure over 14 consecutive days of 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recording. It was found that time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability ...
Sun S Y - - 2001
Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P-450 (CP450) pathways to a variety of bioactive products. The sensitivity of cardiac afferent endings to AA and its metabolites, especially those derived from LOX and CP450 pathways, is currently unclear. We examined AA-induced activation of cardiac vagal ...
Pope C A CA - - 2001
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Pathophysiologic pathways leading from ETS exposure to cardiopulmonary disease are still being explored. Reduced cardiac autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with cardiac vulnerability and may represent an important pathophysiologic mechanism linking ETS and ...
Burggraaf J - - 2001
We assessed sympathovagal balance in thyrotoxicosis. Fourteen patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism were studied before and after 7 days of treatment with propranolol (40 mg 3 times a day) and in the euthyroid state. Data were compared with those obtained in a group of age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls. Autonomic inputs ...
Brunner-La Rocca H P - - 2001
AIMS: To investigate whether strong cardiac sympathetic activity contributes primarily to sudden death or to worsening heart failure, and to determine the relationship of the size of cardiac noradrenaline stores to the mode of death. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population comprised 116 patients with congestive heart failure (ejection fraction ...
Raffel D M - - 2001
The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, ...
Kawada T - - 2001
We examined whether the ACh concentration measured by cardiac microdialysis provided information on left ventricular ACh levels under a variety of vagal stimulatory and modulatory conditions in anesthetized cats. Local administration of KCl (n = 5) and ouabain (n = 7) significantly increased the ACh concentration in the dialysate to ...
Watanabe T - - 2001
The present study investigated whether the circadian rhythm of sympathovagal activity is related to the severity of coronary spasm or multivessel coronary spasm. Heart rate variability was examined in 22 consecutive patients with vasospastic angina provoked by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine, who had either multivessel spasm (Group M, n=11 ) ...
Nakayama Y - - 2001
Although sympathetic nerve stimulation is known to increase ventricular contractility, concomitant increases in heart rate (HR) make it difficult to separate its direct inotropic effect from indirect inotropic effect through a force-frequency mechanism. We stimulated the stellate ganglia in 8 isolated canine hearts with functional sympathetic nerves. Right sympathetic stimulation ...
Schultz H D - - 2001
Stimulation of cardiac vagal afferent endings evokes reflex hypotension and bradycardia, also known as a Bezold-Jarisch effect. The physiological importance of this reflex pathway remains uncertain today, but it is increasingly apparent that cardiac vagal afferents can play an important role in modulating cardiovascular control in pathophysiological states, particularly myocardial ...
Boveda S - - 2001
AIMS: Analysis of heart rate variability is a noninvasive tool that allows to study autonomic control of the heart. Several studies have shown disturbed heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We sought to assess the prognostic value of time domain measures of heart rate variability in ...
Acar P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in childhood cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: 40 children (21 boys, 19 girls; mean (SD) age, 7.0 (5.6) years) with heart failure resulting from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 23) or various other disorders (n ...
Kurita A - - 2001
Evidence obtained over the past decade has revealed that cardiac events and sudden cardiac deaths do not occur randomly but are caused by daily activities and emotional stress. Important triggers may be stress on autonomic nervous tone and sympathetic activities. Such sympathetic activities are changed in a circadian manner with ...
Gao D W - - 2001
1. Increase in myocardial sympathetic activity contributes markedly to the pathophysiology of conditions such as congestive heart failure and is also associated with myocardial infarction. However, measurement of myocardial sympathetic activity in vivo is difficult. 2. The present study assesses the effectiveness of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to characterize modulation of ...
Zhao N - - 2001
Using a conscious swine model, we studied the effects of different patterns of cardiac autonomic denervation on alterations of R-R and Q T intervals for 8 postnatal weeks. Newborn pigs were assigned randomly to four different groups: sham-operated controls (C), stellate ganglion ablation (SGX), either left (LSGX) or right (RSGX), ...
Penttilä J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to compare the applicability of four different measures of heart rate variability (HRV) in the assessment of cardiac vagal outflow, with special reference to the effect of breathing pattern. The anticholinergic effects of an intravenous glycopyrrolate infusion (5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) for ...
Sloan R P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Although considerable evidence implicates hostility in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have developed a psychophysiological model that holds that altered autonomic nervous system function links psychological traits with CAD outcomes. In laboratory studies, stressors reduce high-frequency (HF) heart period variability, ...
Akiyama T - - 2001
To test the effectiveness of, and the interactions between, right and left vagal stimulation on left ventricular acetylcholine (ACh) levels, we applied the dialysis technique to the heart of anaesthetized cats. Dialysis probes were implanted in the left ventricular myocardium and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing eserine. Dialysate ACh content ...
Matsuo S - - 2001
The athlete's heart is commonly characterized by an increase in left ventricular mass because of an increase in the left ventricular diastolic cavity dimensions or wall thickness or both. Endurance exercise also induces numerous cardiovascular adaptations, including increased vagal tone. However, the sympathetic function has not yet been precisely elucidated, ...
Lanza G A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported an impairment of nervous autonomic activity in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the relationship of the autonomic dysfunction to the impairment of cardiac mechanical function and of respiratory failure is not completely understood. METHODS: We evaluated cardiac autonomic function by time- and frequency-domain heart ...
La Rovere M T - - 2001
The need for accurate risk stratification is heightened by the expanding indications for the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) focused interest on patients with both depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Meanwhile, the prospective study Autonomic Tone ...
Sato T - - 2001
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with palpitations. Although left ventriculography showed extensive akinesis except in the basal hyperkinetic segment, coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation was obviously reduced in the anteroseptal, apical and inferior areas. Inverted T waves developed on day 3 and disappeared ...
Aggarwal A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripheral presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in modulating norepinephrine (NE) release in congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is a hallmark of CHF. Clonidine, an imidazoline and adrenergic agonist with high selectivity for the ...
Monmeneu J V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Relationships between heart rate (HR) variability and different prognostic markers such as ejection fraction, functional capacity, and patency of the infarct-related artery, as well as the comparison of their time courses are not fully elucidated. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of study was to assess prospectively the early postinfarction changes in ...
Kawada T - - 2001
Although power spectra of R-R and P-R intervals in response to random respiration show similar frequency distributions, the way in which dynamic sympathetic regulation contributes to such similarity remains unknown. We estimated the transfer function from sympathetic stimulation to the atrioventricular interval (AV conduction time; T(AV)) with and without constant ...
Goncharuk V D - - 2001
Abnormalities in autonomic activity resulting in disturbances of the diurnal rhythm of many physiologic processes were recently revealed in hypertensive patients. These findings suggest deteriorations in the functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is known to be the biological clock of mammals. To test this hypothesis, we carried out ...
Drake-Holland A J - - 2001
PURPOSE: Chronic cardiac transplantation denervation (i.e., global sympathetic denervation with myocardial catecholamine depletion, plus parasympathetic denervation) is known to inhibit myocardial oxidation of glucose. It is not known whether this is due to increased utilization of lactate, lipid or ketone bodies. The purpose of the present study was to test ...
Christensen J H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish may reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). In addition, wine drinking is suggested to have a protective effect against cardiovascular death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 291 patients referred for coronary angiography in whom ischemic heart disease was ...
Ribeiro A L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Parasympathetic dysautonomia is an established feature of advanced Chagas cardiomyopathy. However, in the absence of cardiac involvement, the presence of vagal dysfunction remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we compared patients with Chagas disease without cardiac involvement and healthy individuals by three different methods to determine whether vagal dysfunction ...
Döven O - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac autonomic control in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and to assess the indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) in relation to the clinical and echocardiographic features. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (17 male, six female: mean age 43+/-11) with ...
Yoshida N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cardiac (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging is widely used to assess cardiac sympathetic neuronal function. However, physiologic significance of impaired cardiac MIBG uptake is not fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to determine influences of abnormal cardiac sympathetic neuronal function on heart rate variability (HRV) and ventricular repolarization ...
Singh R B - - 2001
Recent studies indicate that there is an interaction between biorhythms, the biological clock and triggers, which may be important in the pathogenesis of altered heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). Circadian rhythms are under the influence of, and physiological variables are mediated by the activation of the ...
Notarius C F - - 2001
Spectral analysis of heart rate variability has gained popularity as a simple, non-invasive tool for assessing autonomic function in both normal subjects and in patients in a variety of clinical settings. However, the use of this method as a means of estimating the magnitude of cardiac sympathetic activation in individual ...
Chiladakis J A - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: We have investigated the potential relationship between cardiac autonomic activity and accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR) in response to reperfusion in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 16 patients with AMI who developed spontaneous sustained ...
Khan M S - - 2001
Asymmetric innervation of the myocardium, especially a predominance of sympathetic innervation, may establish conditions whereby electrical instability could result. Using a swine animal model, we studied the effect of right cardiac vagal denervation on the variability of R-R and Q-T intervals. Newborn pigs were assigned randomly to two groups: sham-operated ...
Kawada T - - 2001
To elucidate the pathophysiological roles of vagosympathetic interactions in ischemia-induced myocardial norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) release, we measured myocardial interstitial NE and ACh levels in response to a left anterior descending coronary occlusion in the following groups of anesthetized cats: intact autonomic innervation (INT, n = 7); vagotomy (VX, ...
Stevens M J - - 2001
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of diabetes, which results in disabling clinical manifestations and may predispose to sudden cardiac death. Recently, direct scintigraphic assessment of cardiac sympathetic integrity has become possible with the introduction of radiolabeled analogues of norepinephrine, which are actively taken up by the sympathetic ...
Lin L Y - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: The slope of the power spectrum in heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the fractal or scaling behavior in HR dynamics and recently was confirmed as an independent predictor of postmyocardial infarction survival. Whether or not the new measurement in HRV foresees the functional evolution in patients with advanced congestive ...
Sato H - - 2001
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of nifedipine retard on heart rate and autonomic balance in patients with ischemic heart disease. Fourteen patients with ischemic heart disease (12 men and two women; mean age 64 years) were administered nifedipine retard at a daily dose of 20-40 ...
Kochiadakis G E - - 2000
Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) 10 minutes before, during, and 10 minutes after 110 ischemic episodes (IEs) in 38 patients (25 men, age 61 +/- 10 years) with stable coronary artery disease. In 26 of 77 diurnal ...
Cottee D B - - 2000
1. The regional coronary circulation is under the control of local metabolic and myogenic factors, but is also influenced by autonomic systems, including sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. 2. General anaesthetic agents influence not only local control through changes in metabolic demand, but also neural control through suppression of autonomic influence. ...
Ohuchi H - - 2000
There are few studies of cardiac autonomic nervous activity (CANA) in patients with congenital heart disease. Methods and Results-We evaluated CANA in 54 patients after closure of an atrial/ventricular septal defect (group A), 54 patients after successful right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (RVOTR) (group B1), 35 RVOTR patients with residual ...
Wessel N - - 2000
Standard time and frequency parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) describe only linear and periodic behaviour, whereas more complex relationships cannot be recognised. A method that may be capable of assessing more complex properties is the non-linear measure of 'renormalised entropy.' A new concept of the method, RE(AR), has been ...
Lombardi F - - 2000
Time- and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven effective in describing alteration of autonomic control mechanisms and in identifying patients with increased cardiac and arrhythmic mortality. Patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators offer the opportunity to evaluate HRV patterns before ventricular tachycardia (VT) and under control conditions. ...
Gorman J M - - 2000
Loss of normal autonomic nervous system control of heart rate and rhythm is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. After myocardial infarction, reduction in beat-to-beat heart rate variability, a measure of cardiac autonomic innervation by the brain, is a strong predictor of death. With loss of vagal innervation, ...
Korkmaz M E - - 2000
Recent data show that blockade of aldosterone receptors by spironoloctone reduces the risk of morbidity and death among patients with severe heart failure. Heart failure secondary to ischemia is characterized by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system, which can be assessed by analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV). ...
Pinna G D - - 2000
AIMS: The ATRAMI (Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarction) study has proved the independent prognostic value of baroreflex sensitivity. A limitation of the traditional method of estimating baroreflex sensitivity by phenylephrine, is the need to monitor intra-arterial blood pressure. Our objective was to establish whether this invasive method of ...
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