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Results 551 - 600 of 1144
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Stoica Serban C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies suggest that brain death (BD)-associated cardiac dysfunction is related to the neurohormonal storm and subsequent exposure to intravenous catecholamines. We aimed to describe the relationship between empirical noradrenaline treatment and donor heart function, described for the first time with load-independent indices of right ventricular contractility. ...
Cazorla Olivier - - 2005
The "stretch-sensitization" response is essential to the regulation of heart contractility. An increase in diastolic volume improves systolic contraction. The cellular mechanisms of this modulation, the Frank-Starling law, are still uncertain. Moreover, their alterations in heart failure remains controversial. Here, using left ventricular skinned rat myocytes, we show a nonuniform ...
Kompa Andrew R - - 2004
Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vaso-active peptide thought to have multiple roles in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. The actions of UII are complex and difficult to interpret given its systemic hemodynamic effects and variable action on different vascular beds and isolated vessels. Direct effects of UII ...
Haghighi Kobra - - 2004
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle resulting from a diverse array of conditions that damages the heart and impairs myocardial function. Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood at a rate which can accommodate the heart muscle's metabolic requirements. Several signaling pathways have ...
Brattelid Trond - - 2004
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) increases contractile force and elicits arrhythmias through 5-HT(4) receptors in porcine and human atrium, but its ventricular effects are unknown. We now report functional 5-HT(4) receptors in porcine and human ventricle. 5-HT(4) mRNA levels were determined in porcine and human ventricles and contractility studied in ventricular trabeculae. ...
Szabó Gábor - - 2004
Although hemodynamic instability and cardiac dysfunction after brain death are reported in the potential organ donor, the underlying mechanisms, such as neuro-humoral changes, myocardial injury, and altered loading conditions, are discussed contrarily. The physiologic regulatory mechanisms that may contribute to the reduction of cardiac function after brain death are reviewed. ...
Noguchi Teruo - - 2004
The contribution of the sarcomere's thin filament to the contractile dysfunction of human cardiomyopathy is not well understood. We have developed techniques to isolate and functionally characterize intact (native) thin filaments obtained from failing and nonfailing human ventricular tissue. By use of in vitro motility and force assays, native thin ...
Trukhin A N - - 2004
Histidine (3x10(-5) g/ml) had no effect on contractility and chronoinotropic relationships in frog myocardium, but rapidly and reversibly increased myocardial beta-adrenoreactivity (increased myocardial response to 7x10(-8), 3x10(-7), and 4x10(-6) g/ml epinephrine) and potentiated the positive effect of epinephrine (7x10(-8), 3x10(-7) g/ml) on chronoinotropic relationships in the myocardium. Histidine is considered ...
Tuzcu E Murat - - 2004
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Cryptogenic stroke may account for up to 40% of strokes, and it is commonly associated with patent foramen ovale. Ischemic strokes often are associated with atrial fibrillation and left atrial appendage. Devices have been developed to reduce ...
Chockalingam Nachiappan - - 2004
Although the causes and progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are still unclear, a recent extensive review has indicated a number of possible aetiological factors. Previous investigations, employing gait measurements, have indicated asymmetries in the ground reaction forces and suggest a relationship between these asymmetries, neurological dysfunction and spinal deformity. ...
Asahi Michio - - 2004
Sarcolipin (SLN) inhibits the cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) by direct binding and is superinhibitory if it binds through phospholamban (PLN). To determine whether overexpression of SLN in the heart might impair cardiac function, transgenic (TG) mice were generated with cardiac-specific overexpression of NF-SLN (SLN tagged at its N ...
Kennedy Richard H - - 2004
Previous studies have shown that chronic hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This study, which utilized coronary-perfused hearts and superfused papillary muscle, was designed to determine whether homocysteine acts acutely to alter cardiac contractile function. Left ventricular developed pressure was used as a measure of ...
Suga Hiroyuki - - 2004
The efficiency from the ventricular O(2) consumption (VO(2)) to the total mechanical energy (TME) generated by ventricular contraction has proved relatively constant at approximately 35%, independent of the loading and contractile conditions in a canine heart. TME is the sum of the external mechanical work for ejecting a stroke volume ...
Walker Ernest - - 2004
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected for 2 weeks to daily injections of homocysteine (Hcy), which increased plasma Hcy approximately 2-fold. Echocardiography indicated significant increases in left ventricular diastolic (13%) and systolic (31%) dimensions and decreases in posterior wall thickness (diastolic, -17%; systolic, -20%) in Hcy-treated animals. Slight changes were noted ...
Wang Lexin - - 2004
Previous studies have shown that an increase in coronary flow or shear force enhances the oxygen consumption and contractility of myocardium (the "Gregg effect"). Recent studies have indicated that an increase in coronary shear force also affects atrioventricular conduction and ventricular repolarization. The mechanisms of "Gregg effect" and the shear ...
Pádua-Filho Wagner C - - 2004
Beta-blockers and amiodarone have been used concomitantly to treat arrhythmias associated with congestive heart failure. However, the combination of metoprolol and amiodarone has only been studied restrospectively, and its potential effects in congestive heart failure remain to be properly elucidated in prospective trials. The present investigation focused on evaluating the ...
Li John K-J JK Cardiovascular Engineering Labs, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2004
Mechanisms governing post-ischemic ventricular function after episodes of acute myocardial ischemia are still unclear. We investigated this stunned myocardial function with a computer model in conjunction with animal experiments. A modified lumped cardiac muscle model was subjected to parametric changes similar to regionally recorded ventricular parameters. The model was perturbed ...
Barlow A J - - 2004
Controversy exists as to whether a hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunt due to a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects ventricular contractility. Load-dependent indices such as ejection fraction and shortening fraction have traditionally been used to assess contractility, but the relationship between the rate-corrected velocity of fiber shortening (MVCFc) and wall stress ...
Korzick Donna H - - 2003
The primary purpose of this paper is to present a basic overview of some "relatively" new ideas related to the regulation of cardiac performance and underlying excitation-contraction (EC) coupling that have yet to be incorporated to textbooks currently used for introductory graduate-level physiology courses. Within the context of cardiac EC ...
Krenn Claus G - - 2004
Hemodynamic alterations are a well-known phenomenon that influence the outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Whether or not myocardial dysfunction, which has various causes, contributes to this instability is still debated. Previous transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies have presented controversial data, not leading to final clarification. This is mainly because the ...
Lewin Tal M - - 2003
Studies showing a correlation of excess myocardial triacylglycerol stores with apoptosis, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction indicate that dysregulation of triacylglycerol metabolism may contribute to cardiac disease. This review covers the regulation of heart triacylglycerol accumulation at the critical control points of fatty acid uptake, enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis, lipolysis, and ...
Mebazaa Alexandre - - 2004
The right ventricle (RV) provides sustained low-pressure perfusion of the pulmonary vasculature, but is sensitive to changes in loading conditions and intrinsic contractility. Factors that affect right ventricular preload, afterload or left ventricular function can adversely influence the functioning of the RV, causing ischaemia and right ventricular failure (RVF). As ...
Eichhorn Eric J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: beta-Blockers improve survival and reduce hospitalization in chronic heart failure (CHF) by biologically improving left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, a good predictor of improvement with this therapy has not been identified. This substudy of BEST examined whether myocardial contractile reserve, as determined by dobutamine stress echocardiography, predicts improvement ...
Heilmann Claudia A U - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Growth factor gene therapy represents one current approach in the therapy of myocardial ischemia. We assessed the in vitro and in vivo expression of naked plasmid DNA aiming at preservation of function in a chronically ischemic myocardial model. METHODS: In vitro: Primary cardiac fibroblasts were transfected with plasmids encoding ...
Tatsumi Tetsuya - - 2004
The mechanisms by which endotoxemia causes cardiac depression have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in this pathology. Rats were infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, and the plasma and myocardial NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) (NOx) concentrations were measured before or 3, 6, ...
Hu Xiaojun - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that viable but stunned myocardium displays contractile reserve and exhibits cardiac cycle-dependent variations of integrated backscatter (CVIB), whereas infarcted myocardium does not. HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to clarify whether assessment of the acoustic properties of the myocardium can predict contractile reserve in patients with ...
Javadpour Maryam M - - 2003
The thin filament protein cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is an important regulator of myofilament activation. Here we report a significant change in cardiac energetics in transgenic mice bearing the missense mutation R92Q within the tropomyosin-binding domain of cTnT, a mutation associated with a clinically severe form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ...
Paz Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is the most important graft in coronary artery bypass grafting. Its distal region is, however, prone to vasospasm. We studied the effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) and isosorbide-dinitrate (DSDN) on distal segments of left versus right ITA. METHODS: Rings of distal segments (6 to 9 ...
Wunderlich Carsten - - 2003
Elevated cardiac levels of nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) have been implicated in the development of heart failure. The surprisingly benign phenotype of recently generated mice with cardiac-specific iNOS overexpression (TGiNOS) provided the rationale to investigate whether NO scavenging by oxymyoglobin (MbO2) yielding nitrate and ...
Rapezzi Claudio - - 2003
Since a depressed contractility has long been considered the primary defect in patients with heart failure, the use of inotropic agents has been regarded as a logical approach to treat this syndrome. Despite this conceptual framework, these drugs have not yet established themselves in the treatment of chronic heart failure ...
Cremers Bodo - - 2003
Although there are some data on the cardiovascular profile of bupropion, a non-nicotine-based pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, detailed studies of its specifically cardiac effects are lacking. In particular, the direct action of this agent on human myocardial contractility is not known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bupropion on human ...
Conde Garcia E A - - 2003
Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the ...
Zaugg C E - - 2003
Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial metabolism of long-chain fatty acids and thus for myocardial energy production. Accordingly, carnitine deficiency can be associated with cardiomyopathy. To better understand this disease, we determined myocardial function and energy metabolism in a rat model of carnitine deficiency. Carnitine deficiency was induced by a 3- ...
Klockgether-Radke A P - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines may cause hypotension and are reported to interfere with smooth vascular muscle activity. The aim was to elucidate the influence of three different benzodiazepines on the vascular reactivity of coronary arteries. METHODS: Using the model of isolated vessels, we studied the impact of midazolam (0.15, 1.5, ...
Barnes Edward - - 2003
Myocardial stunning refers to the contractile dysfunction that occurs following an episode of acute ischaemia, despite the return of normal blood flow. The phenomenon was initially identified in animal models, where it has been very well characterised, and there was initial doubt about whether a similar syndrome occurred in humans, ...
Frangogiannis N G - - 2003
Myocardial hibernation refers to a state of persistent regional ventricular dysfunction, in patients with coronary artery disease that is reversible with revascularization. It is part of the spectrum of pathophysiological responses to myocardial ischemia and is a particularly important concept in understanding the development and progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Hibernating ...
Houser Steven R - - 2003
This review examines the evidence for and against the hypothesis that abnormalities in cardiac contractility initiate the heart failure syndrome and drive its progression. There is substantial evidence that the contractility of failing human hearts is depressed and that abnormalities of basal Ca2+ regulation and adrenergic regulation of Ca2+ signaling ...
Takahara Akira - - 2003
Y-27632, (+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride monohydrate, is a selective Rho-associated kinase inhibitor, which has been suggested to possess multiple clinical applications based on the in vitro observations. Since information regarding in vivo cardiovascular effects of Y-27632 is still limited, we assessed them using the halothane-anesthetized, closed-chest canine model. Administration of Y-27632 ...
Vogt Achim M - - 2003
In the current study on human hibernating myocardium (HHM), we tested the hypothesis that increased glycolysis might exert a positive effect during a supply-demand balance situation by augmentation of myocardial energy formation. In 14 patients HHM was preoperatively detected by clinical methods and validated by the recovery of contractile function ...
Noguchi Teruo - - 2003
In non-failing human myocardium, V1 myosin comprises a small amount (<10%) of the total myosin content, whereas end-stage failing hearts contain nearly 100% V3 myosin. It has been suggested that this shift in V1 myosin isoform content may contribute to the contractile deficit in human myocardial failure. To test this ...
Cremers Bodo - - 2003
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid messenger, which is released from activated platelets and leukocytes. This study examined the effects of LPA on myocardial contractility and characterized the signal transduction pathway involved in these effects. Functional effects of LPA were determined in isolated, electrically driven human myocardial preparations and rat ...
Koch A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if bradycardia during hyperbaric exposure is accompanied by a negative influence on myocardial contractility. METHODS: Accelerometer-based registration of myocardial compression waves with Seismocardiography (SCG) for noninvasive contractility monitoring. Comparative pulmonary artery (PA) catheter study (9 ICU-patients, mean = 67ys) with ejection-fraction (EF) equivalent versus sum of g-values ...
Squires Jeffrey E - - 2003
Blunted beta-adrenergic inotropism in stunned myocardium is restored by pharmacological (N-acetylcysteine) and metabolic (pyruvate) antioxidants. The ketone body acetoacetate is a natural myocardial fuel and antioxidant that improves contractile function of prooxidant-injured myocardium. The impact of acetoacetate on postischemic cardiac function and beta-adrenergic signaling has never been reported. To test ...
Xiao Shouzhong - - 2002
Although a very close relationship between the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1) and the cardiac contractility have been proven by previous studies, the absolute value of S1 can not be applied for evaluating cardiac contractility. However, we were able to devise some indicators with relative values for evaluating ...
Wagner Kay-Dietrich - - 2002
In this study we analyzed the susceptibility of contractile function of the myocardium to hypoxia-reoxygenation after infarction. For this purpose, the contractility of isolated papillary muscles from rats was studied at high oxygen tension (pO2 80 kPa) and during hypoxia (pO2 3 kPa) with subsequent reoxygenation at variable intervals between ...
Müller Frank U - - 2003
Congestive heart failure is the common endpoint of various cardiac diseases representing a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in Western countries. Characteristic functional alterations of the failing heart are explained by expressional changes of myocardial regulatory proteins; however, little is known about underlying mechanisms regulating cardiac gene expression in the ...
Amedeo Modesti Pietro P Clinica Medica Generale e Cardiologia, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134, Florence, Italy. - - 2002
The role of angiotensin II in pressure overload is still debated because notwithstanding its effects on myocyte contractility angiotensin II is not an obligatory factor for the development of hypertrophy. To define the role of angiotensin II in acute pressure overload we studied the effects of AT1 blockade (valsartan 80mg ...
Mukherjee Rupak - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin has been demonstrated to cause systemic vasodilation, and increased plasma adrenomedullin levels have been observed in cardiovascular disease states such as heart failure. While adrenomedullin receptors have been localized to the myocardium, the effects of adrenomedullin on human myocyte contractility remained unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left ventricular myocytes ...
Chakraborti Sajal - - 2002
A considerable number of experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies are now available which point to an important role of Mg2+ in the etiology of cardiovascular pathology. In human subjects, hypomagnesemia is often associated with an imbalance of electrolytes such as Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Abnormal dietary deficiency of Mg2+ as ...
Min Jiang-Yong - - 2002
We monitored myocardial function in postinfarcted wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mouse hearts with overexpression of the cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Five weeks after infarction, cardiac function was better maintained in TG than WT mice [left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure: WT, 41 +/- 2; TG, 58 +/- 3 mmHg; P < ...
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