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Results 451 - 500 of 1347
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Olivencia-Yurvati Albert H - - 2004
Cardiopulmonary bypass activates an array of cellular and humoral inflammatory mechanisms that culminate in diverse or organ-specific injury. A manifestation of inflammatory injury to the heart, atrial fibrillation ranks among the most frequent and potentially life-threatening postsurgical complications. Pulmonary manifestations of the inflammatory response are also of major concern. Neutrophils ...
Raitt Merritt H - - 2004
Patients with recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation within 30 days of cardioversion had slower atrial conduction, a slower sinus rate, no difference in the absolute value of the effective refractory period, greater early reverse remodeling of the effective refractory period, and more premature atrial contractions than those who did not. ...
Somberg John C - - 2004
Certain groups are known to have an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that patients with atrial fibrillation may be at higher risk. The authors hypothesize that atrial fibrillation may increase myocardial vulnerability. To test this hypothesis, 37 dogs were studied using programmed electrical stimulation techniques ...
Lee Ken W KW Div. of Cardiology, California Univ., San Francisco, CA, - - 2004
Despite advances in cardiac arrhythmia management, atrial fibrillation remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggests that there are periods of organization within this apparently chaotic arrhythmia. To date, analysis of the rapidly changing atrial fibrillation signal has been limited by a lack of time-frequency resolution. ...
Szalay Zoltan A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Maze-III is a complex surgical procedure designed to treat chronic atrial fibrillation. A reduction in the number of right and left atrial incisions could decrease the operative time. The aim of this study was to assess the results of a mini-maze operation and to define predictors of its failure. ...
Ezekowitz Michael D - - 2004
Atrial fibrillation and heart failure are growing epidemics in the developed world and often coexist. From clinical trials, warfarin is highly effective in reducing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Equally important is the fact that in spite of well-designed trials, translation of the results of the data from the ...
Clayton Richard H - - 2004
The aim of this paper was to quantify the behavior of filaments in a computational model of re-entrant ventricular fibrillation. We simulated cardiac activation in an anisotropic monodomain with excitation described by the Fenton-Karma model with Beeler-Reuter restitution, and geometry by the Auckland canine ventricle. We initiated re-entry in the ...
Cooper Howard A - - 2004
Atrial fibrillation comprises a large and growing epidemic in the aging population. Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke increases markedly with age. Multiple clinical trials have proven that warfarin anticoagulation is effective in reducing this risk. However, the complex pharmacokinetics and narrow ...
Zenk Brenda M - - 2004
We evaluated the accuracy of an electronic stethoscope in the detection of irregular cardiac rhythms. Ten patients with either normal sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation previously documented by electrocardiogram (ECG) were recruited from a local retirement community. Six senior family medicine resident physicians were asked to assess the cardiac rhythms ...
Sievers Burkhard - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the biplane area-length method can be used for the evaluation of left atrial volumes and ejection fraction with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) by TrueFISP in normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly patients. Left atrial ...
McNamara Robert L - - 2003
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the available evidence regarding the efficacy of medications used for ventricular rate control, stroke prevention, acute conversion, and maintenance of sinus rhythm, as well as the efficacy of electrical cardioversion and the use of echocardiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Collaboration's database ...
Garrigue Stephane - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular pacing (LVP) and biventricular pacing (BVP) have been proposed as treatments for patients with advanced heart failure complicated by discoordinate contraction due to intraventricular conduction delay. For patients in sinus rhythm, BVP works in part by modulating the electronic atrial-ventricular time delay and thus optimizing contractile synchrony, ...
Naccarelli Gerald V - - 2003
AF in Heart Failure. Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure are commonly occurring cardiac disorders that often exist concomitantly. The prognostic significance of the presence or absence of atrial fibrillation, as an independent risk factor, in patients with heart failure remains controversial. Antiarrhythmic drugs with good hemodynamic profiles and neutral ...
Manasse Eric - - 2003
Up to 50% of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery have concomitant atrial fibrillation. An epicardial approach may offer the benefit of reducing the aortic cross-clamping time and avoiding an undue left atriotomy. During the last year we have been developing a simple technique to reproduce epicardially the same lesion pattern ...
Chiappini Bruno - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We present the results obtained in 40 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation using direct intraoperative radiofrequency to perform atrial fibrillation surgery. METHODS: Between April 2001 and June 2002, 40 patients underwent surgery for atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency ablation and cardiac surgery at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the ...
Kasliwal Ravi R - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia of clinical significance. Its prevalence rises with age. It is a significant cause of thromboembolic phenomena. We describe briefly the etiology and classification of atrial fibrillation, the risk factors for thromboembolism and stroke associated with it, the indications for hospitalization, and the ...
Mitchell Andrew R J - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is understood to be a re-entrant arrhythmia and for many years electrophysiologists have attempted to pace-terminate the rhythm. Several studies have demonstrated that an excitable gap is present during atrial fibrillation and that the capture of small amounts of atrial tissue is possible. Early attempts to terminate atrial ...
Stöllberger Claudia - - 2003
The "elimination" of the left atrial appendage (LAA) seems to be an attractive alternative to oral anticoagulation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, especially in patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulation therapy. The LAA, however, plays an important role in the maintenance and regulation of the cardiac function, in arterial ...
Gowda Ramesh M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of acute pulmonary edema after cardioversion of arrhythmias. METHODS: Cases, case series, and related articles on the subject identified through a comprehensive literature search were examined. RESULTS: Thirty cases (23 males) of post cardioversion acute pulmonary edema were identified. The mean age was 53.8 +/- ...
Horta Veloso Henrique - - 2003
Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ...
Lechat Philippe P - - 2003
The prevention of the thromboembolic complications of chronic atrial fibrillation remains a therapeutic challenge because they cannot be completely suppressed by vitamin K antagonists with a target international normalized ratio between 2 and 3. Evaluation of the combination at that international normalized ratio level with antiplatelet therapy was the aim ...
Wu Zhong-Kai - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequently encountered postoperative arrhythmic complication after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ischemic preconditioning has proved a potent endogenous factor in suppressing ischemia-reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting has not been studied. The purpose of the ...
Pedersen Ole Dyg - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is a growing health problem and the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 5% of persons above the age of 65 years. The number of hospital discharges for atrial fibrillation has more than doubled in the past decade. It occurs very often in patients with congestive heart failure and ...
Manasse Eric - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Endocardial ablation of the left atrial posterior wall has been used to treat atrial fibrillation. Aim of the study was to evaluate its efficacy looking for the ablation pattern allowing a fast execution with limited interference on atrial contractility. Moreover a statistical analysis to identify predictors of long-term sinus ...
Kaneko Kazuyoshi - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) findings after the termination of atrial fibrillation to clarify the direct evidence for occurrence of acute cardiogenic brain embolism (CBE) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 98 consecutive patients with CBE, we investigated ...
Finsterer Josef - - 2003
That tremor simulates atrial fibrillation and causes oral anticoagulation has not been reported. In a 69-year-old patient with diabetes, arterial hypertension and recurrent strokes, hand tremor developed since 1998. In September 2000 atrial fibrillation was diagnosed upon a routine and 24-hour ambulatory ECG. Because of the additional risk factors for ...
Schrickel J - - 2003
A 69 year old female with history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation suffered from occipital apoplexy. Under treatment with amiodarone 600 mg daily and concomitant medication with beta-acetyldigoxine (0.1 mg daily) and bisoprolole (1.25 mg daily), significant QT-prolongation (max. 700 ms; QTc: 614 ms) could ...
Trappe Hans-Joachim - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, AV-nodal reentry tachycardia with rapid ventricular response, atrial ectopic tachycardia, and preexcitation syndromes combined with atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachyarrhythmias are typical arrhythmias in intensive care patients. Most frequently, the diagnosis of the underlying arrhythmia is possible from the physical examination, the response ...
Merritt J Christopher - - 2003
A retrospective review of 115 patients who underwent cardiac surgery demonstrated a marked reduction in postoperative atrial fibrillation (8% vs 32%, p <0.05) in patients who received carvedilol versus metoprolol or atenolol immediately after surgery. A prospective study examining the possibility of carvedilol's greater efficacy in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation ...
Shah Dipen - - 2003
In contrast to other supraventricular tachycardias, curative treatment of atrial fibrillation, although increasingly available and rapidly evolving, is neither as effective nor the first choice. Until recently, the unavailability of nonsurgical curative treatment may have fueled a debate on the relative importance of restoring sinus rhythm versus controlling the ventricular ...
Mittal Suneet - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is the most frequently encountered sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. Electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation using damped sine wave shocks has been a mainstay of therapy for nearly 4 decades; its limitation remains a failure rate that approaches 20%. Although several alternatives have been proposed, including delivering 720 ...
Funk Marjorie - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common complication after cardiac surgery and a major cause of morbidity and increased cost of care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence, timing, symptoms, and risk factors for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: A total of 302 patients were continuously monitored for atrial fibrillation ...
Barak Michal - - 2003
We report a case of trauma patient, whose heart rhythm and rate changed from sinus tachycardia to rapid atrial fibrillation. The change occurred immediately after the insertion of left thoracostomy tube. The patient did not respond to pharmacological treatment. Only when the tube was pulled out, the rhythm returned to ...
Singh Steven N - - 2003
Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic drug (potassium channel blocker) that has been approved by the regulatory agencies in the United States and throughout the world to convert atrial fibrillation and maintain sinus rhythm. Therapy is initiated in-hospital during heart rhythm monitoring. Doses are selected according to the QT interval ...
Kirchhof Paulus - - 2003
Acute termination of atrial fibrillation is the starting point of any therapy aimed at preventing atrial fibrillation and improves cardiac output in patients with hemodynamic compromise due to the arrhythmia. External electrical cardioversion is a simple procedure to terminate persistent atrial fibrillation in the majority of cases. Initially, Lown et ...
Rydberg Erik - - 2003
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate if left atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) has a prognostic value in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left AVPD was assessed by two-dimensionally guided M-mode echocardiography in the four- and two-chamber views in 160 consecutive patients with chronic atrial ...
Crystal Eugene - - 2003
Postoperative atrial fibrillation after heart surgery is frequent and may increase the length of hospital stay and costs of postoperative care of patients after heat surgery. Pharmacological and pacing interventions were evaluated in the large number of relatively small trials with often contradictory results. Conventional beta-blockers, sotalol, amiodarone and pacing ...
Malinowski Klaus - - 2003
A 68-year-old woman with drug refractory congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III, ejection fraction 35%, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation) and permanent atrial fibrillation uninterrupted for >3 years, underwent implantation of a biventricular pacing system. Seventeen months later, atrial fibrillation spontaneously converted into sinus rhythm, which has been maintained for ...
Hill Ronald C - - 2003
Chronic atrial fibrillation affects over 2.2 million people and is associated with complications including heart failure, stroke, and exercise intolerance. Since drug therapy and cardioversion have been only partially successful in restoring sinus rhythm, surgical procedures were developed for medically refractory atrial fibrillation (1). We report a case of successful ...
Akahane Takemi - - 2003
A 61-year-old man developed atrial fibrillation 2 weeks after the administration of simvastatin (5 mg once daily) and recovered to sinus rhythm 3 days after withdrawal of the drug. Electrocardiography had not previously revealed an abnormality except for transient atrial fibrillation and left atrial overloading. Although he has not been ...
Kadish Alan - - 2003
Recent studies have demonstrated that fibrillatory rhythms are not random phenomena but have definable patterns. However, standard mapping techniques may have limitations in their ability to identify the organization of fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a method, "ensemble vector mapping," for characterizing the spatiotemporal ...
Grönefeld Gerian C - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure are two distinct clinical entities that are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, and nonischemic cardiomyopathy represent the most prevalent underlying pathologies of both diseases, implying a coincidence of both in many patients. The prevalence of ...
Nattel Stanley - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, and its management remains challenging. A solid understanding of the scientific basis for atrial fibrillation therapy requires insight into the mechanisms underlying the arrhythmia, about which an enormous amount has been learned over the past 10 years. The basic ...
Fung Kevin C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Cardioversion by direct current (DC) and other methods can cause atrial "stunning." There are case reports of acute pulmonary edema after DC cardioversion, but whether acute ventricular dysfunction is a general consequence of DC cardioversion is unknown. We have investigated whether DC cardioversion acutely affects myocardial velocity assessed by ...
Sie Hauw T - - 2003
In patients with longstanding atrial fibrillation surgical correction of the underlying cardiac abnormality alone will not abolish the arrhythmia. The Cox's Maze III has proven to be an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation but because of its complexity cardiac surgeons are reluctant to expose their patients to the potential risks ...
Grönefeld Gerian - - 2003
Knowledge on the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation is rapidly expanding and identification of focally localized triggers have led to the development of new treatment options for this arrhythmia. Conversely, the clinical decision whether to restore and maintain sinus rhythm or simply control the ventricular rate has remained a matter of ...
Kholová Ivana - - 2003
Myocardial extensions around pulmonary veins (PVs) have been recognized as the most important sites of origin for arrhythmogenic foci that trigger atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of atrial myocardium in pulmonary veins from subjects with and without a history of atrial fibrillation. A ...
Singh Bramah N - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation is now the most common cardiac arrhythmia for which a patient is hospitalized. Clinically, it presents in a form that is paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent and may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, occurring in the setting of either no cardiac disease ("lone atrial fibrillation") or, most often, in association ...
Opie Lionel H - - 2003
Atrial fibrillation has recently come into clinical and research focus. In particular, ventricular rate control has been carefully compared with atrial rhythm control. Additionally, the recent discovery of atrial stunning has initiated clinical and research interest in atrial remodeling. Atrial fibrillation is more likely to occur when the atria are ...
Panagiotopoulos Konstantinos - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention studies for cardioembolic strokes show a remarkable variability in stroke recurrence rates. Various reports have raised questions regarding differences in baseline clinical characteristics and in methodology to explain this wide variability. HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to examine the 2-year outcome after first cardioembolic ...
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