Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1322
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Mital S - - 1999
The production of endogenous nitric oxide, which regulates myocardial oxygen consumption, is decreased in heart failure. As with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, amlodipine, a calcium antagonist, increases kinin-mediated nitric oxide production in coronary microvessels. We investigated the possibility of synergy between ACE inhibitors and amlodipine in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption. ...
Forfia P R - - 1999
Recent evidence from our laboratory and others suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is a modulator of in vivo and in vitro oxygen consumption in the murine and canine heart. Therefore, the goal of our study was twofold: to determine whether NO modulates myocardial oxygen consumption in the nonhuman primate heart ...
Pearson JT - - 1999
The aims of this study were to determine the patterns of development of heart rate (fH) in altricial avian embryos and hatchlings, and then to examine how fH is regulated to meet metabolic requirements in altricial embryos. Embryonic mean heart rate (fH-) in 12 altricial species (Passeriformes and Psittaciformes) increased ...
Ferdinandy P - - 1999
We examined the mechanism of the time- and protein synthesis-dependent decline in cardiac mechanical function in isolated working rat hearts. Hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 120 min in the presence or absence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CX; 10 microM). Cardiac work remained stable for 60 min ...
Yada T - - 1999
Adenosine has been postulated to mediate the increase in coronary blood flow when myocardial oxygen consumption is increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adenosine when myocardial oxygen consumption was augmented by cardiac paired-pulse stimulation without the use of catecholamines. In 10 anesthetized closed-chest dogs, ...
Wacker C M - - 1999
The aim of this pilot-study was to evaluate changes in myocardial oxygenation and perfusion under pharmacological stress with dipyridamole (DIP) by means of MRI. Twenty healthy volunteers were examined using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence. The differential myocardial signal response due to the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect was studied ...
Mundhenke M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with ...
Blanchaert R H RH - - 1999
Imbalances between myocardial oxygen delivery and oxygen demand result in ischemic heart disease. Accurate stratification of risk for permanent myocardial injury and appropriate choice of therapy are critical in the successful management of ischemic heart disease. Dental therapy can be performed safely for most ambulatory patients with ischemic heart disease.
Wacker C M - - 1999
Changes of myocardial oxygenation can be studied by measurements of the apparent transverse relaxation time T2*, which is correlated with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin. In this study, ten patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) T2* measurements using a segmented gradient echo pulse sequence ...
Murakami Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen ...
Saadjian A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to assess whether arterial chemoreceptors are activated in chronic heart failure and to appreciate whether this activation is related to the degree of cardiac dysfunction. We examined whether administration of pure oxygen for 30 min to 35 patients with chronic heart failure was followed ...
Samaja M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess how coronary flow, oxygen supply and energy demand affect myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and their metabolites during oxygen shortage and recovery. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were exposed for 20 min to either low-flow ischaemia or hypoxaemia at the same oxygen supply, followed ...
Laitinen P O - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published ...
Murphy T - - 1998
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of midazolam-sufentanil (Group I) and sufentanil-enflurane (Group II) anaesthesia on myocardial oxygenation and metabolism in patients with preserved ventricular function undergoing CABG surgery. METHODS: Patients randomized to Group I (n = 16) received midazolam 0.3 mg.kg-1 at induction of anaesthesia, 0.15 mg.kg-1 after tracheal intubation, ...
Recchia F A - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to determine whether cardiac nitric oxide (NO) production changes during the progression of pacing-induced heart failure and whether this occurs in association with alterations in myocardial metabolism. Dogs (n=8) were instrumented and the heart paced until left ventricular end-diastolic pressure reached 25 mm ...
Mancia G - - 1998
Several pathological conditions affecting the cardiovascular system are characterized by a dysfunction of the viscoelastic properties of the arterial vessels and, in particular, of arterial distensibility and compliance. These alterations have pathophysiological and clinical relevance because both distensibility and compliance play a key role in cardiovascular homeostatic control by modulating ...
Monnet E - - 1998
The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible myocardial sparing effect by dynamic cardiomyoplasty. We directly measured cardiac work and myocardial oxygen consumption after dynamic cardiomyopathy in dogs with adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Ten dogs with cardiomyopathy induced by 4 weekly intracoronary infusions of adriamycin were studied. Five dogs underwent ...
Tune J D - - 1998
Insulin improves myocardial contractile function during moderate ischemia, but the mechanism is unknown. To determine effects of insulin on myocardial oxygen utilization efficiency (O2UE) and energetics, regional left coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was lowered sequentially from 100 to 60, 50, and 40 mmHg in 24 anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Regional power ...
Cohn P F - - 1998
A rational approach to the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia requires an appreciation of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and the treatment options available. Any factor that causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand can provoke ischemia. Myocardial oxygen requirements rise with increases in heart rate, contractility, ...
Kazmaier S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in ...
Sakashita H - - 1998
The oxygen-supply capability of a spray cycle reactor was evaluated by using it for oxidative degradation of L-alanine. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa, was evaluated as a parameter for the oxygen supply. The liquid circulation rate in the spray cycle reactor was represented in terms of the number of ...
Zmudka K - - 1998
To evaluate the extent to which the protective effect of metoprolol was accompanied by changes in myocardial oxygen consumption and metabolism, thrombotic occlusion of coronary artery followed by infusion of metoprolol or placebo was performed in twenty four German Shepherds. To restore a coronary blood flow rt-PA was administered. Plasma ...
Koyama T - - 1998
Capillaries are nonuniform thin tubes: The arteriolar and venular capillary portions express alkaline phosphatase (AP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), respectively. Differences in enzyme activities between arteriolar and venular capillary portions could be shown by staining sections of cardiac tissues for AP and DPPIV after coronary infusion of microspheres and ...
Velmahos G C - - 1998
Seventeen patients with hemodynamic instability from acute cerebrovascular accidents were evaluated shortly after arrival at the emergency department of a university-run county hospital with both invasive Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter placement and a new, noninvasive, thoracic electrical bioimpedance device. Values were recorded and temporal patterns of survivors and nonsurvivors were ...
Rabindranauth P - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that preventing cyclic GMP degradation with zaprinast, (a selective cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor) would produce a blunted reduction in myocardial O2 consumption in renal hypertension (One Kidney-One Clip, 1K1C)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Four groups of anesthetized open-chest New Zealand white rabbits (n = 26) were utilized. Either vehicle ...
Jeppesen P - - 1998
Myocardial dynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine were studied in the isolated retrogradely perfused and spontaneously beating guinea-pig heart. Pharmacokinetic analysis of drug accumulation showed one-compartment characteristics with an half-life of 76 min. Whereas disposition exhibited two-compartment characteristics with phasic half-lives of 25 and 174 min., respectively. Myocardial drug accumulation ...
Todaka K - - 1998
BAY y 5959 is a dihydropyridine derivative with positive inotropic actions mediated by a direct increase in intracellular calcium. We characterized the direct myocardial actions of this new agent in hearts isolated from seven normal dogs and from five dogs with repeated coronary microembolization-induced heart failure. Inotropic actions of BAY ...
Lilleberg J - - 1998
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on systemic and coronary haemodynamics and myocardial substrate utilization of a new calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, after coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-three low-risk patients were included in this randomized and double-blind study. They received placebo (n = ...
Parmley W W - - 1998
From a therapeutic point of view, angina pectoris is best thought of as an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. Oxygen supply to the heart can be increased by improving endothelial function to increase vasodilation. Non-endothelial-mediated vasodilation will also help increase coronary flow. Coronary vasodilators, such as the calcium blockers ...
Chen L - - 1998
The effects of periodic obstructive apneas on systemic and myocardial hemodynamics were studied in nine preinstrumented sedated pigs under four conditions: breathing room air (RA), breathing 100% O2, breathing RA after critical coronary stenosis (CS) of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and breathing RA after autonomic blockade with hexamethonium ...
Schulz R - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Modeling of the time-[1-(11)C]acetate activity curve assumes a constant concentration of labeled tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and associated metabolites, such as glutamate and aspartate, which may, however, decrease in short-term hibernating myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 anesthetized pigs, [1-(11)C]acetate was injected as a bolus into the cannulated left ...
Crystal G J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Calcium produces constriction in isolated coronary vessels and in the coronary circulation of isolated hearts, but the importance of this mechanism in vivo remains controversial. METHODS: The left anterior descending coronary arteries of 20 anesthetized dogs whose chests had been opened were perfused at 80 mmHg. Myocardial segmental shortening ...
Andreas S - - 1998
Patients with congestive heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration have a low arterial oxygen saturation, especially during sleep, which can be increased by breathing oxygen. Chronic alterations in blood gases are known to modulate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). We therefore evaluated whether the HCVR is influenced by nocturnal nasal oxygen ...
van der Velden J - - 1998
1. The composition of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was investigated in young (1- to 8-week-old) and mature (9- to 26-week-old) guinea-pigs using two monoclonal antibodies directed specifically against alpha-MHC and beta-MHC. In addition, maximum force and the rate of ATP consumption during isometric contraction were measured in chemically skinned trabeculae ...
Steffensen J F - - 1998
We performed in vivo studies to examine the idea that cardiac work is impaired in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) below a certain venous PO2 threshold. We hypothesized that coronary-ligated fish, swimming continuously at a reasonably high water velocity (1.5 body lengths x s(-1)) and exposed to progressive hypoxia, would fatigue ...
Kugiyama K - - 1998
Pharmacologic stress tests are used to evaluate the significance of coronary arterial stenosis, and adenosine and dobutamine are often used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to examine coronary hemodynamics in 16 patients with stable exertional angina who had organic stenosis (> 90%) in the left anterior ...
Spahn D R - - 1998
Haemodynamic parameters and oxygen consumption were determined in 20 patients with mitral regurgitation before and after a 12 ml.kg-1 isovolaemic exchange of blood for 6% hydroxyethyl starch. During haemodilution, mean (SEM) haemoglobin concentration decreased from 13.0 (0.4) to 10.3 (0.4) g.dl-1 (p = 0.001). With cardiac filling pressures maintained at ...
Sadoff J D - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in myocardial cyclic GMP would increase myocardial O2 consumption and that renal hypertension (One Kidney-One Clip, 1K1C)-induced cardiac hypertrophy would change this relationship. METHODS: Either vehicle or LY83583 (10(-3) M, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor) was topically applied to the left ventricular surface ...
Huang Y F - - 1997
The cardiovascular effects of slow (over two minutes) intravenous infusions of thiopentone 750 mg in conscious instrumented sheep breathing 100% oxygen were examined for 30 minutes following the start of the infusion. The maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (an index of myocardial contractility) decreased significantly from 1 ...
Chagoya de Sánchez V - - 1997
Acute myocardial infarction is the second cause of mortality in most countries, therefore, it is important to know the evolution and sequence of the physiological and biochemical changes involved in this pathology. This study attempts to integrate these changes and to correlate them in a long-term model (96 h) of ...
Bersin R M - - 1997
This article critically reviews the pharmacologic effects of the investigational drug dichloroacetate (DCA), which activates the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex in cardiac tissue and thus preferentially facilitates aerobic oxidation of carbohydrate over fatty acids. The pharmacologic effects of DCA are compared with other interventions, such as glucose plus insulin, ...
Wilson A T - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and degree of hypoxaemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluate the nation-wide perception and usage of oxygen therapy. DESIGN: Postal survey of all coronary care units (CCU) in England of their use of prescribed oxygen and pulse oximetry. Prospective randomised study of 50 ...
Doppenberg E M - - 1997
Reduced brain tissue oxygenation is frequently seen in severe head injury and after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and this is considered a major cause of secondary ischemic brain injury. In fact, in a previous study, we found a tight correlation between low brain tissue oxygen tension and poor outcome. Therefore, we tested ...
Friedman B J - - 1997
The isolated heart, typically perfused with crystalloid media equilibrated with >/=95% O2 to ensure adequate myocardial oxygen tension, is commonly used to study cardiac function. When hemoglobin is available for oxygen transport, equilibration with 21% O2 is considered adequate to meet metabolic demands. This study presents the measurement of myocardial ...
Opasich C - - 1997
AIM: Metabolic exercise abnormalities have been reported in chronic heart failure patients. This study sought to evaluate whether these abnormalities affected daily activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic heart failure and in eight controls we measured femoral flow (thermodilution) and metabolism (glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, ...
Choudhary S K - - 1997
In a 4-year-old boy with tetralogy of Fallot, a right modified Blalock-Taussig anastomosis was created because of severe myocardial dysfunction and repeated hypercyanotic spells. Post-operatively, systemic oxygen saturation improved and also myocardial function. It is postulated that hypoxia was responsible for myocardial dysfunction previously, and its elimination has resulted in ...
Nakaigawa Y - - 1997
We have studied the effects of i.v. bolus doses of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) 60, 90 and 120 mg kg-1 on haemodynamic state, the coronary circulation and myocardial metabolism in nine dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbitone and fentanyl. MgSO4 produced dose-dependent decreases in arterial pressure, heart rate, left ventricular dP/dtmax and left ...
Rowbotham D S - - 1997
N-acetylcysteine improves survival in established acute liver failure following paracetamol overdose by reducing the incidence of multiorgan failure. These benefits are thought to be related to decreased tissue hypoxia by the enhancement of both oxygen delivery and oxygen extraction. Similar findings have been recorded in critically ill patients from an ...
Vergroesen I - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Introduction and measurement of human myocardial oxygen supply:demand ratio as a reference for quantification of coronary microvascular vasodilating drug effects in clinical studies. Myocardial oxygen consumption is the major determinant of coronary blood flow; therefore, the true vasodilating properties of coronary vasodilating drugs that may have an effect on ...
Di Salvo T G - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of survival in patients referred for heart transplantation evaluation who had a peak oxygen uptake of 10 to 14 ml/kg/min measured during initial cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS: Seventy-two patients were identified retrospectively from a database of 304 patients who underwent ...
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